Browsing by Subject "Gene"

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  • Hermann, Florian M; Kjærgaard, Maya Friis; Tian, Chenglei; Tiemann, Ulf; Jackson, Abigail; Olsen, Lars Rønn; Kraft, Maria; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Elfving, Iina M; Kettunen, Jarno L. T.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Novak, Ivana; Semb, Henrik (2023)
    MODY3 is a monogenic hereditary form of diabetes caused by mutations in the transcription factor HNF1A. The patients progressively develop hyperglycemia due to perturbed insulin secretion, but the pathogenesis is unknown. Using patient-specific hiPSCs, we recapitulate the insulin secretion sensitivity to the membrane depolarizing agent sulfonylurea commonly observed in MODY3 patients. Unexpectedly, MODY3 patient-specific HNF1A+/R272C β cells hypersecrete insulin both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into mice. Consistently, we identified a trend of increased birth weight in human HNF1A mutation carriers compared with healthy siblings. Reduced expression of potassium channels, specifically the KATP channel, in MODY3 β cells, increased calcium signaling, and rescue of the insulin hypersecretion phenotype by pharmacological targeting ATP-sensitive potassium channels or low-voltage-activated calcium channels suggest that more efficient membrane depolarization underlies the hypersecretion of insulin in MODY3 β cells. Our findings identify a pathogenic mechanism leading to β cell failure in MODY3.
  • Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tomppo, Liisa; Lehto, Ulriika; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina; Hennah, William (2015)
    Pre- and perinatal environmental factors have been shown to increase schizophrenia risk particularly when combined with genetic liability. The investigation of specific gene environment interactions in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has gained momentum. We used multivariate GEE regression modeling to investigate the interaction between genes of the DISCI pathway and birth weight, in relation to schizophrenia susceptibility in a Finnish schizophrenia family cohort. The study sample consisted of 457 subjects with both genotype and birth weight information. Gender and place of birth were adjusted for in the models. We found a significant interaction between birth weight and two NDE1 markers in relation to increased schizophrenia risk: a four SNP haplotype spanning NDE1 (b = 1.26, SE= 0.5, p = 0.012) and one of its constituent SNPs rs4781678 (b = 1.33, SE = 0.51, p = 0.010). Specifically, high birth weight (> 4000 g) was associated with increased schizophrenia risk among subjects homozygous for the previously identified risk alleles. The study was based on a family study sample with high genetic loading for schizophrenia and thus our findings cannot directly be generalized as representing the general population. Our results suggest that the functions mediated by NDE1 during the early stages of neurodevelopment are susceptible to the additional disruptive effects of pre- and perinatal environmental factors associated with high birth weight, augmenting schizophrenia susceptibility. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Wedenoja, Satu; Saarikivi, Aki; Mälkönen, Jani; Leskinen, Saara; Lehto, Markku; Adeshara, Krishna; Tuokkola, Jetta; Nikkonen, Anne; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Höyhtyä, Miikka; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Haaramo, Anu; Salonen, Anne; de Vos, Willem M.; Korpela, Katri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2022)
    Background and aimsSubjects with congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; a defect in solute carrier family 26 member 3 (SLC26A3)) are prone to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated fecal microbiota in CLD and CLD-associated IBD. We also tested whether microbiota is modulated by supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate.Subjects and methodsWe recruited 30 patients with CLD for an observational 3-week follow-up study. Thereafter, 16 consented to oral butyrate substitution for a 3-week observational period. Fecal samples, collected once a week, were assayed for calprotectin and potential markers of inflammation, and studied by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing and compared to that of 19 healthy controls and 43 controls with Crohn's disease. Data on intestinal symptoms, diet and quality of life were collected.ResultsPatients with CLD had increased abundances of Proteobacteria, Veillonella, and Prevotella, and lower abundances of normally dominant taxa Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae when compared with healthy controls and Crohn's disease. No major differences in fecal microbiota were found between CLD and CLD-associated IBD (including two with yet untreated IBD). Butyrate was poorly tolerated and showed no major effects on fecal microbiota or biomarkers in CLD.ConclusionsFecal microbiota in CLD is different from that of healthy subjects or Crohn's disease. Unexpectedly, no changes in the microbiota or fecal markers characterized CLD-associated IBD, an entity with high frequency among patients with CLD.
  • Kasatkina, Ludmila A.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V. (2022)
    Modern biology is increasingly reliant on optical technologies, including visualization and longitudinal monitoring of cellular processes. The major limitation here is the availability of animal models to track the molecules and cells in their natural environment in vivo. Owing to the integrity of the studied tissue and the high stability of transgene expression throughout life, transgenic mice encoding fluorescent proteins and biosensors represent unique tools for in vivo studies in norm and pathology. We review the strategies for targeting probe expression in specific tissues, cell subtypes, or cellular compartments. We describe the application of transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins for tracking protein expression patterns, apoptotic events, tissue differentiation and regeneration, neurogenesis, tumorigenesis, and cell fate mapping. We overview the possibilities of functional imaging of secondary messengers, neurotransmitters, and ion fluxes. Finally, we provide the rationale and perspectives for the use of transgenic imaging probes in translational research and drug discovery.
  • Yoshihara, Masahito; Kirjanov, Ida; Nykänen, Sonja; Sokka, Joonas; Weltner, Jere; Lundin, Karolina; Gawriyski, Lisa; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Varjosalo, Markku; Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Otonkoski, Timo; Trokovic, Ras; Katayama, Shintaro; Vuoristo, Sanna; Kere, Juha (2022)
    Embryonic genome activation (EGA) is critical for embryonic development. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of human EGA is still incomplete. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an established model for studying developmental processes, but they resemble epiblast and are sub-optimal for modeling EGA. DUX4 regulates human EGA by inducing cleavage-stage-specific genes, while it also induces cell death. We report here that a short-pulsed expression of DUX4 in primed hESCs activates an EGA-like gene expression program in up to 17% of the cells, retaining cell viability. These DUX4-induced cells resembled eight-cell stage blastomeres and were named induced blastomere-like (iBM) cells. The iBM cells showed marked reduction of POU5F1 protein, as previously observed in mouse two-cell-like cells. Finally, the iBM cells were successfully enriched using an antibody against NaPi2b (SLC34A2), which is expressed in human blastomeres. The iBM cells provide an improved model system to study human EGA transcriptome.