Browsing by Subject "GRASSLAND"

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  • Gielen, Bert; Acosta, Manuel; Altimir, Nuria; Buchmann, Nina; Cescatte, Alessandro; Ceschia, Eric; Fleck, Stefan; Hortnagal, Lukas; Klumpp, Katja; Kolari, Pasi; Lohile, Annalea; Loustau, Denis; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Manisp, Languy; Matteucci, Giorgio; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Christine; Moureaux, Christine; Montagnani, Leonardo; Nilsson, Mats B.; Osborne, Bruce; Papale, Dario; Pavelka, Marian; Saunders, Matthew; Simioni, Guillaume; Soudani, Kamel; Sonnentag, Oliver; Tallec, Tiphaine; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Peichl, Matthias; Pokorny, Radek; Vincke, Caroline; Wohljahrt, Georg (2018)
    The Integrated Carbon Observation System is a Pan-European distributed research infrastructure that has as its main goal to monitor the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. The ecosystem component of Integrated Carbon Observation System consists of a multitude of stations where the net greenhouse gas exchange is monitored continuously by eddy covariance measurements while, in addition many other measurements are carried out that are a key to an understanding of the greenhouse gas balance. Amongst them are the continuous meteorological measurements and a set of non-continuous measurements related to vegetation. The latter include Green Area Index, aboveground biomass and litter biomass. The standardized methodology that is used at the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem stations to monitor these vegetation related variables differs between the ecosystem types that are represented within the network, whereby in this paper we focus on forests, grasslands, croplands and mires. For each of the variables and ecosystems a spatial and temporal sampling design was developed so that the variables can be monitored in a consistent way within the ICOS network. The standardisation of the methodology to collect Green Area Index, above ground biomass and litter biomass and the methods to evaluate the quality of the collected data ensures that all stations within the ICOS ecosystem network produce data sets with small and similar errors, which allows for inter-comparison comparisons across the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem network.
  • Wang, Kai; Zheng, Xunhua; Pihlatie, Mari; Vesala, Timo; Liu, Chunyan; Haapanala, Sami; Mammarella, Ivan; Rannik, Ullar; Liu, Huizhi (2013)
    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from a cotton field in northern China were measured for a year using the static chamber method based on a gas chromatograph (GC) and the eddy covariance (EC) technique based on a tunable diode laser (TDL). The aims were to compare the N2O fluxes obtained from both techniques, assess the uncertainties in the fluxes and evaluate the annual direct emission factors (EFds, i.e. the loss rate of fertilizer nitrogen via N2O emission) using the year-round datasets. During the experimental period, the hourly and daily mean chamber fluxes ranged from 0.6 to 781.8 and from 1.2 to 468.8 g N m−2 h−1, respectively. The simultaneously measured daily mean EC fluxes varied between −10.8 and 912.0 g N m−2 h−1. The EC measurements only provided trustworthy 30-min fluxes during high-emission period (a 20-day period immediately after the irrigation that followed the nitrogen fertilization event). A reliable comparison was confined to the high-emission period and showed that the chamber fluxes were 17–20% lower than the EC fluxes. This difference may implicate the magnitude of systematic underestimation in the fluxes from chamber measurements. The annual emission from the fertilized cotton field was estimated at 1.43 kg N ha−1 yr−1 by the chamber observations and 3.15 kg N ha−1 yr−1 by the EC measurements. The EFds calculated from the chamber and EC data were 1.04% and 1.65%, respectively. The chamber-based estimate was very close to the default value (1.0%) recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. However, the difference in the EFds based on the two measurement techniques may vary greatly with changing environmental conditions and management practices. Further comparison studies are still needed to elucidate this issue.
  • Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Irisarri, J. Gonzalo N.; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari (2016)
    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloe fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southern-most end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local adaptations to past or prevailing selection forces such as vertebrate grazing.
