Browsing by Subject "General and Adult Education"

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  • Averin, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to explore dimensions of worker-citizenship in apprenticeship training. Also, the aim was to study which kind of positions there are for young apprenticeship students within apprenticeship training through the perspectives of apprenticeship experts. Basis for this study is post-structuralist research and I approach apprenticeship training as a discursive practice. Previous research has shown that there is a strong worker-citizenship ethos which connects to neoliberalism in vocational education. Worker-citizenship in apprenticeship training has not been studied before in Finland. Overall, there has been little research about apprenticeship training in Finland and especially critical studies are missing. The data was collected via six individual interviews that were conducted in spring 2020. The interviewees were six apprenticeship experts, and the data was analyzed using discursive reading method. The results of my study give some insight to apprenticeship training practices and the youths` position in apprenticeship. Based on my analysis worker-citizenship discourse is upheld within apprenticeship training. Apprenticeship experts argued the benefits and disadvantages of apprenticeship through dimensions linked to worker-citizenship. In addition, the positions of young apprenticeship students were defined from worker-citizenship. This appears in a sense that young students are guided to a position of self-responsible and active yet self-aware of their deficits. Along with the ideal subject an opposite was defined which was seen for example as a “reader type”.
  • Tuominen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective of the study Work stress affects teachers mental and physical well-being, increases costs and sick leave, and affects work productivity. Prolonged, intense stress is associated with lower job satisfaction. The decline of teachers´ well-being also has a negative effect on students' learning. Recovery from work is important for health, ability to work and the teacher's own well-being. In today's working life, the time left for recovery has decreased and the individual must take more and more care of his or her own well-being and recovery. Successful recovery effectively prevents work demands from developing into stressors. The aim of this study was to find out which elements of work polytechnic teachers find stressful in their work, what effects they perceive as work stress, what means of recovery they have at their disposal and what things may prevent success of recovery. Methods The 22 interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, in which they report on their own well-being, stress experiences and recovery from work as part of a broader thematic interview. The interview material has been collected since the end of 2019. Results and conclusions Polytechnic teachers perceive excessive workload, uneven workload and hurry as the most stressful elements in their own work. An examination of the effects of stress experiences showed that teachers perceive that work stress affects them above all mentally. Of the physical effects, sleep-related problems in particular were reflected in teachers' coping. An examination of the means of recovery showed that polytechnic teachers consider hobbies and social relationships to be the most important means of recovery. Most polytechnic teachers experience challenges in recovering from work. The majority of teachers feel that recovery is not enough or is only seasonal. Haste and too much work proved to be the biggest obstacles to recovery not always succeeding.
  • Palomäki, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Global education deals with wide-ranging and complex global phenomena. In this dissertation, the theory of global education is examined primarily from a postcolonial perspective. Although global education is a cross-cutting theme in Finnish primary education, its implementation varies in schools as well as in teacher education. The dissertation examines the views of teacher educators, especially about the aims of critical global education and the challenges and opportunities of its implementation in teacher education. The research material acquired on the principles of action research consisted of group discussions of a workshop on critical global education for teacher educators, text material related to the workshop, and registration and feedback forms. The workshop was based in part on a discussion method which utilizes critical literacy issues. The workshop was organized in co-operation with global education organisation Taksvärkki ry and was attended by five (5) teacher educators from three Finnish universities. Most of the participating teacher educators had previous knowledge about the themes of global education. The material was analysed by inductive content analysis. In the speech of teacher educators, global education appeared as a starting point for education and teacher training. However, the discussions highlighted various tensions, for example in relation to the value base of global education, the nature of change and action. In teacher education, opportunities to address broad and complex themes were presented through, for example, dialogue, criticality and changing of perspectives, experiential learning, student encounters, and extensive collaboration. Challenges to the implementation of global education included a solid division of subjects, the ambiguity of global education, efficiency and lack of time, broad learning objectives, and formal learning environments. On the other hand, the introduction of critical thinking through subject didactics, a holistic approach to all teaching and the strengthening of the role of the educator in teacher education were also mentioned as examples. It is important to discuss global education and its goals both inside and outside teacher education and to co-operate in the wide-ranging implementation of global education.
