Browsing by Subject "GRADIENT"

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  • Hahn, Lukas; Kessler, Larissa; Polzin, Lando; Fritze, Lars; Forster, Stefan; Helten, Holger; Luxenhofer, Robert (2021)
    Thermoresponsive polymers are frequently involved in the development of materials for various applications. Here, polymers containing poly(2- benzhydryl-2-oxazine) (pBhOzi) repeating units are described for the first time. The homopolymer pBhOzi and an ABA type amphiphile comprising two flanking hydrophilic A blocks of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (pMeOx) and the hydrophobic aromatic pBhOzi central B block (pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx) are synthesized and the latter is shown to exhibit inverse thermogelling properties at concentrations of 20 wt.% in water. This behavior stands in contrast to a homologue ABA amphiphile consisting of a central poly(2-benzhydryl-2-oxazoline) block (pMeOx-b-pBhOx-b-pMeOx). No inverse thermogelling is observed with this polymer even at 25 wt.%. For 25 wt.% pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx, a surprisingly high storage modulus of approximate to 22 kPa and high values for the yield and flow points of 480 Pa and 1.3 kPa are obtained. Exceeding the yield point, pronounced shear thinning is observed. Interestingly, only little difference between self-assemblies of pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx and pMeOx-b-pBhOx-b-pMeOx is observed by dynamic light scattering while transmission electron microscopy images suggest that the micelles of pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx interact through their hydrophilic coronas, which is probably decisive for the gel formation. Overall, this study introduces new building blocks for poly(2-oxazoline) and poly(2-oxazine)-based self-assemblies, but additional studies will be needed to unravel the exact mechanism.
  • Ma, Yang; Qu, Zhao-Lei; Liu, Bing; Tan, Jia-Jin; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Sun, Hui (2020)
    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a devastating disease in conifer forests in Eurasia. However, information on the effect of PWD on the host microbial community is limited. In this study, the bacterial community structure and potential function in the needles, roots, and soil of diseased pine were studied under field conditions using Illumina MiSeq coupled with Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved states (PICRUSt) software. The results showed that the community and functional structure of healthy and diseased trees differed only in the roots and needles, respectively (p <0.05). The needles, roots, and soil formed unique bacterial community and functional structures. The abundant phyla across all samples were Proteobacteria (41.9% of total sequence), Actinobacteria (29.0%), Acidobacteria (12.2%), Bacteroidetes (4.8%), and Planctomycetes (2.1%). The bacterial community in the healthy roots was dominated by Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Rhizobiales, whereas in the diseased roots, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Burkholderiales were dominant. Functionally, groups involved in the cell process and genetic information processing had a higher abundance in the diseased needles, which contributed to the difference in functional structure. The results indicate that PWD can only affect the host bacteria community structure and function in certain anatomical regions of the host tree.
  • Kuussaari, Mikko; Toivonen, Marjaana; Heliola, Janne; Poyry, Juha; Mellado, Jorge; Ekroos, Johan; Hyyrylainen, Vesa; Vähä-Piikkiö, Inkeri; Tiainen, Juha (2021)
    Good knowledge on how increasing urbanization affects biodiversity is essential in order to preserve biodiversity in urban green spaces. We examined how urban development affects species richness and total abundance of butterflies as well as the occurrence and abundance of individual species within the Helsinki metropolitan area in Northern Europe. Repeated butterfly counts in 167 separate 1-km-long transects within Helsinki covered the entire urbanization gradient, quantified by human population density and the proportion of built-up area (within a 50-m buffer surrounding each butterfly transect). We found consistently negative effects of both human population density and built-up area on all studied butterfly variables, though butterflies responded markedly more negatively to increasing human population density than to built-up area. Responses in butterfly species richness and total abundance showed higher variability in relation to proportion of built-up area than to human density, especially in areas of high human density. Increasing human density negatively affected both the abundance and the occurrence of 47% of the 19 most abundant species, whereas, for the proportion of built-up area, the corresponding percentages were 32% and 32%, respectively. Species with high habitat specificity and low mobility showed higher sensitivity to urbanization (especially high human population density) than habitat generalists and mobile species that dominated the urban butterfly communities. Our results suggest that human population density provides a better indicator of urbanization effects on butterflies compared to the proportion of built-up area. The generality of this finding should be verified in other contexts and taxonomic groups.
