Browsing by Subject "GUT"

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  • Reunanen, Justus; Kainulainen, Veera; Huuskonen, Laura; Ottman, Noora; Belzer, Clara; Huhtinen, Heikki; de Vos, Willem M.; Satokari, Reetta (2015)
    Akkermansia muciniphila is a Gram-negative mucin-degrading bacterium that resides in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. A. muciniphila has been linked with intestinal health and improved metabolic status in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Specifically, A. muciniphila has been shown to reduce high-fat-diet-induced endotoxemia, which develops as a result of an impaired gut barrier. Despite the accumulating evidence of the health-promoting effects of A. muciniphila, the mechanisms of interaction of the bacterium with the host have received little attention. In this study, we used several in vitro models to investigate the adhesion of A. muciniphila to the intestinal epithelium and its interaction with the host mucosa. We found that A. muciniphila adheres strongly to the Caco-2 and HT-29 human colonic cell lines but not to human colonic mucus. In addition, A. muciniphila showed binding to the extracellular matrix protein laminin but not to collagen I or IV, fibronectin, or fetuin. Importantly, A. muciniphila improved enterocyte monolayer integrity, as shown by a significant increase in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of cocultures of Caco-2 cells with the bacterium. Further, A. muciniphila induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by enterocytes at cell concentrations 100-fold higher than those for Escherichia coli, suggesting a very low level of proinflammatory activity in the epithelium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that A. muciniphila adheres to the intestinal epithelium and strengthens enterocyte monolayer integrity in vitro, suggesting an ability to fortify an impaired gut barrier. These results support earlier associative in vivo studies and provide insights into the interaction of A. muciniphila with the host.
  • Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Elzinga, Janneke; Ottman, Noora; Klievink, Jay T.; Blijenberg, Bernadet; Aalvink, Steven; Boeren, Sjef; Mank, Marko; Knol, Jan; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2020)
    Akkermansia muciniphila is a well-studied anaerobic bacterium specialized in mucus degradation and associated with human health. Because of the structural resemblance of mucus glycans and free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), we studied the ability of A. muciniphila to utilize human milk oligosaccharides. We found that A. muciniphila was able to grow on human milk and degrade HMOs. Analyses of the proteome of A. muciniphila indicated that key-glycan degrading enzymes were expressed when the bacterium was grown on human milk. Our results display the functionality of the key-glycan degrading enzymes (alpha -l-fucosidases, beta -galactosidases, exo-alpha -sialidases and beta -acetylhexosaminidases) to degrade the HMO-structures 2 ' -FL, LNT, lactose, and LNT2. The hydrolysation of the host-derived glycan structures allows A. muciniphila to promote syntrophy with other beneficial bacteria, contributing in that way to a microbial ecological network in the gut. Thus, the capacity of A. muciniphila to utilize human milk will enable its survival in the early life intestine and colonization of the mucosal layer in early life, warranting later life mucosal and metabolic health.
  • Moles, Laura; Gomez, Marta; Heilig, Hans; Bustos, Gerardo; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan M.; Jimenez, Esther (2013)
  • Pereira, Pedro; Aho, Velma; Arola, Johanna; Boyd, Sonja; Jokelainen, Kalle; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Farkkila, Martti (2017)
    Objective The etiopathogenesis and risk for development of biliary neoplasia in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are largely unknown. Microbes or their metabolites have been suggested to play a role. To explore this potential microbial involvement, we evaluated the differences in biliary microbiota in PSC patients at an early disease stage without previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) examinations, advanced disease stage, and with biliary dysplasia or cholangiocarcinoma. Design Bile samples from the common bile duct were collected from 46 controls and 80 patients with PSC during ERC (37 with early disease, 32 with advanced disease, and 11 with biliary dysplasia). DNA isolation, amplification, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing were performed for the V1-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Results The most common phyla found were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. The most common families were Prevotellaceae, Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, and Pasteurellaceae, and the most common genera were Prevotella, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, and Haemophilus. The bacterial communities of non-PSC subjects and early stage PSC patients were similar. Alpha diversity was lower in patients with biliary dysplasia/cholangiocarcinoma than in other groups. An increase in Streptococcus abundance was positively correlated with the number of ERC examinations. Streptococcus abundance was also positively correlated with an increase in disease severity, even after controlling for the number of ERC examinations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the aetiology of PSC is not associated with changes in bile microbial communities, but the genus Streptococcus may play a pathogenic role in the progression of the disease.