  • Raessalo, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In 2020, the government of Juha Sipilä implemented a reform in higher education. The meaning of the reform was to bring forward the starting of university studies as well as remove the need to participate in preparatory courses. The ideals of the competitive society were influencing in the backround of the reform. Instead of disappearing, the preparatory course markets will presumably transform into courses offered for even younger students at earlier stage, thus causing extra pressure to younger students. The aim of this thesis was to study high school seniors who applied to universities under the new reform. The aim was to examine how the competitive ethos affected their transition as well as how they reasoned the need to participate in preparatory courses as a part of the transition. This topic has not been researched before in this research frame, however similar studies have been conducted of students participating in preparatory courses. Former studies show that preparatory courses are perceived as a normal part of transitioning from secondary education to tertiary education. Studies also show that successful transition seems to require entrepreneurial characteristics. The research data was collected in the winter of 2020 through semi-structured interviews. Altogether five senior students, who participated in preparatory courses in Helsinki Summer University, were interviewed. The data was analysed with discourse analysis. The competitive ethos affected the transitioning strongly. The impact is evident in the notion of entrepreneurial self as well as in emphasizing the instrumental value of education. The preparatory courses give important support in the application to universities thus it’s viewed as a natural part of the transition. As a conclusion, the preparatory course market will not disappear, only transform into courses offered for even younger students. As a result of the reform, students are required to act as an entrepreneurial self in order to secure a successful transition.
  • Wiitasalo, Magdalena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Proficiency in English is necessary for university students to graduate and it is also useful in their future. Previous research has shown that students experience a wide range of emotions that can have an impact on their academic performance. Emotions and cognition are strongly connected and therefore can have an effect on academic performance. The aim of this Master’s Thesis was to study the variety of academic emotions and find out whether the type of the course influences them. In autumn 2020 students from several faculties at the University of Helsinki took part in this study. The data was collected through a questionnaire that measures academic emotions. A total of 76 students answered the questionnaire. The research material consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS software. The analyzes included an exploratory factor analysis that yielded six sum variables to describe the academic emotions experienced by students. Open-ended responses were analyzed using data-driven content analysis. The six sum variables describing emotions were named irritability, boredom, teacher support, dissatisfaction, enjoyment, and hope. University students experienced boredom and irritation the least, and support from the teacher and hope the strongest. When comparing Alms and lecture course participants, there was more variation in the boredom sum variable among lecture course participants. However, there were no statistical differences between the two groups. Open-ended answers showed more negative emotions, such as fear and anxiety. Based on the results of this study, academic emotions should be taken into consideration when teaching, for instance by supporting students’ positive emotions. The teacher can play an important role by providing support and encouragement. Understanding academic emotions may also benefit students, as it can affect academic achievements.
  • Kotiranta, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this case study was to research the path to employment from graduating from vocational studies to employment of young people with special and demanding special needs. The aim was also to find out how important the vocational education was to the young people researched in this study from their own perspective. The factors that could be conducive to the employment of the young people with special needs were also studied by interviewing four professionals that were attached to the young people in this research. Previous studies have shown that workplace learning is significant when it comes to the employment of young people with special needs in vocational education. It has also been addressed that young people in general are more interested in entrepreneurship than before. Most of the young people also think the future is in their own hands. Previous studies have also shown that employers think financial support is a good way to foster the employment of the young people with special needs. Four young people that were employed during vocational education or after graduation took part in this research. One of them had participated in vocational education for special needs and three for demanding special needs. In addition, four professionals that were connected to the employment of the young people in this study were interviewed. The professionals consisted of two employers, one work coach and one responsible teacher. All in all, eight persons were interviewed in this study. The study was carried out in a project called Tulevaisuuden Työelämän Starat which was financed by social fund of the European Union. The material consists of eight half-structured theme interviews. In addition, some backround information have been collected from a questionnaire that the young people filled as they were graduating from vocational education. The results of this research show that workplace learning has significance for the employment of young people with special needs. At the same time, the need of special education does not necessarily stand out in working life. The young people in this study feel confident about the future being in their own hands and they worry about general subjects regarding to their future such as accidents or being exhausted from work. Two of the young people that were interviewed in this study were interested in entrepreneurship in the future.