  • Gui, Jinghua; Huang, Yunxian; Kracklauer, Martin; Toddie-Moore, Daniel John; Kikushima, Kenji; Nix, Stephanie; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Shimmi, Osamu (2019)
    At the level of organ formation, tissue morphogenesis drives developmental processes in animals, often involving the rearrangement of two-dimensional (2D) structures into more complex three-dimensional (3D) tissues. These processes can be directed by growth factor signaling pathways. However, little is known about how such morphological changes affect the spatiotemporal distribution of growth factor signaling. Here, using the Drosophila pupal wing, we address how decapentaplegic (Dpp)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and 3D wing morphogenesis are coordinated. Dpp, expressed in the longitudinal veins (LVs) of the pupal wing, initially diffuses laterally within both dorsal and ventral wing epithelia during the inflation stage to regulate cell proliferation. Dpp localization is then refined to the LVs within each epithelial plane, but with active interplanar signaling for vein patterning/differentiation, as the two epithelia appose. Our data further suggest that the 3D architecture of the wing epithelia and the spatial distribution of BMP signaling are tightly coupled, revealing that 3D morphogenesis is an emergent property of the interactions between extracellular signaling and tissue shape changes.
  • Maria Ariza, Gloria; Jacome, Jorge; Eduardo Esquivel, Hector; Kotze, Johan D. (2021)
    Little is known about the successional dynamics of insects in the highly threatened tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystem. For the first time, we studied the response of carabid beetles to vegetal succession and seasonality in this ecosystem in Colombia. Carabid beetles were collected from three TDF habitat types in two regions in Colombia: initial successional state (pasture), early succession, and intermediate succession (forest). The surveys were performed monthly for 13 months in one of the regions (Armero) and during two months, one in the dry and one in the wet season, in the other region (Cambao). A set of environmen-tal variables were recorded per month at each site. Twenty-four carabid beetle species were collected during the study. Calosoma alternans and Megacephala affinis were the most abundant species, while most species were of low abundance. Forest and pasture beetle assemblages were distinct, while the early succession assemblage overlapped with these assemblages. Canopy cover, litter depth, and soil and air temperatures were important in structuring the assemblages. Even though seasonality did not affect the carabid beetle assemblage, individual species responded positively to the wet season. It is shown that early successional areas in TDF could potentially act as habitat corridors for species to recolonize forest areas, since these successional areas host a number of species that inhabit forests and pastures. Climatic variation, like the El Nino episode during this study, appears to affect the carabid beetle assemblage negatively, exasperating concerns of this already threatened tropical ecosystem.
  • Teittinen, Anette; Virta, Leena; Li, Mingjia; Wang, Jianjun (2021)
    Islands provide ideal model systems to examine the factors influencing biodiversity, yet knowledge of microbial biodiversity on islands remains scarce. We collected a dataset from 101 rock pools along a freshwater to brackish water transition on islands of the Baltic Sea and investigated the patterns and drivers of community composition and species richness of diatoms, cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria bacteria among islands. We also examined whether environmental heterogeneity increased beta diversity and species richness within islands. Among islands, the patterns in community composition were concordant among the microbial groups, with distinct changes along the freshwater-brackish gradient. The patterns in species richness were context-dependent for each microbial group. In general, richness patterns were most strongly associated with nutrient concentrations or the distances to potential sources of immigrants, whereas no positive relationships between ecosystem size and richness were found. Within islands, environmental heterogeneity was positively correlated with the beta diversity of each microbial group, but not species richness. Our findings provide novel insights into the factors influencing microbial biodiversity. The results suggest that island microbial biodiversity patterns are influenced by species sorting and dispersal-related mechanisms and highlight the importance of environmental heterogeneity for beta diversity.
