Browsing by Subject "GUIDELINE"

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  • Välkki, Kirsi Johanna; Thomson, Katariina Hanne; Grönthal, Thomas Sven Christer; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Rantala, Merja Hilma Johanna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi Maria; Mölsä, Sari Helena (2020)
    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30-60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012-2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3-2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI(95%)0.4-5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus pseudintermediuscarriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI(95%)1.4-57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI(95%)1.0-2.7; mean difference + 0.4 degrees C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Jolle, Anne; Asvold, Bjorn Olav; Holmen, Jostein; Carlsen, Sven Magnus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Bjorngaard, Johan Hakon; Midthjell, Kristian (2018)
    Objective Among individuals at high risk for diabetes identified through a population survey, we performed an intervention study with basic lifestyle advice aiming to prevent diabetes. Research design and methods Among 50 806 participants in the HUNT3 Survey (2006-2008), 5297 individuals with Finnish Diabetes Risc Score (FINDRISC >= 15 were invited to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an education session with lifestyle advice, and 2634 (49.7%) attended. Among them, 2380 people without diabetes were included in the prevention study with repeated examinations and education sessions after 6, 12, and 24 months. We examined participation, diabetes incidence, glycemia, and adiposity during follow-up. Results Of 2380 participants, 1212 (50.9%) participated in >= 3 of the four examinations. Diabetes was detected in 3.5%, 3.1%, and 4.0% of individuals at the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month examinations, respectively, indicating a 10.3% 2-year diabetes incidence. Mean (95% CI) increases from baseline to 2-year follow-up were 0.30 (0.29 to 0.32) percentage points (3.3 (3.2 to 3.5) mmol/mol) for Hemoglobin A 1c, 0.13 (0.10 to 0.16) mmol/L for fasting serum-glucose, 0.46 (0.36 to 0.56) mmol/L for 2-hour OGTT s-glucose, 0.30 (0.19 to 0.40) kg/m(2) forbody mass index (BMI) (all p<0.001) and -0.5 (-0.9 to -0.2) cm for waist circumference (p= 0.004), with broadly similar estimates by baseline age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, BMI, physical activity, and family history of diabetes. Only 206 (8.7%) participants had evidence of > 5% weight loss during follow-up; their fasting and 2-hour s-glucose did not increase, and HbA 1c increased less than in other participants. Conclusion Basic lifestyle advice given to high-risk individuals during three group sessions with 6-month intervals was not effective in reducing 2-year diabetes risk.
  • Stroke Thrombolysis Trialists' (2018)
    Background The recommended maximum age and time window for intravenous alteplase treatment of acute ischemic stroke differs between the Europe Union and United States. Aims We compared the effects of alteplase in cohorts defined by the current Europe Union or United States marketing approval labels, and by hypothetical revisions of the labels that would remove the Europe Union upper age limit or extend the United States treatment time window to 4.5h. Methods We assessed outcomes in an individual-patient-data meta-analysis of eight randomized trials of intravenous alteplase (0.9mg/kg) versus control for acute ischemic stroke. Outcomes included: excellent outcome (modified Rankin score 0-1) at 3-6 months, the distribution of modified Rankin score, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality. Results Alteplase increased the odds of modified Rankin score 0-1 among 2449/6136 (40%) patients who met the current European Union label and 3491 (57%) patients who met the age-revised label (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1.21-1.68 and 1.43, 1.23-1.65, respectively), but not in those outside the age-revised label (1.06, 0.90-1.26). By 90 days, there was no increased mortality in the current and age-revised cohorts (hazard ratios 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.25 and 1.01, 0.86-1.19, respectively) but mortality remained higher outside the age-revised label (1.19, 0.99-1.42). Similarly, alteplase increased the odds of modified Rankin score 0-1 among 1174/6136 (19%) patients who met the current US approval and 3326 (54%) who met a 4.5-h revised approval (odds ratio 1.55, 1.19-2.01 and 1.37, 1.17-1.59, respectively), but not for those outside the 4.5-h revised approval (1.14, 0.97-1.34). By 90 days, no increased mortality remained for the current and 4.5-h revised label cohorts (hazard ratios 0.99, 0.77-1.26 and 1.02, 0.87-1.20, respectively) but mortality remained higher outside the 4.5-h revised approval (1.17, 0.98-1.41). Conclusions An age-revised European Union label or 4.5-h-revised United States label would each increase the number of patients deriving net benefit from alteplase by 90 days after acute ischemic stroke, without excess mortality.