  • Järvinen, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Teacher burnout has negative consequences on an individual, transactional and organizational levels between teachers and pupils. Compared to other fields, the educational field experiences higher levels of burnout. Previous studies indicate that burnout is connected to turnover, withdrawal, pupils’ motivation, and problems in the working community in addition to the individual’s health. The burnout symptoms have been found to differ in gender, career phase, academic level, socio- economic level of the neighborhood and organization size. Previous research has found that burnout crossover happens from an individual to another across the teacher community. The buffering and exposing attributes concerning the crossover of teacher burnout have been studied rather little. The aim of this research is to discover which individual, transactional and organizational attributes could potentially buffer or expose to the crossover of burnout. Research data was gathered as a part of a wider, national research project called School Matters by the members of the Learning and Development in School research group (Pietarinen, Pyhältö & Soini, 2017). The participants were selected from six different areas. Altogether 1531 teachers from primary, secondary and combined schools completed the questionnaire. The teachers were divided into groups based on their gender, academic level, the level of socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood, career phase and school size. Individual, transactional and organizational factors’ connection to the burnout symptoms were examined through correlations, t-test and One-way analysis of variance. Results indicate that on average the teachers are doing quite well and experience quite moderate levels of burnout. Even so, quite many of them reported higher and lower levels of the symptoms. The symptoms correlate positively with each other. Based on the research findings it can be suggested that individual attributes, including male gender and higher number of years in the profession, buffer from the crossover of burnout. In addition, the higher socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood – a transactional attribute – and smaller school size – an organizational attribute – also act as buffers. On the other hand, exposing attributes include the female gender, less years in the profession, lower socio-economic status of the school neighborhood and large school size. The result may be generalized to the Finnish teaching community as a whole because the research population was large and the geographical distribution of the population was comprehensive.
  • Mäkelä, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this thesis is to desribe what potrays to be a ’’problem’’ in the political documents of European union which regulate the lifelong learning. The study also focused on the matter how the lifelong learning is used as a technology of government and produces idea of ”normal” through political discourses. What kind of ideal or normality it constructs and how the lifelong learning subjectifies the individual? In the end of the thesis the presumptions and silences which has been left unproblematized or unquestioned in the political documents of the lifelong learning are raised. The research material was collected from EUR-lex, the official database of the juridical documents of European Union. The material consists of six notable documents related to lifelong learning of European Union from the years of 2005-2020. The material was analyzed using Carol Bacchi’s method “What’s problem represented to be (WPR)?”. The concepts of Foucault’s governmentality and discourse theoretical ideas based on post-structuralism has been utilized in this research in the context of lifelong learning. The results of this research showed that the starting point of lifelong learning is based on the discourses of economy, competitiveness and growth. Lifelong learning was seen foremost as the solution to the competitiveness and growth as well as to the constant change of the society and to the questions of social involvement. Ideal lifelong learner was constructed to be more entrepreneurial using competence talk. In addition, the lifelong learning was portrayed to be the responsibility and obligation of the individual more than before.
  • Seitamaa, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. In the context of rapid digitalization and the need to develop students’ 21st century skills, acquiring a growth mindset is essential. A person with a growth mindset believes that, for example, intelligence and creativity are malleable and develop through persistent practice. The purpose of this investigation was to first, explore Finnish 7th grade students’ mindsets related to intelligence and giftedness. Secondly, this study investigated students’ mindsets relation to academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, as well as students’ educational aspirations. Thirdly, this investigation examined how the mindsets are related to students’ sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. Finally, findings of a mindset intervention conducted in a Finnish educational context, which targeted mindsets in intelligence, giftedness and creativity, are reported. Method. Data for Study A was collected with a questionnaire, which was answered by 1059 7th grade students in Helsinki. The questionnaire assessed students’ intelligence and giftedness mindsets, educational aspirations, sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. A TwoStep cluster analysis was used to locate natural intelligence and giftedness mindset groups from the data. Next, two-way ANOVA’s were utilized: identified mindset groups and gender were independent variables and academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, educational aspirations, as well as sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices were dependent variables. In Study B 21 students answered a questionnaire on intelligence, giftedness and creativity mindsets before and after the intervention. Differences between pre- and post-test were analyzed using a paired samples t-test. Results and significance. The results indicated that 7th graders had a strong growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness, yet groups of fixed, mixed and growth mindsets were found. Moreover, a growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness was positively related to students’ academic achievement in both mathematics and mother tongue as well as their educational aspirations. Further, a fixed mindset in giftedness indicated higher technical sociodigital competence beliefs. Similarly, students with a fixed mindset in both intelligence and giftedness perceived there to be more sociodigital school practices. Study B found that only students’ creativity-related mindsets changed significantly. The investigation proposes that schools should more strongly support students’ growth mindsets and their creative and academic sociodigital competences as they are a relevant part of the 21st century skills.