  • Salminen, Sarianna; Tammelin, Mira; Jilbert, Tom; Fukumoto, Yu; Saarni, Saija (2021)
    The influence of lake restoration efforts on lake bottom-water conditions and varve preservation is not well known. We studied varved sediments deposited during the last 80 years along a water-depth transect in the Enonsaari Deep, a deep-water area of the southernmost Enonselka Basin, Lake Vesijarvi, southern Finland. For the last few decades, the Enonselka Basin has been subject to ongoing restoration efforts. Varve, elemental, and diatom analyses were undertaken to explore how these actions and other human activities affected varve preservation in the Enonsaari Deep. In contrast to most varved Finnish lakes, whose water columns have a natural tendency to stratify, and possess varve records that span thousands of years, varve formation and preservation in Lake Vesijarvi was triggered by relatively recent anthropogenic stressors. The multi-core varve analysis revealed that sediment in the Enonsaari Deep was initially non-varved, but became fully varved in the late 1930s, a time of increasing anthropogenic influence on the lake. The largest spatial extent of varves occurred in the 1970s, which was followed by a period of less distinguishable varves, which coincided with diversion of sewage from the lake. Varve preservation weakened during subsequent decades and was terminated completely by lake aeration in the 2010s. Despite improvements in water quality, hypolimnetic oxygen depletion and varve preservation persisted beyond the reduction in sewage loading, initial aeration, and biomanipulation. These restoration efforts, however, along with other human actions such as harbor construction and dredging, did influence varve characteristics. Varves were also influenced by diatom responses to anthropogenic forcing, because diatoms form a substantial part of the varve structure. Of all the restoration efforts, a second episode of aeration seems to have had the single most dramatic impact on profundal conditions in the basin, resulting in replacement of a sediment accumulation zone by a transport or erosional zone in the Enonsaari Deep. We conclude that human activities in a lake and its catchment can alter lake hypolimnetic conditions, leading to shifts in lake bottom dynamics and changes in varve preservation.
  • Lusa, Merja; Knuutinen, Jenna; Lindgren, Marcus; Virkanen, Juhani; Bomberg, Malin (2019)
    The bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were characterized in 17 top soil organic and mineral layer samples and in top sediment samples of the Paukkajanvaara area, a former pilot-scale uranium mine, located in Eno, Eastern Finland. using amplicon sequencing and qPCR. Soil and sediment samples were in addition analyzed for (Ra-226), radium sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO43-) concentrations. New bacterial strains, representing Pseudomonas spp., were isolated from the mine and reference area and used in laboratory experiments on uptake and leaching of radium (Ra). The effect of these strains on the sulfate leaching from the soil samples was also tested in vitro. Between 6 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(8) copies g(-1) DW (dry weight) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, 5 x 10(5)-1 x 10(8) copies g(-1) DW archaeal 16S rRNA genes and 1 x 10(5)-1 x 10(8) copies g(-1) DW fungal 5.8S rRNA genes were detected in the samples. A total of 814. 54 and 167 bacterial, archaeal and fungal genera. respectively, were identified. Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota and Mortiriella were the dominant bacterial, archaeal and fungal phyla, respectively. All tested Pseudomonas spp. strains isolates from Paukkajanvaara removed Ra from the solution, but the amount of removed Ra depended on incubation conditions (temperature, time and nutrient broth). The highest removal of Ra (5320 L/kg DW) was observed by the Pseudomonas sp. strain T5-6-I at 37 degrees C. All Pseudomonas spp. strains decreased the release of Ra from soil with an average of 23% while simultaneously increasing the concentration of SO42- in the solution by 11%. As Pseudomonas spp. were frequent in both the sequence data and the cultures, these bacteria may play an important role in the immobilization of Ra in the Paukkajanvaara mine area. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Purhonen, Jenna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Halme, Panu; Komonen, Atte; Huhtinen, Seppo; Kotiranta, Heikki; Laessoe, Thomas; Abrego, Nerea (2020)
    Tree species is one of the most important determinants of wood-inhabiting fungal community composition, yet its relationship with fungal reproductive and dispersal traits remains poorly understood. We studied fungal communities (total of 657 species) inhabiting broadleaved and coniferous dead wood (total of 192 logs) in 12 semi-natural boreal forests. We utilized a trait-based hierarchical joint species distribution model to examine how the relationship between dead wood quality and species occurrence correlates with reproductive and dispersal morphological traits. Broadleaved trees had higher species richness than conifers, due to discomycetoids and pyrenomycetoids specializing in them. Resupinate and pileate species were generally specialized in coniferous dead wood. Fungi inhabiting broadleaved trees had larger and more elongated spores than fungi in conifers. Spore size was larger and spore shape more spherical in species occupying large dead wood units. These results indicate the selective effect of dead wood quality, visible not only in species diversity, but also in reproductive and dispersal traits. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.
