Browsing by Subject "Gender"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine (2020)
    Although subsistence hunting is cross-culturally an activity led and practiced mostly by men, a rich body of literature shows that in many small-scale societies women also engage in hunting in varied and often inconspicuous ways. Using data collected among two contemporary forager-horticulturalist societies facing rapid change (the Tsimane' of Bolivia and the Baka of Cameroon), we compare the technological and social characteristics of hunting trips led by women and men and analyze the specific socioeconomic characteristics that facilitate or constrain women's engagement in hunting. Results from interviews on daily activities with 121 Tsimane' (63 women and 58 men) and 159 Baka (83 women and 76 men) show that Tsimane' and Baka women participate in subsistence hunting, albeit using different techniques and in different social contexts than men. We also found differences in the individual and household socioeconomic profiles of Tsimane' and Baka women who hunt and those who do not hunt. Moreover, the characteristics that differentiate hunter and non-hunter women vary from one society to the other, suggesting that gender roles in relation to hunting are fluid and likely to change, not only across societies, but also as societies change.
  • Honkamäki, Jasmin; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Piirilä, Päivi; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Huhtala, Heini; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2019)
    Background: Asthma is currently divided into different phenotypes, with age at onset as a relevant differentiating factor. In addition, asthma with onset in adulthood seems to have a poorer prognosis, but studies investigating age-specific incidence of asthma with a wide age span are scarce. Objective: To evaluate incidence of asthma diagnosis at different ages and differences between child- and adult-diagnosed asthma in a large population-based study, with gender-specific analyzes included. Methods: In 2016, a respiratory questionnaire was sent to 8000 randomly selected subjects aged 20-69 years in western Finland. After two reminders, 4173 (52.3%) subjects responded. Incidence rate of asthma was retrospectively estimated based on the reported age of asthma onset. Adult-diagnosed asthma was defined as a physician-diagnosis of asthma made at >= 18 years of age. Results: Among those with physician-diagnosed asthma, altogether, 63.7% of subjects, 58.4% of men and 67.8% of women, reported adult-diagnosed asthma. Incidence of asthma diagnosis was calculated in 10-year age groups and it peaked in young boys (0-9 years) and middle-aged women (40-49 years) and the average incidence rate during the examined period between 1946 and 2015 was 2.2/1000/year. Adult-diagnosed asthma became the dominant phenotype among those with physician-diagnosed asthma by age of 50 years and 38 years in men and women, respectively. Conclusions: Asthma is mainly diagnosed during adulthood and the incidence of asthma diagnosis peaks in middle-aged women. Asthma diagnosed in adulthood should be considered more in clinical practice and management guidelines.
  • Perander, Katarina; Londen, Monica; Holm, Gunilla (2020)
    Efforts to reach gender equality in education in Finland have been extensive. Both teacher education and policy documents for schools have focused on gender equality and gender-neutral treatment of students. The aim of this study is to explore if and how these efforts are manifested in upper secondary school teachers' and study counsellors' perceptions of students' self-belief, academic emotions, study habits and behaviour at school. Twenty-three interviews were conducted and analysed qualitatively through inductive content analysis. The results revealed that teachers and study counsellors perceive that girls' low self-belief and high achievement expectations affected their academic performance, while boys' insecurity or need for support was rarely mentioned. The teachers ascribed the students several gender-stereotypical attributes: girls were perceived as diligent and hard-working while boys were perceived as being indifferent towards school and achievements. The implications of these results for students' self-belief and for teacher education are discussed.
  • Honkamäki, Jasmin; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Huhtala, Heini; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lindqvist, Ari; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Pallasaho, Paula; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Child-onset asthma is known to remit with high probability, but remission in adult-onset asthma is seem-ingly less frequent. Reports of the association between remission and asthma age of onset up to late adulthood are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between asthma remission, age at diagnosis and gender, and assess risk factors of nonremission. METHODS: In 2016, a random sample of 16,000 subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Helsinki and Western Finland were sent a FinEsS questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed asthma was catego-rized by age at diagnosis to early-(0-11 years), intermediate-(12-39 years), and late-diagnosed (40-69 years) asthma. Asthma remission was defined by not having had asthma symptoms and not having used asthma medication in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Totally, 8199 (51.5%) responded, and 879 reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Remission was most common in early-diagnosed (30.2%), followed by intermediate-diagnosed (17.9%), and least common in late-diagnosed asthma (5.0%) (P < .001), and the median times from diagnosis were 27, 18.5, and 10 years, respectively. In males, the corresponding remission rates were 36.7%, 20.0%, and 3.4%, and in females, 20.4%, 16.6%, and 5.9% (gender difference P < .001). In multivariable binary logistic regression analysis, signifi-cant risk factors of asthma nonremission were intermediate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.373.36) and late diagnosis (OR = 11.06, 4.82-25.37) compared with early diagnosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 5.56, 1.26-24.49), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.28, 1.50-3.46), and family history of asthma (OR = 1.86, 1.22-2.85). Results were similar after excluding COPD. CONCLUSION: Remission was rare in adults diagnosed with asthma after age 40 years in both genders. Late-diagnosed asthma was the most significant independent risk factor for nonremission. (C) 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
  • Castren, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2015)
    Background: Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. Methods: This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score >= 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Conclusions: Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and identification of ARPG among the underage are needed.
