Browsing by Subject "GROWTH-FACTOR-I"

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  • Jokinen, T. S.; Tiira, K.; Metsähonkala, L.; Seppala, E. H.; Hielm-Bjorkman, A.; Lohi, H.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O. (2015)
    BackgroundLagotto Romagnolo (LR) dogs with benign juvenile epilepsy syndrome often experience spontaneous remission of seizures. The long-term outcome in these dogs currently is unknown. In humans, behavioral and psychiatric comorbidities have been reported in pediatric and adult-onset epilepsies. Hypothesis/ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to investigate possible neurobehavioral comorbidities in LR with a history of benign familial juvenile epilepsy (BFJE) and to assess the occurrence of seizures after the remission of seizures in puppyhood. AnimalsA total of 25 LR with a history of BFJE and 91 control dogs of the same breed. MethodsOwners of the LR dogs in the BFJE and control groups completed an online questionnaire about each dog's activity, impulsivity, and inattention. Principal component analysis (PCA) served to extract behavioral factors from the data. We then compared the scores of these factors between the 2 groups in a retrospective case-control study. We also interviewed all dog owners in the BFJE group by telephone to inquire specifically about possible seizures or other neurological problems after remission of seizures as a puppy. ResultsLagotto Romagnolo dogs with BFJE showed significantly higher scores on the factors Inattention and Excitability/Impulsivity than did the control group (P=.003; P=.021, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 BFJE LR exhibited seizures after remission of epilepsy in puppyhood. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceAlthough the long-term seizure outcome in BFJE LR seems to be good, the dogs exhibit behavioral abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in humans, thus suggesting neurobehavioral comorbidities with epilepsy.
  • Kjaerner-Semb, Erik; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Ayllon, Fernando; Vogelsang, Petra; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rubin, Carl Johan; Veselov, Alexey E.; Nilsen, Tom Ole; McCormick, Stephen D.; Primmer, Craig R.; Wargelius, Anna (2021)
    Most Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) populations follow an anadromous life cycle, spending early life in freshwater, migrating to the sea for feeding, and returning to rivers to spawn. At the end of the last ice age similar to 10,000 years ago, several populations of Atlantic salmon became landlocked. Comparing their genomes to their anadromous counterparts can help identify genetic variation related to either freshwater residency or anadromy. The objective of this study was to identify consistently divergent loci between anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon strains throughout their geographical distribution, with the long-term aim of identifying traits relevant for salmon aquaculture, including fresh and seawater growth, omega-3 metabolism, smoltification, and disease resistance. We used a Pool-seq approach (n = 10-40 individuals per population) to sequence the genomes of twelve anadromous and six landlocked Atlantic salmon populations covering a large part of the Northern Hemisphere and conducted a genomewide association study to identify genomic regions having been under different selection pressure in landlocked and anadromous strains. A total of 28 genomic regions were identified and includedcadm1on Chr 13 andppargc1aon Chr 18. Seven of the regions additionally displayed consistently reduced heterozygosity in fish obtained from landlocked populations, including the genes gpr132, cdca4, and sertad2 on Chr 15. We also found 16 regions, includingigf1on Chr 17, which consistently display reduced heterozygosity in the anadromous populations compared to the freshwater populations, indicating relaxed selection on traits associated with anadromy in landlocked salmon. In conclusion, we have identified 37 regions which may harbor genetic variation relevant for improving fish welfare and quality in the salmon farming industry and for understanding life-history traits in fish.