  • Suur-Uski, Johanna; Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mänty, Minna (2019)
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries with clear socioeconomic differences. Higher occupational class is associated with higher breast cancer incidence but with better survival from the disease, whereas lower occupational class is associated with higher risk of sickness absence. We are not aware of previous studies examining changes over time in occupational class differences in sickness absence due to breast cancer. This paper focuses on occupational class differences in the incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer over the period of 2005-2013. Age-adjusted occupational class differences in the cumulative incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer were calculated utilising a nationally representative 70% random sample of employed Finnish women aged 35-64 years (yearly N varying between 499,778 and 519,318). The results show that higher occupational class was associated with higher annual cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to breast cancer. Lower occupational class was associated with longer duration of absence. Occupational class differences in both cumulative incidence and duration of absence remained broadly stable. As a conclusion, these results suggest that measures should be targeted particularly to promotion of work capacity among employees with breast cancer in lower occupational classes.
  • Feng, Yawen; Parviainen, Mikko; Sarsa, Saara (2022)
    In this paper, we study the second-order Sobolev regularity of solutions to the parabolic p-Laplace equation. For any p-parabolic function u, we show that D(vertical bar Du vertical bar(p-2+s/2) Du) exists as a function and belongs to L-loc(2) with s > -1 and 1 < p < infinity. The range of s is sharp.
  • Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hänninen, Jari; Rajasilta, Marjut; Laine, Päivi; Eklund, Jan; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Corona, Francesco; Junker, Karin; Meier, H. E. Markus; Dippner, Joachim W. (2015)
    Substantial ecological changes occurred in the 1970s in the Northern Baltic during a temporary period of low salinity (S). This period was preceded by an episodic increase in the rainfall over the Baltic Sea Watershed area. Several climate models, both global and regional, project an increase in the runoff of the Northern latitudes due to proceeding climate change. The aim of this study is to model, firstly, the effects on Baltic Sea salinity of increased runoff due to projected global change and, secondly, the effects of salinity change on the distribution of marine species. The results suggest a critical shift in the S range 5-7, which is a threshold for both freshwater and marine species distributions and diversity. We discuss several topics emphasizing future monitoring, modelling, and fisheries research. Environmental monitoring and modelling are investigated because the developing alternative ecosystems do not necessarily show the same relations to environment quality factors as the retiring ones. An important corollary is that the observed and modelled S changes considered together with species' ranges indicate what may appear under a future climate. Consequences could include a shift in distribution areas of marine benthic foundation species and some 40-50 other species, affiliated to these. This change would extend over hundreds of kilometres, in the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea areas. Potential cascading effects, in coastal ecology, fish ecology and fisheries would be extensive, and point out the necessity to develop further the "ecosystem approach in the environmental monitoring". (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Dicksved, Johan; Ellstrom, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi (2014)
  • Virta, Leena; Teittinen, Anette (2022)