  • Thunnissen, Erik; Weynand, Birgit; Udovicic-Gagula, Dalma; Brcic, Luka; Szolkowska, Malgorzata; Hofman, Paul; Smojver-Jezek, Silvana; Anttila, Sisko; Calabrese, Fiorella; Kern, Izidor; Skov, Birgit; Perner, Sven; Dale, Vibeke G.; Eri, Zivka; Haragan, Alex; Leonte, Diana; Carvallo, Lina; Prince, Spasenja Savic; Nicholson, Siobhan; Sansano, Irene; Ryska, Ales (2020)
    A questionnaire on biomarker testing previously used in central European countries was extended and distributed in Western and Central European countries to the pathologists participating at the Pulmonary Pathology Society meeting 26-28 June 2019 in Dubrovnik, Croatia. Each country was represented by one responder. For recent biomarkers the availability and reimbursement of diagnoses of molecular alterations in non-small cell lung carcinoma varies widely between different, also western European, countries. Reimbursement of such assessments varies widely between unavailability and payments by the health care system or even pharmaceutical companies. The support for testing from alternative sources, such as the pharmaceutical industry, is no doubt partly compensating for the lack of public health system support, but it is not a viable or long-term solution. Ideally, a structured access to testing and reimbursement should be the aim in order to provide patients with appropriate therapeutic options. As biomarker enabled therapies deliver a 50% better probability of outcome success, improved and unbiased reimbursement remains a major challenge for the future.
  • Massy, Ziad A.; Caskey, Fergus J.; Finne, Patrik; Harambat, Jerome; Jager, Kitty J.; Nagler, Evi; Stengel, Benedicte; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bruchfeld, Annette; Capasso, Giovambattista; Fliser, Danilo; Fouque, Denis; Goumenos, Dimitrios; Soler, Maria Jose; Rychlik, Ivan; Spasovski, Goce; Stevens, Kathryn; Wanner, Christoph; Zoccali, Carmine (2019)
    The strengths and the limitations of research activities currently present in Europe are explored in order to outline how to proceed in the near future. Epidemiological and clinical research and public policy in Europe are generally considered to be comprehensive and successful, and the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) is playing a key role in the field of nephrology research. The Nephrology and Public Policy Committee (NPPC) aims to improve the current situation and translation into public policy by planning eight research topics to be supported in the coming 5 years by ERA-EDTA.
