Browsing by Subject "GREAT-PLAINS"

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  • Marke, Tobias; Crewell, Susanne; Schemann, Vera; Schween, Jan H.; Tuononen, Minttu (2018)
    Low-level-jet (LLJ) periods are investigated by exploiting a long-termrecord of ground-based remote sensing Doppler wind lidar measurements supported by tower observations and surface flux measurements at the Julich Observatory for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE), a midlatitude site in western Germany. LLJs were found 13% of the time during continuous observations over more than 4 yr. The climatological behavior of the LLJs shows a prevailing nighttime appearance of the jets, with a median height of 375 m and a median wind speed of 8.8 ms(-1) at the jet nose. Significant turbulence below the jet nose only occurs for high bulk wind shear, which is an important parameter for describing the turbulent characteristics of the jets. The numerous LLJs (16% of all jets) in the range of wind-turbine rotor heights below 200 m demonstrate the importance of LLJs and the associated intermittent turbulence for wind-energy applications. Also, a decrease in surface fluxes and an accumulation of carbon dioxide are observed if LLJs are present. A comprehensive analysis of an LLJ case shows the influence of the surrounding topography, dominated by an open pit mine and a 200-m-high hill, on the wind observed at JOYCE. High-resolution large-eddy simulations that complement the observations show that the spatial distribution of the wind field exhibits variations connected with the orographic flow depending on the wind direction, causing high variability in the long-term measurements of the vertical velocity.
  • Sun, Wu; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Chen, Huilin; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Levula, Janne; Keskinen, Helmi; Seibt, Ulli (2018)
    Soil is a major contributor to the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon monoxide (CO). COS is a tracer with which to quantify terrestrial photosynthesis based on the coupled leaf uptake of COS and CO2, but such use requires separating soil COS flux, which is unrelated to photosynthesis, from ecosystem COS uptake. For CO, soil is a significant natural sink that influences the tropospheric CO budget. In the boreal forest, magnitudes and variabilities of soil COS and CO fluxes remain poorly understood. We measured hourly soil fluxes of COS, CO, and CO2 over the 2015 late growing season (July to November) in a Scots pine forest in Hyytiala, Finland. The soil acted as a net sink of COS and CO, with average uptake rates around 3 pmol m(-2) s(-1) for COS and 1 nmol m(-2) s(-1) for CO. Soil respiration showed seasonal dynamics controlled by soil temperature, peaking at around 4 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) in late August and September and dropping to 1-2 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) in October. In contrast, seasonal variations of COS and CO fluxes were weak and mainly driven by soil moisture changes through diffusion limitation. COS and CO fluxes did not appear to respond to temperature variation, although they both correlated well with soil respiration in specific temperature bins. However, COS : CO2 and CO : CO2 flux ratios increased with temperature, suggesting possible shifts in active COS-and CO-consuming microbial groups. Our results show that soil COS and CO fluxes do not have strong variations over the late growing season in this boreal forest and can be represented with the fluxes during the photosynthetically most active period. Well-characterized and relatively invariant soil COS fluxes strengthen the case for using COS as a photosynthetic tracer in boreal forests.
  • Wang, Sichu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Zhang, Yuanxia; Liu, Gang (2022)
    Mollisols are globally distributed in grain-producing regions, and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in mollisol regions are closely related to food security. Regional climate, land use and cover, and field management practice have massively changed since the 1980s in mollisol region in Northeast China, however, the dynamics of topsoil and profile SOC stocks and their distribution have not updated. To explore the dynamics of SOC stocks and their horizontal and vertical distributions in the 1980s-2010s, we took the mollisol region in Northeast China as an example location to conduct profile-scale soil surveys. The in situ surveys indicated that the topsoil SOC stock (0-20 cm) remained relatively stable throughout the 1980s, 2000s, and 2010s, and was 57.3 +/- 5.5, 58.2 +/- 3.3, and 57.4 +/- 4.4 t C ha(-1), respectively. The average profile SOC stock (1 m) increased from 148.9 +/- 18.5 t C ha(-1) in the 1980s to 162.0 +/- 14.0 t C ha(-1) in the 2010s. A slowdown in land reclamation and implementation of conservation tillage helped maintain and restore SOC stocks. Although the overall SOC stock tended to accumulate, the study area suffered an increasingly unbalanced redistribution of SOC related to severe soil erosion. Soil particles and SOC at erosional positions such as backslope were stripped from the soil surface, leading to attenuated soil thickness and SOC stock; SOC-rich sediment accumulated and was buried at depositional positions, especially at the foot-slope, increasing the soil thickness and SOC stock. These results confirmed that not only the total SOC stock, but also changes in SOC spatial distribution deserve great attention. This study provides a platform to examine and modify the simulation effectiveness of carbon-cycling models, as well as solid foundations for optimal global mollisols management. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Morales-Garcia, Nuria Melisa; Saila, Laura K.; Janis, Christine M. (2020)
    Savanna-like ecosystems were present at high latitudes in North America during much of the Neogene. Present-day African savannas, like the Serengeti, have been proposed to be modern analogs of these paleosavannas, particularly those from the middle Miocene of the Great Plains region of the United States. Both these extant and extinct savannas contain a preponderance of artiodactyl (even-toed ungulate) species; however, the taxonomic composition of each fauna is different. While present-day African savannas are dominated by ruminants (primarily bovids), the Neogene savannas of North America were dominated by a diversity of both camelid and non-bovid ruminant families. This study provides a quantitative test of the similarity of the artiodactyl faunas of the North American Neogene paleosavannas to those of the modern-day African savannas. A correspondence analysis of ecomorphological features revealed considerable overlap between modern and fossil faunas. The morphospace occupation of the extinct North American ruminants falls within that of the African bovids. Some of the extinct camelids also fall within this same morphospace, but many do not, perhaps indicating an environmental difference such as greater aridity in Neogene North America. The diversity and disparity of artiodactyl faunas through the Neogene of North America changed along with changing temperatures and precipitation regimes. The taxonomic and ecomorphological diversity of the Serengeti ruminant fauna is statistically comparable to those North American paleofaunas occurring during or immediately after the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO), but the later, more depauperate faunas are no longer comparable. This study quantitatively analyzes artiodactyl communities as they changed with the cooling and drying trend seen during the Neogene.