  • Holm, Marja Eliisa; Korhonen, Johan; Laine, Anu; Björn, Piia Maria; Hannula, Markku Sakari (2020)
    This study investigated the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) on mathematics-related achievement emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom) among adolescents (N = 1322) using multilevel modeling, controlling for the effects of gender and classroom size. The results indicated that only pride was influenced by the BFLPE. Hence, adolescents reported less pride in mathematically higher-performing classrooms (higher class average). The cross-level interaction effects indicated that the BFLPE varies across mathematics performance levels and gender. In mathematically higher-performing classrooms, adolescents with lower mathematics performance reported less pride and more shame, whereas adolescents with higher mathematics performance reported less enjoyment and more boredom. Additionally, males reported more shame in higher-performing classrooms. We discuss the practical implications of supporting achievement emotions in higher-performing classrooms.
  • Pascucci, Elisa (2022)
    The notion that "even health systems that are considered 'universal' restrict the access" of migrants (Chapter 1, p. 24) is the main takeaway from Borders across Healthcare, an important, well thought-out collection of nine essays Paris, CNRS, France). Published in 2020, the collection was arguably written and compiled before the Covid-19 pandemic. Yet, far from diminishing its relevance, the timing makes the book prescient and even more insightful.
  • Lyytikainen, Minna; Yadav, Punam (2022)
    This article explores a narrative of peacebuilding best practice: the national efforts to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Nepal. We demonstrate how the contested realities of post-conflict gender politics are skilfully transformed into internationally transferable policy knowledge. We argue that in order to construct a peacebuilding best practice, policy entrepreneurs draw on their social capital to make claims about policy as simultaneously local and context-specific as well as global and universally applicable. The credibility of the claims is based on the extent to which they can be presented to international policy audiences in formats suitable for their consumption.
  • Jyrkinen, Marjut; Väkiparta, Maria; Lämsä, Anna-Maija (2020)
    Purpose This paper focuses on how gendered processes of working life are (re)constructed and are also challenged discursively in paid and volunteer care and work in reception centers. The purpose of this paper is to show how caring work with asylum seekers can both enhance the traditional gender order and challenge it through enabling men to have opportunities to care. Design/methodology/approach The data were produced through qualitative interviews among paid workers and volunteers in reception centers, and analyzed through a discourse analysis approach. Findings Three discourses of care and work were identified: a discourse on solidarity and care; a discourse on control and order; and a discourse on caring men. The findings show that traditional attitudes toward gender are easily discerned in other cultures, but not as easily recognized in the everyday processes near at hand. Gender order is retained through traditional roles, which also reflects conventional attitudes in a society often seen as a model country for equality. However, change is possible, and one core issue is the need to involve men in care work and caring in general. Social implications - The findings can be applicable to the deconstruction of traditional gender order in working life; to the disclosure of gendered xenophobia in work with asylum seekers, in particular through dialogue with "Others"; and to the enabling of care by men. Originality/value Little previous research has been done on care in reception centers and care as a gendered activity with value. In the future many countries are likely to encounter increases in asylum seekers, and therefore, intersections of gender and ethnicity are of importance in societies as regards migration, work and care.