  • Piiroinen, Rami; Fassnacht, Fabian Ewald; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo; Mack, Benjamin; Pellikka, Petri (2018)
    Eucalyptus spp. and Acacia mearnsii are common exotic tree species in eastern Africa that have shown (strong) invasive behavior in some regions. Acacia mearnsii is considered a highly invasive species that is replacing native species and Eucalyptus spp. are known to consume high amounts of groundwater with suspected effects on native flora. Mapping the occurrence of these species in the Taita Hills, Kenya (part of the Eastern Arc Mountains Biodiversity Hotspot) is important as there is lack of knowledge on their occurrence and ecological impact in the area. Mapping methods that require a lot of fieldwork are impractical in areas like the Taita Hills, where the terrain is rugged and the infrastructure is poor. Our aim was hence to map the occurrence of these tree species in a 100 km(2) area using airborne imaging spectroscopy and laser scanning. We used a one class biased support vector machine (BSVM) classifier as it needs labeled training data only for the positive classes (A. mearnsii and Eucalyptus spp.), which potentially reduces the amount of required fieldwork. We also introduce a new approach for parameterizing and setting the threshold level simultaneously for the BSVM classifier. The second aim was to link the occurrence of these species to selected environmental variables. The results showed that the BSVM classifier is suitable for mapping Acacia mearnsii and Eucalyptus spp., holding the potential to improve the efficiency of field data collection. The introduced parametrization/threshold selection method performed better than other commonly used approaches. The crown level Fl-score was 0.76 for Eucalyptus spp. and 0.78 for A. mearnsii. We show that Eucalyptus spp. and A. mearnsii trees cover 0.8% and 1.6% of the study area, respectively. Both species are particularly located on steeper slopes and higher altitudes. Both species have significant occurrences in areas close to the biggest remaining native forest patch (Ngangao) in the study area. Nonetheless, follow-up studies are needed to evaluate their impact on the native flora and fauna, as well as their impact on the water resources. The maps created in this study in combination with such follow-up studies could serve as base data to generate guidelines that authorities can use to take action in handling the problems these species are causing.
  • Zhou, Xuan; Sun, Hui; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank (2022)
    Microbial biodiversity plays the dominant role in soil carbon emissions in fire-disturbed boreal forests. Microbial communities often possess enormous diversity, raising questions about whether this diversity drives ecosystem functioning, especially the influence of diversity on soil decomposition and respiration. Although functional redundancy is widely observed in soil microorganisms, evidence that species occupy distinct metabolic niches has also emerged. In this paper, we found that apart from the environmental variables, increases in microbial diversity, notably bacterial diversity, lead to an increase in soil C emissions. This was demonstrated using structural equation modelling (SEM), linking soil respiration with naturally differing levels of soil physio-chemical properties, vegetation coverage, and microbial diversity after fire disturbance. Our SEMs also revealed that models including bacterial diversity explained more variation of soil CO2 emissions (about 45%) than fungal diversity (about 38%). A possible explanation of this discrepancy is that fungi are more multifunctional than bacteria and, therefore, an increase in fungal diversity does not necessarily change soil respiration. Further analysis on functional gene structure suggested that bacterial and fungal diversities mainly explain the potential decomposition of recalcitrant C compare with that of labile C. Overall, by incorporating microbial diversity and the environmental variables, the predictive power of models on soil C emission was significantly improved, indicating microbial diversity is crucial for predicting ecosystem functions.
  • Leppelt, T.; Dechow, R.; Gebbert, S.; Freibauer, A.; Lohila, A.; Augustin, J.; Droesler, M.; Fiedler, S.; Glatzel, S.; Hoeper, H.; Jaerveoja, J.; Laerke, P. E.; Maljanen, M.; Mander, Ue.; Maekiranta, P.; Minkkinen, K.; Ojanen, P.; Regina, K.; Stromgren, M. (2014)
  • Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Jumpponen, Ari; Setälä, Heikki; Kotze, D. Johan; Biktasheva, Liliya; Romantschuk, Martin (2018)
    Although soil-inhabiting fungi can affect tree health and biomass production in managed and pristine forests, little is known about the sensitivity of the plant-fungal associations to long-term changes in land use. We aimed to investigate how reforestation of farmlands change soil characteristics and affected the recovery of soil fungal functional guilds. We examined edaphic conditions and fungal communities (Illumina Sequencing) in three land-use types: primary forests (PF), secondary forests (SF, established over two decades ago) and active farmlands during May, July and September in Wuying, China. Edaphic conditions and general fungal communities varied with land-use. Interestingly, overall fungal diversity was higher in soils at the farmland than at the forested sites, possibly as a result of recurring disturbances (tilling) allowing competitive release as described by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Although ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and richness were marginally higher in PF than in SF, the latter still hosted surprisingly diverse and abundant ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Reforestation largely restored fungal communities that were still in transition, as their composition in SF was distinct from that in PF. Our results highlight the ability of fungi grown in previously strongly managed agricultural land to rapidly respond to reforestation and thus provide support for forest trees.