    The responses of biotic communities and ecosystems to climate change may be abrupt and non-linear. Thus, resolving ecological threshold mechanisms is crucial for understanding the consequences of climate change and for improving environmental management. Here, we present a study on the threshold responses of benthic diatom communities that are an important component of all aquatic environments and strongly contribute to global primary production. We reach beyond the taxonomic perspective by focusing on the diversity and functions of diatom communities and benthic biomass along gradients of salinity and wind disturbance, whose climate-change-induced changes have been predicted to strongly affect biotic communities in the marine and brackish systems in the future. To improve the generality of our results, we examine three self-collected datasets from different spatial scales (6–830 km) and ecosystem types. We collected samples from rock pools or from littoral stones and studied taxonomic thresholds using Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN2). We investigated threshold responses of community diversity, community functions, and benthic biomass using t-tests and regression analysis. Our results indicated that decreasing salinity may result in increasing diversity but decreasing biomass of brackish communities, while the effects of increasing wind disturbance were contradictory among spatial scales. Benthic biomass correlated with the taxonomic and functional diversity, as well as with the body size distribution of communities, highlighting the importance of considering community functions and organismal size when predicting ecosystem functions. The most pronounced effects of decreasing salinity and increasing wind disturbance on community functions were changes in the abundance of low-profile diatom species, which, due to the high resilience of low-profile diatoms, may lead to changes in ecosystem functioning and resilience. To conclude, decreasing salinity and increasing wind disturbance may lead to threshold responses of biotic communities, and these changes may have profound effects on ecosystem functioning along marine coastal areas.
  • Abrego, Nerea; Bässler, Claus; Christensen, Morten; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob (2022)
    Abstract Identifying the spatial scales at which community assembly processes operate is fundamental for gaining a mechanistic understanding of the drivers shaping ecological communities. In this study, we examined whether and how traits and phylogenetic relationships structure fungal community assembly across spatial scales. We applied joint species distribution modelling to a European-scale dataset on 215 wood-inhabiting fungal species, which includes data on traits, phylogeny and environmental variables measured at the local (log-level) and regional (site-level) scales. At the local scale, wood-inhabiting fungal communities were mostly structured by deadwood decay stage, and the trait and phylogenetic patterns along this environmental gradient suggested the lack of diversifying selection. At regional scales, fungal communities and their trait distributions were influenced by climatic and connectivity-related variables. The fungal climatic niches were not phylogenetically structured, suggesting that diversifying selection or stabilizing selection for climatic niches has played a strong role in wood-inhabiting communities. In contrast, we found a strong phylogenetic signal in the responses to connectivity-related variables, revealing phylogenetic homogenization in small and isolated forests. Synthesis: Altogether, our results show that species-level traits and phylogenies modulate the responses of wood-inhabiting fungi to environmental processes acting at different scales. This result suggests that the evolutionary histories of fungal traits diverge along different environmental axes.
  • Hoshian, Sasha; Kankuri, Esko; Ras, Robin H. A.; Franssila, Sami; Jokinen, Ville (2017)
    A top-down scalable method to produce flexible water and blood repellent tubes is introduced. The method is based on replication of overhanging nanostructures from an aluminum tube template to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via atomic layer deposition (ALD) assisted sacrificial etching. The nanostructured PDMS/titania tubes are superhydrophobic with water contact angles 163 +/- 1 degrees (advancing) and 157 +/- 1 degrees (receding) without any further coating. Droplets are able to slide through a 4 mm (inner diameter) tube with low sliding angles of less than 10 degrees for a 35 mu L droplet. The superhydrophobic tube shows up to 5,000 times increase in acceleration of a sliding droplet compared to a control tube depending on the inclination angle. Compared to a free falling droplet, the superhydrophobic tube reduced the acceleration by only 38.55%, as compared to a 99.99% reduction for a control tube. The superhydrophobic tubes are blood repellent. Blood droplets (35 mu L) roll through the tubes at 15 degrees sliding angles without leaving a bloodstain. The tube surface is resistant to adhesion of activated platelets unlike planar control titania and smooth PDMS surfaces.