Browsing by Subject "Gambling"

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  • Marionneau, Virve; Mandolesi, Gabriele; Rolando, Sara; Nikkinen, Janne (2022)
    Background Electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are amongst the most harmful forms of gambling. The high availability of EGMs is also linked to increased consumption. To reduce the burden of EGMs on public health, policies to reduce their numbers have recently been introduced in Italy and Finland. This study compares the aims and justifications of these legislative changes, as well as their overall impacts on total consumption. Methods The objectives and justifications of policies to reduce the number of EGMs were based on qualitative media analysis. The impacts on total consumption were measured using financial figures provided by gambling providers in Italy and Finland. Results Results show that the reductions in EGM numbers were justified in terms of public health concerns in both countries, but the amplitude of policies varied. In Italy, the reductions were more ambitious than in Finland, and included reductions in the number of gambling locations. The financial data nevertheless indicated that the reductions may not have been significant enough. Conclusions Public health concerns were initially highlighted in the media discussions, but eventually in both countries reduction policies were less ambitious due to industry lobbying and state revenue interests. The reductions therefore do not appear to have been effective in reducing total consumption and the burden on public health.
  • Oinio, Ville; Sundström, Mikko; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri (2018)
    Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options. The lever choices were guided by different-sized sucrose rewards (one or three pellets), and the probability of gaining the larger reward was slowly changed to a level where choosing the smaller reward would be the most profitable in the long run. After training, rats were injected (s.c.) with dopamine releaser D-amphetamine (0.3, 1.0 mg/kg) to study the impact of rapid dopamine release on this learned decision making behavior. Administration of D-amphetamine promoted unprofitable decision making of AA rats more robustly when compared to Wistar rats. At the same time, D-amphetamine reduced lever pressing responses. Interestingly, we found that this reduction in lever pressing was significantly greater in Wistar rats than in AA rats and it was not linked to motivation to consume sucrose. Our results indicate that conditioning to the lever pressing in uncertain environments is more pronounced in AA than in Wistar rats and indicate that the reinforcing effects of a gambling-like environment act as a stronger conditioning factor for rats that exhibit a genetic tendency for high alcohol drinking.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Castren, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Orford, Jim; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2014)
    Background: Attitudes towards gambling influence gambling behaviour but also reflect the existing gambling policy in a society. However, studies examining general attitudes towards gambling at the population level are scarce. The first aim of this study was to investigate general attitudes of the Finnish population towards gambling. The second aim was to explore the association of socio-demographics, gambling behaviours, being a concerned significant other (CSO) of a problem gambler and perceived health and lifestyle with attitudes towards gambling among the Finnish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by structured telephone interview on a random sample of 15-74-year-old Finns between October 2011 and January 2012. The data (n = 4484) was weighted based on age, gender and region of residence. Attitudes towards gambling were measured with the eight-item version of the Attitude Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). A factor analysis was performed to test the structure of the Finnish version of the ATGS-8. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA test, t-test and multiple regression analysis. Results: On average, attitudes of Finns towards gambling were negative. The most significant factors associated with positive attitudes towards gambling were male gender, young age, 12 years or more education and net income more than 2000(sic), low score on gambling severity, being a non-CSO of a problem gambler and high alcohol consumption Conclusions: The association between young age, male gender, high net income and risky alcohol consumption, and favourable gambling attitudes was strong, and also reflects risky gambling behaviour. Experiencing gambling-related harms caused by one's own or significant other's excessive gambling seems to indicate unfavourable attitudes towards gambling.
  • Salonen, Anne; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2017)
    Background: Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Conclusions: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
  • Silinskas, Gintautas; Ranta, Mette; Wilska, Terhi-Anna (2021)
    The present study examined the multiple micro- and macro-level factors that affect individuals’ financial behaviour under economic strain. The following sociodemographic and economic factors that predict financial behaviour were analysed: age group, year of data gathering, and attitudes towards consumption (economical, deprived, and hedonistic). Subjective financial situations and demographic characteristics were controlled for. Finnish time series data that consisted of five cross-sectional nationally representative surveys were used (n = 10 043). The analyses revealed four types of financial behaviour: cutting expenses, borrowing, increasing income, and gambling. Young adults aged 18–25 reported the lowest frequency of borrowing and gambling and the highest frequency of increasing income (together with young adults aged 26–35). Participants aged 66–75 scored the lowest in cutting expenses and increasing income in comparison to all other age groups. Financial behaviour under economic strain in 2019 can be characterized by lower instances of borrowing than in 2004 and 2009 and higher frequencies in increasing income in comparison to all other years of data gathering. Finally, strong attitudes towards saving were related to lower frequency of borrowing and gambling, whereas stronger hedonistic attitudes were related to lower frequency of cutting expenses and more frequent borrowing. The research results provide tools for consumer policy, consumer education, and consumer regulation.
  • Marionneau, Virve; Egerer, Michael; Nikkinen, Janne (2021)
    Purpose of Review: This systematic literature review evaluates the potential of gambling monopolies to affect gambling harms. It compares the occurrence of gambling harms in jurisdictions with gambling monopolies to jurisdictions with license-based regimes. Recent Findings: The review identified 21 publications concerning three gambling-related harm indicators: problem gambling prevalence, total consumption, and the appearance of conflicts of interest. Due to the dearth of literature, concept papers and older publications were also included. Summary: Results show that there is a paucity of empirical research on the effectiveness of different regulatory regimes in affecting gambling harms. Available research demonstrates that monopolistic regimes appear to perform somewhat better in terms of problem gambling prevalence and total consumption but may also be more prone to conflicts of interest than license-based regimes. Monopolistic configurations also differ between themselves, and issues such as availability, accessibility, product range, scope of preventive work, monitoring, as well as the recognition of the public health approach may better predict the levels of harm in society than the existence of a monopoly.
  • Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Savolainen, Iina; Paek, Hye-Jin; Zych, Izabela; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Social media tends to gather users around social cliques consisting of similar-minded individuals and shared identities. These online group processes can have significant influence on user behavior, which is alarming when considering risky behaviors such as gambling. This study examined how online clique involvement predicts young people's interest in gambling content and following observed group norms on social media. Survey respondents were 15-25-year-olds from Finland (n = 1200), the United States (n = 1212), South Korea (n = 1192) and Spain (n = 1212). A self-reported measure of online clique involvement and a gambling-related social media vignette experiment were utilized. The results show that online clique involvement was related to higher interest in gambling content. Content liked by a majority gathered more interest, indicating conformity to a group norm. This finding was especially true among participants with past involvement in online cliques, and the association was strongest in South Korea. The tendency to participate in online clique behavior creates a potentially risky setting when encountering online gambling content, because it may accentuate the effect of observed group norms. Interacting with gambling content increases the visibility of such content due to algorithmic filtering technologies, which can fuel gambling-related intentions and behaviors, and normalize gambling.
  • Castren, Sari; Salonen, Anne H.; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli; Simojoki, Kaarlo (2015)
  • Castrén, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Alho, Hannu (2022)
    • Rahapeliriippuvuudella on yhtäläisyyksiä päihderiippuvuuksien kanssa. • ICD-11-tautiluokituksessa se on luokiteltu samaan luokkaan aine- riippuvuuksien kanssa. • Haittojen vähentämisessä auttavat varhainen tunnistaminen ja puheeksiotto. • Tukea ja hoitoa on saatavilla pääasiassa verkossa.
  • Castren, Sari; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Josefsson, Kim; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2017)
    Empirical evidence has shown that youth gamble on both regulated and unregulated games, despite legislative prohibitions. This study assesses middle and high school teachers' awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent gambling and other potentially high-risk behaviours in Finland. A convenience sample of teachers (N = 157) from 13 provinces participated in the survey. The results suggest that teachers in Finland were more knowledgeable of the age limits of other adolescent high-risk behaviours than the legal age for gambling. Teachers were somewhat familiar with the behaviours and consequences associated with adolescent gambling. All other risk behaviours were perceived as being more important than gambling. Teachers' awareness about gambling prevention material in Finnish schools was limited. Results suggest that initiatives are required to enhance teachers' knowledge of adolescent problem gambling and its harmful short- and long-term consequences. School policies and guidelines including gambling behavior should be implemented in middle and high schools globally.
  • Raisamo, Susanna; Toikka, Arho; Selin, Jani; Heiskanen, Maria (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are considered a risky form of gambling. Internationally, studies have reported that the density of EGMs tends to be higher in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas than in more advantaged ones. We examined whether this holds true in the Finnish context where a decentralised system of EGMs guarantees wide accessibility to this form of gambling. More precisely, we investigated the association between the density of EGMs and area-level socio-economic status (SES). Methods The primary measure was the EGM density, referring to the number of EGMs per 1000 adults. The area-level SES was defined on the basis of the median income of inhabitants, the proportion of unemployment in the area and educational attainment (% of those beyond primary education). Three additional area characteristics were used as control variables in the analyses; the overall population density, economic activity (the number of jobs in the area per employed inhabitant), and the mean age of the inhabitants. Analyses were based on linear regression. Results The EGM density was 3.68 per 1000 inhabitants (SD = 2.63). A lower area-level SES was correlated with a higher EGM density. In further analyses, this effect was mostly explained by the income of the inhabitants. Of the control variables, the population density had no detectable effect on the EGM density while areas with a higher mean age of the inhabitants, as well a higher density of jobs, had more EGMs. Conclusions EGMs are unequally located in Finland, with more EGMs located in socio-economically less advantaged areas. The higher machine density in areas of social disadvantage is not in line with the aim of the Finnish gambling policy, which is to prevent and reduce harm caused by gambling. Changes in policy are required, especially with regard to the decisions on the placement of EGMs. This should not be made solely by gaming operators and/or from fiscal perspectives.
  • Sirola, Anu; Savela, Nina; Savolainen, Iina; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Gambling opportunities are facilitated by the growth of the Internet and social media platforms. Digital games also increasingly include monetary features, such as microtransactions, blurring the line between gambling and gaming. The Internet provides a variety of virtual communities for gamblers and gamers, but comprehensive research on these communities and their relevance in gambling and monetary gaming behaviors remains scarce. This paper summarizes research of online gambling and monetary gaming communities based on a systematic literature review. A systematic literature search was conducted from five databases: Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Social Science Premium Collection, and EBSCOhost. The search was limited to empirical articles that focused on gambling or gaming involving money and examined online interaction between gamblers or gamers. Preliminary search resulted in 1056 articles, from which 55 were selected for the analyses based on pre-determined criteria. According to results, online communities serve different functions in gambling and gaming behaviors. Gambling communities are typically forums for discussing and sharing gambling experiences, strategies, and tips as well as gambling problems, while gaming communities are inherently embedded inside a game being an essential part of the gaming experience. Identification with virtual communities influences gambling behavior and monetary gaming behavior through mechanisms of perceived norms, social influence, and community feedback. Whereas some gambling communities may provide protection from excessive gambling habits, gaming communities seem to solely motivate gaming behavior and purchase intentions. The role of online communities should be acknowledged in prevention and treatment of gambling and gaming problems.