  • Jalanka, Jonna; Cheng, Jing; Hiippala, Kaisa; Ritari, Jarmo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Ruuska, Tarja; Kalliomaki, Marko; Satokari, Reetta (2020)
    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are chronic debilitating disorders of unknown etiology. Over 200 genetic risk loci are associated with IBD, highlighting a key role for immunological and epithelial barrier functions. Environmental factors account for the growing incidence of IBD, and microbiota are considered as an important contributor. Microbiota dysbiosis can lead to a loss of tolerogenic immune effects and initiate or exacerbate inflammation. We aimed to study colonic mucosal microbiota and the expression of selected host genes in pediatric UC. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to profile microbiota in colonic biopsies of pediatric UC patients (n= 26) and non-IBD controls (n= 27). The expression of 13 genes, including five for antimicrobial peptides, in parallel biopsies was assessed with qRT-PCR. The composition of microbiota between UC and non-IBD differed significantly (PCoA,p= 0.001). UC children had a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in several family-level taxa including Peptostreptococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which correlated negatively with the expression of antimicrobial peptides REG3G and DEFB1, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with the expression siderophore binding protein LCN2 and Betaproteobacteria negatively with DEFB4A expression. The results indicate that reciprocal interaction of epithelial microbiota and defense mechanisms play a role in UC.
  • Trevisi, Paolo; Priori, Davide; Jansman, Alfons J. M.; Luise, Diana; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi; Van Der Meulen, Jan; Bosi, Paolo (2018)
    The development of an early complex gut microbiota may play an important role in the protection against intestinal dysbiosis later in life. The significance of the developed microbiota for gut barrier functionality upon interaction with pathogenic or beneficial bacteria is largely unknown. The transcriptome of differently perfused jejunal loops of 12 caesarian-derived pigs, neonatally associated with microbiota of different complexity, was studied. Piglets received pasteurized sow colostrum at birth (d0), a starter microbiota (Lactobacillus amylovorus (LAM), Clostridium glycolicum, and Parabacteroides) on d1-d3, and a placebo inoculant (simple association, SA) or an inoculant consisting of sow's diluted feces (complex association, CA) on d3-d4. On d 26-37, jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with either enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC), purified F4 fimbriae, LAM or saline control (CTRL). Gene expression of each intestinal loop was analyzed by Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.1_ST array strips. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed on expression values. Compared to CTRL, 184 and 74; 2 and 139; 2 and 48 gene sets, were up- and down-regulated by ETEC, F4 and LAM, respectively. ETEC up-regulated networks related to inflammatory and immune responses, RNA processing, and mitosis. There was a limited overlap in up-regulated gene sets between ETEC and F4 fimbriae. LAM down-regulated genes related to inflammatory and immune responses, as well as to cellular compound metabolism. In CA pigs, 57 gene sets were up-regulated by CA, while 73 were down-regulated compared to SA. CA up-regulated gene sets related to lymphocyte modulation and to cellular defense in all loop perfusions. In CA pigs, compared to SA pigs, genes for chemokine and cytokine activity and for response to external stimuli were down-regulated in ETEC-perfused loops and up-regulated in CTRL. The results highlight the importance of the nature of neonatal microbial colonization in the response to microbial stimuli later in life.
  • Ayudthaya, Susakul Palakawong Na; van de Weijer, Antonius H. P.; van Gelder, Antonie H.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; de Vos, Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M. (2018)
    Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Results: In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides, Sporanaerobacter, Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pse udoramibacter_Eubacterium, Dysgonomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. Conclusions: The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.
  • Kervinen, Kaisa; Kalliala, Ilkka; Glazer-Livson, Sivan; Virtanen, Seppo; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne (2019)
    Compared to other human microbiota, vaginal microbiota is fairly simple with low bacterial diversity and high relative abundance of Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus dominance is even more pronounced during pregnancy. Genetic factors, such as ethnicity, along with environmental, individual and lifestyle factors all have an impact on vaginal microbiota composition. The composition of the vaginal microbiota appears to play an important role in pregnancy as recent studies have linked it to adverse obstetric outcomes such as preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the same vaginal microbiota does not seem to cause the same response in all women, calling for future research to fully understand the complex host-microbiota interplay in normal and complicated pregnancies.