Browsing by Subject "GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA"

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  • Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar (2017)
    As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment. Given that the molecular basis of gut autochthony for this species is largely unexplored and unknown, we undertook a study at the genome level to pinpoint some of the adaptive traits behind its colonization behavior. In our pan-genomic probe of L. ruminis, the genomes of nine different strains isolated from human, bovine, porcine, and equine host guts were compiled and compared for in silico analysis. For this, we conducted a geno-phenotypic assessment of protein-coding genes, with an emphasis on those products involved with cell-surface morphology and anaerobic fermentation and respiration. We also categorized and examined the core and accessory genes that define the L. ruminis species and its strains. Here, we made an attempt to identify those genes having ecologically relevant phenotypes that might support or bring about intestinal indigenousness.
  • Ongey, Elvis Legala; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Neubauer, Peter (2018)
    This review article provides an overview of recent developments in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), summarizing structural diversity, potential new applications, activity targets and microbial killing responses in general. The use of artificial and natural AMPs as templates for rational design of peptidomimetics are also discussed and some strategies are put forward to curtail cytotoxic effects against eukaryotic cells. Considering the heat-resistant nature, chemical and proteolytic stability of AMPs, we attempt to summarize their molecular targets, examine how these macromolecules may contribute to potential environmental risks vis-a-vis the activities of the peptides. We further point out the evolutional characteristics of the macromolecules and indicate how they can be useful in designing target-specific peptides. Methods are suggested that may help to assess toxic mechanisms of AMPs and possible solutions are discussed to promote the development and application of AMPs in medicine. Even if there is wide exposure to the environment like in the hospital settings, AMPs may instead contribute to prevent healthcare-associated infections so long as ecotoxicological aspects are considered.
  • Leskinen, Katarzyna; Tuomala, Henni; Wicklund, Anu; Horsma-Heikkinen, Jenni; Kuusela, Pentti; Skurnik, Mikael; Kiljunen, Saija (2017)
    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium that causes infections in humans and animals. It is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Due to increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are necessary. In this respect, polyvalent staphylococcal myoviruses have been demonstrated to be excellent candidates for phage therapy. Here we present the characterization of the bacteriophage vB_SauM-fRuSau02 (fRuSau02) that was isolated from a commercial Staphylococcus bacteriophage cocktail produced by Microgen (Moscow, Russia). The genomic analysis revealed that fRuSau02 is very closely related to the phage MSA6, and possesses a large genome (148,464 bp), with typical modular organization and a low G+ C (30.22%) content. It can therefore be classified as a new virus among the genus Twortlikevirus. The genome contains 236 predicted genes, 4 of which were interrupted by insertion sequences. Altogether, 78 different structural and virion-associated proteins were identified from purified phage particles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The host range of fRuSau02 was tested with 135 strains, including 51 and 54 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from humans and pigs, respectively, and 30 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains of human origin. All clinical S. aureus strains were at least moderately sensitive to the phage, while only 39% of the pig strains were infected. Also, some strains of Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus pseudointer were sensitive. We conclude that fRuSau02, a phage therapy agent in Russia, can serve as an alternative to antibiotic therapy against S. aureus.
  • Douillard, Francois P.; Kant, Ravi; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M. (2013)
  • Douillard, Francois P.; Mora, Diego; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Wels, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Several probiotic-marketed formulations available for the consumers contain live lactic acid bacteria and/or bifidobacteria. The multispecies product commercialized as VSL#3 has been used for treating various gastro-intestinal disorders. However, like many other products, the bacterial strains present in VSL#3 have only been characterized to a limited extent and their efficacy as well as their predicted mode of action remain unclear, preventing further applications or comparative studies. In this work, the genomes of all eight bacterial strains present in VSL#3 were sequenced and characterized, to advance insights into the possible mode of action of this product and also to serve as a basis for future work and trials. Phylogenetic and genomic data analysis allowed us to identify the 7 species present in the VSL#3 product as specified by the manufacturer. The 8 strains present belong to the species Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium breve and B. animalis subsp. lactis (two distinct strains). Comparative genomics revealed that the draft genomes of the S. thermophilus and L. helveticus strains were predicted to encode most of the defence systems such as restriction modification and CRISPR-Cas systems. Genes associated with a variety of potential probiotic functions were also identified. Thus, in the three Bifidobacterium spp., gene clusters were predicted to encode tight adherence pili, known to promote bacteria-host interaction and intestinal barrier integrity, and to impact host cell development. Various repertoires of putative signalling proteins were predicted to be encoded by the genomes of the Lactobacillus spp., i.e. surface layer proteins, LPXTG-containing proteins, or sortase-dependent pili that may interact with the intestinal mucosa and dendritic cells. Taken altogether, the individual genomic characterization of the strains present in the VSL#3 product confirmed the product specifications, determined its coding capacity as well as identified potential probiotic functions.