  • Pieristè, Marta; Chauvat, Matthieu; Kotilainen, Titta K.; Jones, Alan G.; Aubert, Michaël; Robson, T. Matthew; Forey, Estelle (2019)
    Sunlight can accelerate the decomposition process through an ensemble of direct and indirect processes known as photodegradation. Although photodegradation is widely studied in arid environments, there have been few studies in temperate regions. This experiment investigated how exposure to solar radiation, and specifically UV-B, UV-A, and blue light, affects leaf litter decomposition under a temperate forest canopy in France. For this purpose, we employed custom-made litterbags built using filters that attenuated different regions of the solar spectrum. Litter mass loss and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of three species: European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), differing in their leaf traits and decomposition rate, were analysed over a period of 7–10 months. Over the entire period, the effect of treatments attenuating blue light and solar UV radiation on leaf litter decomposition was similar to that of our dark treatment, where litter lost 20–30% less mass and had a lower C:N ratio than under the full-spectrum treatment. Moreover, decomposition was affected more by the filter treatment than mesh size, which controlled access by mesofauna. The effect of filter treatment differed among the three species and appeared to depend on litter quality (and especially C:N), producing the greatest effect in recalcitrant litter (F. sylvatica). Even under the reduced irradiance found in the understorey of a temperate forest, UV radiation and blue light remain important in accelerating surface litter decomposition.
  • Zoell, Undine; Bruemmer, Christian; Schrader, Frederik; Ammann, Christof; Ibrom, Andreas; Flechard, Christophe R.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark; Kutsch, Werner L. (2016)
    Recent advances in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure ammonia concentrations at high time resolution and thus to quantify the net exchange between a seminatural peatland ecosystem and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. Changing diurnal patterns of both ammonia concentration and fluxes were found during different periods of the campaign. We observed a clear tipping point in early spring with decreasing ammonia deposition velocities and increasingly bidirectional fluxes that occurred after the switch from dormant vegetation to CO2 uptake but was triggered by a significant weather change. While several biophysical parameters such as temperature, radiation, and surface wetness were identified to partially regulate ammonia exchange at the site, the seasonal concentration pattern was clearly dominated by agricultural practices in the surrounding area. Comparing the results of a compensation point model with our measurement-based flux estimates showed considerable differences in some periods of the campaign due to overestimation of non-stomatal resistances caused by low acid ratios. The total cumulative campaign exchange of ammonia after 9 weeks, however, differed only in a 6% deviation with 911 and 857 gNH(3)-N ha(-1) deposition being found by measurements and modeling, respectively. Extrapolating our findings to an entire year, ammonia deposition was lower than reported by Hurkuck et al. (2014) for the same site in previous years using denuder systems. This was likely due to a better representation of the emission component in the net signal of eddy-covariance fluxes as well as better adapted site-specific parameters in the model. Our study not only stresses the importance of high-quality measurements for studying and assessing land surface-atmosphere interactions but also demonstrates the potential of QCL spectrometers for continuous observation of reactive nitrogen species as important additional instruments within long-term monitoring research infrastructures such as ICOS or NEON at sites with strong nearby ammonia sources leading to relatively high mean background concentrations and fluxes.
  • Jarvi, Leena; Nordbo, Annika; Rannik, Ullar; Haapanala, Sami; Riikonen, Anu; Mammarella, Ivan; Pihlatie, Mari; Vesala, Timo (2014)