  • Alatupa, Saija; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Lipsanen, Jari; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2011)
  • Autio, Antti; Johansson, Tino; Motaroki, Lilian; Minoia, Paola; Pellikka, Petri (2021)
    CONTEXT: Climate uncertainty challenges the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Awareness of climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices and access to climate-smart technologies are key factors in determining the utilization of farm and land management practices that may simultaneously decrease greenhouse gas emissions, increase the adaptive capacity of farmers, and improve food security. OBJECTIVE: Understanding how biophysical and socio-economic constraints affect the adoption of CSA practices and technologies plays an essential role in policy and intervention planning. Our objective was to identify these constraints among smallholder farmers in Taita Taveta County of Southeast Kenya across varying agro-ecological zones. METHODS: We conducted a Climate-Smart Agriculture Rapid Appraisal that consisted of four mostly genderdisaggregated smallholder farmer workshops (102 participants), a household survey (65 participants), key informant interviews (16 informants), and four transect walks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a dissonance in the perceived awareness of CSA practices and utilization of CSA technologies between state actors and farmers. State actors emphasize lack of awareness as a barrier to adoption, while farmers express knowledgeability regarding environmental change and climate-smart practices but are confined by limitations and restrictions posed by e.g. market mechanisms, land tenure issues,and lack of resources. These restrictions include e.g. uncertainty in product prices, lack of land ownership, scarcity of arable land, and simply lack of capital or willingness to invest. Farmers are further challenged by the emergence of new pests and human-wildlife conflicts. Our research findings are based on the contextual settings of Taita Taveta County, but the results indicate that adopting CSA practices and utilizing technologies, especially in sub-Saharan regions that are heavily based on subsistence agriculture with heterogenous agro-ecological zones, require localized and gender-responsive solutions in policy formation and planning of both agricultural extension services and development interventions that take into account the agency of the farmers. SIGNIFICANCE: This study contributes to existing climate change adaptation research by increasing our un- derstanding of how physical and socio-economic constraints can affect the adoption of new farm and land management practices, and how CSA-based intervention strategies could be restructured by local stakeholders to be more inclusive.
  • Griffith, Evan F; Pius, Loupa; Manzano, Pablo; Jost, Christine C (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020)
    Abstract COVID-19 is a global pandemic that continues to spread around the world, including to Africa where cases are steadily increasing. The African Centres for Disease Control and Prevention is leading the pandemic response in Africa, with direction from the World Health Organization guidelines for critical preparedness, readiness, and response actions. These are written for national governments, lacking nuance for population and local differences. In the greater Horn of Africa, conditions unique to pastoralists such as inherent mobility and limited health and service infrastructure will influence the dynamics of COVID-19. In this paper, we present a One Health approach to the pandemic, consisting of interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration focused on the determinants of health and health outcomes amongst pastoralists. Our contextualized public health strategy includes community One Health teams and suggestions for where to implement targeted public health measures. We also analyse the interaction of COVID-19 impacts, including those caused directly by the disease and those that result from control efforts, with ongoing shocks and vulnerabilities in the region (e.g. desert locusts, livestock disease outbreaks, floods, conflict, and development displacement). We give recommendations on how to prepare for and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and its secondary impacts on pastoral areas. Given that the full impact of COVID-19 on pastoral areas is unknown currently, our health recommendations focus on disease prevention and understanding disease epidemiology. We emphasize targeting pastoral toponymies with public health measures to secure market access and mobility while combating the direct health impacts of COVID-19. A contextualized approach for the COVID-19 public health response in pastoral areas in the Greater Horn of Africa, including how the pandemic will interact with existing shocks and vulnerabilities, is required for an effective response, while protecting pastoral livelihoods and food, income, and nutrition security.
  • Griffith, Evan F.; Pius, Loupa; Manzano, Pablo; Jost, Christine C. (2020)
    COVID-19 is a global pandemic that continues to spread around the world, including to Africa where cases are steadily increasing. The African Centres for Disease Control and Prevention is leading the pandemic response in Africa, with direction from the World Health Organization guidelines for critical preparedness, readiness, and response actions. These are written for national governments, lacking nuance for population and local differences. In the greater Horn of Africa, conditions unique to pastoralists such as inherent mobility and limited health and service infrastructure will influence the dynamics of COVID-19. In this paper, we present a One Health approach to the pandemic, consisting of interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration focused on the determinants of health and health outcomes amongst pastoralists. Our contextualized public health strategy includes community One Health teams and suggestions for where to implement targeted public health measures. We also analyse the interaction of COVID-19 impacts, including those caused directly by the disease and those that result from control efforts, with ongoing shocks and vulnerabilities in the region (e.g. desert locusts, livestock disease outbreaks, floods, conflict, and development displacement). We give recommendations on how to prepare for and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and its secondary impacts on pastoral areas. Given that the full impact of COVID-19 on pastoral areas is unknown currently, our health recommendations focus on disease prevention and understanding disease epidemiology. We emphasize targeting pastoral toponymies with public health measures to secure market access and mobility while combating the direct health impacts of COVID-19. A contextualized approach for the COVID-19 public health response in pastoral areas in the Greater Horn of Africa, including how the pandemic will interact with existing shocks and vulnerabilities, is required for an effective response, while protecting pastoral livelihoods and food, income, and nutrition security.