  • Megta, Abhin Kumar; Pratap, Shivendra; Kant, Abhiruchi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Krishnan, Vengadesan (2020)
    To successfully colonize a host or environment, certain genera and species of Gram-positive bacteria have evolved to utilize the so-called sortase-dependent pilus, a long multi-subunit and non-flagellar surface adhesin. One example of this is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a gut-adapted probiotic strain that produces SpaCBA pili. These structures are covalent hetero-oligomers built from three types of pilin subunit, each with a specific location and function (i.e., backbone SpaA for length, tip SpaC for adhesion, and basal SpaB for anchoring). Functionally, the SpaCBA pilus exhibits a promiscuous affinity for components on intestinal surfaces (e.g., mucus, collagen, and epithelial cells), which is largely attributed to the SpaC subunit. Then again, the basal SpaB pilin, in addition to acting as the terminal subunit during pilus assembly, displays an out of character mucoadhesive function. To address the structural basis of this unusual dual functionality, we reveal the 2.39 A resolution crystal structure of SpaB. SpaB consists of one immunoglobulin-like CnaB domain and contains a putative intermolecular isopeptide bond-linking lysine and internal isopeptide bond-asparagine in an FPKN pilin motif within the C-terminal end. Remarkably, we found that a C-terminal stretch of positively charged lysine and arginine residues likely accounts for the atypical mucoadhesiveness of SpaB. Although harboring an autocatalytic triad of residues for a potential internal isopeptide interaction, the SpaB crystal structure lacked the visible electron density for intact bond formation, yet its presence was subsequently confirmed by mass spectral analysis. Finally, we propose a structural model that captures the exclusive basal positioning of SpaB in the SpaCBA pilus.
  • Mishra, Arjun K.; Megta, Abhin Kumar; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Krishnan, Vengadesan (2017)
    SpaE is the predicted basal pilin subunit in the sortase-dependent SpaFED pilus from the gut-adapted and commensal Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Thus far, structural characterization of the cell-wall-anchoring basal pilins has remained difficult and has been limited to only a few examples from pathogenic genera and species. To gain a further structural understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the anchoring and assembly of sortase-dependent pili in less harmful bacteria, L. rhamnosus GG SpaE for crystallization was produced by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Although several attempts to crystallize the SpaE protein were unsuccessful, trigonal crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.1 angstrom were eventually produced using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and high protein concentrations. Further optimization with a combination of additives led to the generation of SpaE crystals in an orthorhombic form that diffracted to a higher resolution of 1.5 angstrom. To expedite structure determination by SAD phasing, selenium-substituted (orthorhombic) SpaE crystals were grown and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 angstrom resolution.
  • Sivonen, Kaarina; Leikoski, Niina; Fewer, David P.; Jokela, Jouni (2010)
  • Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M. B.; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimon, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B.; Cooney, Jakki C.; Kagawa, Todd F.; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, Francois P.; Ross, R. Paul; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E.; Felis, Giovanna E.; de Vos, Willem M.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Caufield, Page W.; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W. (2015)
    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species.
  • Douillard, Francois; de Vos, Willem M. (2014)
  • Yu, Xia; Jaatinen, Annukka; Rintahaka, Johanna; Hynönen, Ulla; Lyytinen, Outi; Kant, Ravi; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi (2015)
    Sortase-dependent surface pili (or fimbriae) in Gram-positive bacteria are well documented as a key virulence factor for certain harmful opportunistic pathogens. However, it is only recently known that these multi-subunit protein appendages are also belonging to the "friendly" commensals and now, with this new perspective, they have come to be categorized as a niche-adaptation factor as well. In this regard, it was shown earlier that sortase-assembled piliation is a native fixture of two human intestinal commensalics (i.e., Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum), and correspondingly where the pili involved have a significant role in cellular adhesion and immunomodulation processes. We now reveal that intestinal indigenous (or autochthonous) Lactobacillus ruminis is another surface-piliated commensal lactobacillar species. Heeding to in silico expectations, the predicted loci for the LrpCBA-called pili are organized tandemly in the L. ruminis genome as a canonical fimbrial operon, which then encodes for three pilin-proteins and a single C-type sortase enzyme. Through electron microscopic means, we showed that these pilus formations are a surface assemblage of tip, basal, and backbone pilin subunits (respectively named LrpC, LrpB, and LrpA) in L. ruminis, and also when expressed recombinantly in Lactococcus lactis. As well, by using the recombinant-piliated lactococci, we could define certain ecologically relevant phenotypic traits, such as the ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and gut epithelial cells, but also to effectuate an induced dampening on Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and interleukin-8 responsiveness in immune-related cells. Within the context of the intestinal microcosm, by wielding such niche-advantageous cell-surface properties the LrpCBA pilus would undoubtedly have a requisite functional role in the colonization dynamics of L. ruminis indigeneity. Our study provides only the second description of a native-piliated Lactobacillus species, but at the same time also involves the structural and functional characterization of a third type of lactobacillar pilus.