  • Knihtilä, Hanna; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Mäkelä, Mika J.; Malmberg, L. Pekka (2018)
    Background: Clinical significance of small airway obstruction in mild pediatric asthma is unclear. Objective: To evaluate small airway properties in children with mild to moderate asthmatic symptoms and the association of small airway function with asthma control and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Methods: Children (5-10 years old) with recurrent wheezing (n = 42) or persistent troublesome cough (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 19) performed impulse oscillometry (IOS), spirometry, and a multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) test. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) was measured at multiple flow rates to determine alveolar NO concentration (CAIN). Asthma control was evaluated with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT), short-acting beta(2)-agonist (SABA) use within the past month, and asthma exacerbations within the past year. Results: IOS, spirometry, and exhaled NO indexes that are related to small airway function differed between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy controls, whereas only forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of the forced vital capacity was associated with persistent cough. The MBNW indexes showed no difference between the groups. Among symptomatic children, conducting airway ventilation inhomogeneity and CALV were associated with asthma exacerbations (P = .03 and P = .002, respectively), and lung clearance index and CALV were associated with EIB (P = .04 and P = .004, respectively). None of the proposed small airway indexes was associated with the C-ACT score or SABA use. Conclusion: Subtle changes were observed in the proposed small airway indexes of IOS, spirometry, and exhaled NO among children with mild to moderate recurrent wheezing. Small airway dysfunction, expressed as ventilation inhomogeneity indexes and CALV, was also associated with asthma exacerbations and EIB. (C) 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Lindstrom, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Piwonska-Solska, Beata; Topor-Madry, Roman; Szybinski, Zbigniew; Peltonen, Markku; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Windak, Adam; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja (2017)
    Background: Real life implementation studies performed in different settings and populations proved that lifestyle interventions in prevention of type 2 diabetes can be effective. However, little is known about long term results of these translational studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the maintenance of diabetes type 2 risk factor reduction achieved 1 year after intervention and during 3 year follow-up in primary health care setting in Poland. Methods: Study participants (n = 262), middle aged, slightly obese, with increased type 2 diabetes risk ((age 55.5 (SD = 11.3), BMI 32 (SD = 4.8), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score FINDRISC 18.4 (SD = 2.9)) but no diabetes at baseline, were invited for 1 individual and 10 group lifestyle counselling sessions as well as received 6 motivational phone calls and 2 letters followed by organized physical activity sessions combined with counselling to increase physical activity. Measurements were performed at baseline and then repeated 1 and 3 years after the initiation of the intervention. Results: One hundred five participants completed all 3 examinations (baseline age 56.6 (SD = 10.7)), BMI 31.1 (SD = 4.9)), FINDRISC 18.57 (SD = 3.09)). Males comprised 13% of the group, 10% of the patients presented impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 14% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Mean weight of participants decreased by 2.27 kg (SD = 5.25) after 1 year (p = <0.001). After 3 years a weight gain by 1.13 kg (SD = 4.6) (p = 0.04) was observed. In comparison with baseline however, the mean total weight loss at the end of the study was maintained by 1.14 kg (SD = 5.8) (ns). Diabetes risk (FINDRISC) declined after one year by 2.8 (SD = 3.6) (p = 0.001) and the decrease by 2.26 (SD = 4.27) was maintained after 3 years (p = 0.001). Body mass reduction by > 5% was achieved after 1 and 3 years by 27 and 19% of the participants, respectively. Repeated measures analysis revealed significant changes observed from baseline to year 1 and year 3 in: weight (p = 0.048), BMI (p = 0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.013), TG (p = 0.061), fasting glucose level (p = 0.037) and FINDRISC (p = 0.001) parameters. The conversion rate to diabetes was 2% after 1 year and 7% after 3 years. Conclusions: Type 2 diabetes prevention in real life primary health care setting through lifestyle intervention delivered by trained nurses leads to modest weight reduction, favorable cardiovascular risk factors changes and decrease of diabetes risk. These beneficial outcomes can be maintained at a 3-year follow-up.
  • Vuorjoki-Ranta, Tiina-Riitta; Aarab, Ghizlane; Lobbezoo, Frank; Tuomilehto, Henri; Ahlberg, Jari (2019)
    Purpose The aim was to analyze whether or not weight gain influences the treatment outcome of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with mandibular advancement devices (MAD). Methods As a part of a follow-up study among OSA patients treated with MAD in primary oral health care, a group of 28 patients reporting worsening of daytime or nighttime symptoms of OSA was given closer examination. Altogether, 21 subjects had a complete set of recordings and were enrolled into the study. Results Only three subjects had lost weight during the study period. The mean weight gain of 3.6kg7.1kg was significant (p=0.035). According to linear regression, weight gain was independently significantly associated with lower mean peripheral oxygen saturation 92.4 (SD 1.8 (% per hour) (p=0.019)) and lowest oxygen saturation 80.1 (SD 7.2 (%) (p=0.024)) scores. Conclusions Weight gain is detrimentally associated with MAD treatment in patients with OSA. These findings suggest that regular follow-up by an experienced dentist is advisable to assess for possible worsening of OSA. Patient support to encourage weight control may be an important adjunct to MAD treatment for OSA.