  • Maharani, Cynthia; Moeliono, Moira; Wong, Grace Yee; Brockhaus, Maria; Carmenta, Rachel; Kallio, Maarit Helena (2019)
    Market-driven development is transforming swidden landscapes and having different impacts along intersections of gender, age and class. In Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Dayak communities practicing swidden agriculture are making choices on maintaining traditional land use systems, and engaging in rubber, oil palm and conservation (REDD + ) in their livelihood strategies. Although REDD + has been heralded as an alternative to oil palm as a sustainable development option, it is still far from full implementation. Meanwhile, oil palm has become a reality, with large scale plantations that offer job opportunities and produce new sources of prestige, but create contestations around traditional land use systems. We employ the gender asset agriculture project (GAAP) framework and apply an intersectional lens to highlight power relations underlying gendered differences in land, labor and social capital in this process of transformation. Our findings suggest that market interventions produce major changes for men and women, young and old, land cultivators and wage earners. This has created new opportunities for some and new risks for others, with those having power to access diverse types of knowledge, ranging from inheritance rights to market information and job opportunities, best able to exploit such opportunities.
  • Halko, Marja-Liisa; Lappalainen, Olli; Sääksvuori, Lauri (2021)
    We investigate the feasibility of inferring economic choices from simple biometric non-choice data. We employ a machine learning approach to assess whether biometric data acquired during sleep, naturally occurring daily chores and participation in an experi-ment can reveal preferences for competitive and team-based compensation schemes. We find that biometric data acquired using wearable devices enable equally accurate out-of-sample prediction for compensation-scheme choice as gender and performance. Our re-sults demonstrate the feasibility of inferring economic choices from simple biometric data without observing past decisions. However, we find that biometric data recorded in nat-urally occurring environments during daily chores and sleep add little value to out-of-sample predictions. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
  • Lindberg, Nina; Oshukova, Svetlana; Miettunen, Jouko; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2016)
    Background: More research is needed to improve our understanding of the manifestation of psychopathic traits in violently offending girls. Our aim here was to assess psychopathic traits and psychopathy-related background variables in a Finnish nationwide consecutive sample of girls charged with violent crimes and referred to a pretrial forensic psychiatric examination. These girls were then compared to their male counterparts. Methods: The forensic psychiatric examination statements of 15-to 17-year-old juveniles who underwent a pretrial forensic psychiatric examination over a 31-year period (1980-2010) were reviewed. For each non-psychotic girl with a normal IQ (n = 25), an age-and offence type-matched male control was randomly selected. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the forensic psychiatric examination reports, and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare psychopathy checklist-youth version. Results: Approximately every third girl exhibited high traits of psychopathy, and no significant difference was observed between the genders. Focusing on the underlying factor and item scores, the girls scored significantly lower than boys on the Antisocial factor. Their interpersonal relationships were significantly more unstable and they significantly more often exhibited a history of child sexual abuse. During the index offence the girls were significantly less frequently intoxicated, and their victims were significantly more often family members or current or ex-intimates but significantly less often strangers. Conclusions: Although violently offending girls and boys do not differ on psychopathy total scores, significant gender differences exist on underlying factor and item scores as well as in background-and offence-related variables. Interventions should take into account these special features of violent girls.
  • Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Espelt, Albert; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Costa, Giuseppe; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Gnavi, Roberto; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulhanova, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtarikova, Jitka; Mackenbach, Johan P.; EURO-GBD-SE Consortium (2015)
    To evaluate educational inequalities in diabetes mortality in Europe in the 2000s, and to assess whether these inequalities differ between genders. Data were obtained from mortality registries covering 14 European countries. To determine educational inequalities in diabetes mortality, age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated. To assess whether the association between education and diabetes mortality differs between genders, diabetes mortality was regressed on gender, educational rank and 'gender x educational rank'. An inverse association between education and diabetes mortality exists in both genders across Europe. Absolute educational inequalities are generally larger among men than women; relative inequalities are generally more pronounced among women, the relative index of inequality being 2.8 (95 % CI 2.0-3.9) in men versus 4.8 (95 % CI 3.2-7.2) in women. Gender inequalities in diabetes mortality are more marked in the highest than the lowest educated. Education and diabetes mortality are inversely related in Europe in the 2000s. This association differs by gender, indicating the need to take the socioeconomic and gender dimension into account when developing public health policies.