  • van den Nieuwboer, Maurits; van Hemert, Saskia; Claassen, Eric; de Vos, Willem M. (2016)
    Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 is one of the best studied Lactobacilli, notably as its genome was unravelled over 12years ago. L.plantarum WCFS1 can be grown to high densities, is amenable to genetic transformation and highly robust with a relatively high survival rate during the gastrointestinal passage. In this review, we present and discuss the main insights provided by the functional genomics research on L.plantarum WCFS1 with specific attention for the molecular mechanisms related to its interaction with the human host and its potential to modify the immune system, and induce other health-related benefits. Whereas most insight has been gained in mouse and other model studies, onlyfive human studies have been reported with L.plantarum WCFS1. Hence NCIMB 8826 (the parental strain of L.plantarum WCFS1) in human trials as to capitalize on the wealth of knowledge that is summarized here.
  • Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; Douillard, Francois P.; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Laine, Pia K.; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M. (2016)
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections.
  • San-Martin-Galindo, Paola; Rosqvist, Emil; Tolvanen, Stiina; Miettinen, Ilkka; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A.; Fallarero, Adyary; Peltonen, Jouko (2021)
    Investigating and understanding the response of microbes to various surfaces requires a versatile parametrisation of the surface, and multiple assays that captures the complexity of the biofilm structures. Here, Staphylococcus aureus biofilm viability, polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine, and proteins on the cell surface were analysed with agar plate- and well plate-based biofilm formation assays. Biofilms were grown on a set of nanostructured polymeric surfaces, which were thoroughly characterised for their surface chemistry and topography. Surface hydrophobicity, summit density as well as peak and valley structure were found to influence the microbial viability and exopolysaccharide abundance level in the agar plate assay. In the well plate assay, surface chemical parameters had a lesser influence on the viability, but roughness caused by valley structures increased the viability and decreased the exopolysaccharide expression. Surface proteins relating to pathogenicity were affected by the biofilm formation assay. The abundance profile of these proteins correlated clearly with several roughness parameters, especially fine structure parameters in the agar plate assay and lateral roughness in the well plate assay. These results highlight the necessity of describing the surfaces with a versatile set of different roughness parameters to completely understand what specific features of a surface drive a certain bacterial response.
  • Chaurasia, Priyanka; Pratap, Shivendra; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan (2016)
    Thus far, all solved structures of pilin-proteins comprising sortase-assembled pili are from pathogenic genera and species. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a pilin subunit (SpaA) from a nonpathogen host (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG). SpaA consists of two tandem CnaB-type domains, each with an isopeptide bond and E-box motif. Intriguingly, while the isopeptide bond in the N-terminal domain forms between lysine and asparagine, the one in the C-terminal domain atypically involves aspartate. We also solved crystal structures of mutant proteins where residues implicated in forming isopeptide bonds were replaced. Expectedly, the E-box-substituted E139A mutant lacks an isopeptide bond in the N-terminal domain. However, the C-terminal E269A substitution gave two structures; one of both domains with their isopeptide bonds present, and another of only the N-terminal domain, but with an unformed isopeptide bond and significant conformational changes. This latter crystal structure has never been observed for any other Gram-positive pilin. Notably, the C-terminal isopeptide bond still forms in D295N-substituted SpaA, irrespective of E269 being present or absent. Although E-box mutations affect SpaA proteolytic and thermal stability, a cumulative effect perturbing normal pilus polymerization was unobserved. A model showing the polymerized arrangement of SpaA within the SpaCBA pilus is proposed.
  • Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; van Teijlingen, Nienke H.; Sullan, Ruby May A.; Douillard, Francois P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Messing, Marcel; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Vanderleyden, Jos; Dufrene, Yves F.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; de Vos, Willem M.; Lebeer, Sarah (2016)
    Mapping of the microbial molecules underlying microbiota-host interactions is key to understand how microbiota preserve mucosal homeostasis. A pivotal family of such bacterial molecules are pili. Pili are proteinaceous cell wall appendages with a well-documented role in adhesion, whilst their role in immune interaction with the host is less established. Gram-positive pili are often posttranslationally modified by sortase-specific cleavage reactions and the formation of intramolecular peptide bonds. Here we report glycosylation as a new level of posttranslational modification of sortase-dependent pili of a beneficial microbiota species and its role in immune modulation. We focused on the SpaCBA pili of the model probiotic and beneficial human gut microbiota isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. A unique combination of molecular techniques, nanoscale mechanical and immunological approaches led to the identification of mannose and fucose residues on the SpaCBA pili. These glycans on the pili are recognized by human dendritic cells via the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN, a key carbohydrate-dependent immune tailoring pattern recognition receptor. This specific lectin-sugar interaction is moreover of functional importance and modulated the cytokine response of dendritic cells. This provides insight into the direct role bacterial glycoproteins can play in the immunomodulation of the host. Modification of the complex heterotrimeric pili of a model probiotic and microbiota isolate with mannose and fucose is of importance for the functional interaction with the host immune lectin receptor DC-SIGN on human dendritic cells. Our findings shed light on the yet underappreciated role of glycoconjugates in bacteria-host interactions.
  • Syed, Shahan; Viazmina, Larisa; Mager, Riccardo; Meri, Seppo; Haapasalo, Karita (2020)
    Streptococci are a broad group of Gram-positive bacteria. This genus includes various human pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality. Two of the most important human pathogens areStreptococcus pneumoniae(pneumococcus) andStreptococcus pyogenes(group A streptococcus or GAS). Streptococcal pathogens have evolved to express virulence factors that enable them to evade complement-mediated attack. These include factor H-binding M (S. pyogenes) and pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) (S. pneumoniae) proteins. In addition,S. pyogenesandS. pneumoniaeexpress cytolysins (streptolysin and pneumolysin), which are able to destroy host cells. Sometimes, the interplay between streptococci, the complement, and antistreptococcal immunity may lead to an excessive inflammatory response or autoimmune disease. Understanding the fundamental role of the complement system in microbial clearance and the bacterial escape mechanisms is of paramount importance for understanding microbial virulence, in general, and, the conversion of commensals to pathogens, more specifically. Such insights may help to identify novel antibiotic and vaccine targets in bacterial pathogens to counter their growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.
  • Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; de Vos, Willem M. (2016)
    Tremendous progress has been made on mapping the mainly bacterial members of the human intestinal microbiota. Knowledge on what is out there, or rather what is inside, needs to be complemented with insight on how these bacteria interact with their biotic environment. Bacterial glycoconjugates, that is, the collection of all glycan-modified molecules, are ideal modulators of such interactions. Their enormous versatility and diversity results in a species-specific glycan barcode, providing a range of ligands for host interaction. Recent reports on the functional importance of glycosylation of important bacterial ligands in beneficial and pathogenic species underpin this. Glycoconjugates, and glycoproteins in particular, are an underappreciated, potentially crucial, factor in understanding bacteria-host interactions of old friends and foes.
  • Bæk, Kristoffer T.; Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte; Søgaard, Mia Dupont; Kaever, Volkhard; Siljamäki, Pia Maria; Savijoki, Kirsi Kristiina; Varmanen, Pekka Kristian; Nyman, Tuula Anneli; Gründling, Angelika; Frees, Dorte (2016)
    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement defects of an LTA-depleted strain, while other phenotypes typical of LTA-negative S. aureus mutants, including increased cell size and decreased autolytic activity, are retained. In conclusion, our results indicate that LTA has an essential role in septum placement that can be bypassed by inactivating the ClpX chaperone. IMPORTANCE Lipoteichoic acid is an essential component of the Staphylococcus aureus cell envelope and an attractive target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobials directed against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In this study, we showed that the lipoteichoic acid polymer is essential for growth of S. aureus only as long as the ClpX chaperone is present in the cell. Our results indicate that lipoteichoic acid and ClpX play opposite roles in a pathway that controls two key cell division processes in S. aureus, namely, septum formation and autolytic activity. The discovery of a novel functional connection in the genetic network that controls cell division in S. aureus may expand the repertoire of possible strategies to identify compounds or compound combinations that kill antibiotic-resistant S. aureus.
  • Douillard, Francois P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M. (2016)
    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species.