  • Verhagen, Irene; Laine, Veronika N.; Mateman, A. Christa; Pijl, Agata; de Wit, Ruben; van Lith, Bart; Kamphuis, Willem; Viitaniemi, Heidi M.; Williams, Tony D.; Caro, Samuel P.; Meddle, Simone L.; Gienapp, Phillip; van Oers, Kees; Visser, Marcel E. (2019)
    The timing of breeding is under selection in wild populations as a result of climate change, and understanding the underlying physiological processes mediating this timing provides insight into the potential rate of adaptation. Current knowledge on this variation in physiology is, however, mostly limited to males. We assessed whether individual differences in the timing of breeding in females are reflected in differences in candidate gene expression and, if so, whether these differences occur in the upstream (hypothalamus) or downstream (ovary and liver) parts of the neuroendocrine system. We used 72 female great tits from two generations of lines artificially selected for early and late egg laying, which were housed in climate-controlled aviaries and went through two breeding cycles within 1 year. In the first breeding season we obtained individual egg-laying dates, while in the second breeding season, using the same individuals, we sampled several tissues at three time points based on the timing of the first breeding attempt. For each tissue, mRNA expression levels were measured using qPCR for a set of candidate genes associated with the timing of reproduction and subsequently analysed for differences between generations, time points and individual timing of breeding. We found differences in gene expression between generations in all tissues, with the most pronounced differences in the hypothalamus. Differences between time points, and early- and late-laying females, were found exclusively in the ovary and liver. Altogether, we show that fine-tuning of the seasonal timing of breeding, and thereby the opportunity for adaptation in the neuroendocrine system, is regulated mostly downstream in the neuro-endocrine system.
  • Han, Taehee; Björkman, Stefan; Soede, Nicoline; Oliviero, Claudio; Peltoniemi, Olli (2020)
    Piglet birth weight and within-litter birth weight variation are important for piglet survival and growth. Pre-mating diets may improve IGF-1 and follicle development during the weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI) and subsequent piglet birth weight. The objective of this study was to modulate IGF-1 concentration during late lactation and the WEI of young sows by using specific pre-mating diets supplemented with microfibrillated cellulose (MF),l-carnitine (LC) orl-arginine (AR). A further objective was to investigate the relationship between IGF-1 and subsequent follicle development and oestrus and ovulation characteristics. In total, 56 first-parity and 20 second-parity sows in three consecutive batches were used for this experiment. Sows received daily either wheat (CON) or wheat plus MF, LC or AR at one of two supplementation levels (low and high) during last week of lactation and WEI. From weaning onwards, follicle and corpus luteum (CL) diameters were repeatedly measured with ultrasound. Blood samples were collected during the WEI for IGF-1 and on day 21 of pregnancy for progesterone analyses, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration, follicle diameter, oestrus and ovulation characteristics and CL diameter were not affected by pre-mating diets. Low IGF-1 class (= 8%,N= 28) had lower IGF-1 concentrations at weaning (167v. 214 ng/ml,P<0.05) compared to low LM loss sows (
  • Leeuwen, Wessel M. A. van; Hublin, Christer; Sallinen, Mikael; Harma, Mikko; Hirvonen, Ari; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja (2010)
  • Liimatta, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Karvonen, Anne M.; Remes, Sami; Voutilainen, Raimo; Pekkanen, Juha (2020)
    Context: Adrenarche is a gradual process, but its programming is unknown. Objective: The objective of this article is to examine the trajectory of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) from age 1 to 6 years and the associations of early growth with DHEAS concentration by age 6 years. Design and participants: Longitudinal data from a population sample of 78 children (43 girls) with serum samples for DHEAS and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) measurements available at ages 1 and 6 years. Main outcome measure: Serum DHEAS concentration at age 6 years. Results: DHEAS concentration at age 1 year correlated with DHEAS concentration at age 6 years (r = 0.594, P <.001). DHEAS levels at age 6 years increased with tertiles of DHEAS at age 1 year (medians (mu g/dL); 4.2, 14.4, 22.6; P <.001) and with those of greater increase in length by age 1 year (6.0, 11.7, 16.4; P = .047), and decreased with Wailes of birth length (17.7, 13.3, 7.1; P = .042). In a regression model including birth size, biochemical covariates at age 1 year, and growth measures by age 6 years, higher DHEAS concentration at age 1 year was an independent determinant of falling into the highest DHEAS tertile at age 6 years. Conclusions: Higher serum DHEAS concentrations already at age 1 year are associated with those at age 6 years. Also, shorter birth length and rapid catch-up growth in length by age 1 year are associated with higher DHEAS concentrations at age 6 years. These results corroborate the early origin of adrenarche and strongly suggest that part of adrenarchal programming already takes place by the end of infancy. (C) Endocrine Society 2020.