  • Rissanen, Nenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine how HR professionals working in private employment sector view and experience their own expertise. Expertise is a phenomena that can be interpreted in many ways and it has been studied a lot from different perspectives. In this study the focus was on professional expertise and on experience of having expertise. My research question was: What kind of perceptions HR professionals have of their own expertise? With this research question I wanted to find out how the HR professionals view their own expertise, what are the main elements of it and what kind things and experiences affect the development of their expertise. This research was a qualitative case study. The research data was collected by interviewing eight HR professionals working for a private employment company WorkPower Oy. I used thematic interviews as a data collecting method. The research data was analysed with a phenomenographic analysis. The phenomenographic analysis focuses on individuals’ perceptions and experiences on certain phenomena. The results of this study show that the expertise of the HR professionals consists of many different elements. Wide enough knowledge, capacity to act, social skills and ability to reflect one’s actions and know-how are key elements of HR professionals’ expertise. Also the ability to find the right words in different situations is vital, since the work in human resources is mainly based on interaction with different people. In addition, this study showed that constant learning and development of one’s skills and knowledge is also important to the expertise of HR professionals. There are several different challenges to the development of expertise, such as a busy working schedule, constant changes in one’s daily work and insufficient support. According to this study, practical experience and work-based learning are crucial for the development of expertise for the HR professionals working in private employment sector.
  • Niskanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies indicate that a background in elite sports is seen as a positive experience in recruitment. However, concurrently many elite athletes feel that finding the first job after a sports career is both challenging and time-consuming. Studies addressing generic skills have shown that skills especially valued in work-life in today`s society are good co-operative skills, goal orientation, persistence, and commitment. Studies made in the field of elite sports show that these skills are found and highlighted precisely among employees who have an elite sports background. The purpose of this study is to examine recruiters’ viewpoints on how they find a job applicant’s experience in elite sports and what type of generic skills they associate with elite athletes. Moreover, the purpose is to clarify how recruiters feel that their own background influences their perspective as recruiters. There were eight recruitment consultants from an international company in the recruitment industry participating in the study. The study used qualitative research method and the data was collected using semi-structured theme interviews and analysed using a theory-based content analysis. The analysis was guided by the data as well as the hypothesis formed based on Mustonen (2016) whereby a sports background of a recruiter is felt to have an influence when recruiting elite athletes. Theoretical background was also conducted by previous research on present-day generic skills and elite athletes’ transition from sports into working life. Recruiters who are former athletes felt that they understand the demands and sacrifices of elite sports and value the skills gained through sports. Recruiters that did not have a sports background comprehended elite sports more often as a hobby or as an experience similar to collective activities, whereas recruiters with sports background saw elite sports as work experience. The recruiters had rather similar views on elite athletes’ generic skills, which highlighted good interpersonal skills, co-operative skills, commitment, and goal orientation, as in the earlier research. The study showed that elite sports experience is seen in varying ways depending on the recruiter, and it articulated the importance of the ability of job applicants with elite sports background to verbalize their generic skills during a recruitment process.
  • Nyman, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective of the study. The goal of the Finnish government is to solve all kinds of problems related to complex phenomena that occur in our society. These phenomena should be approached in a holistic manner. There’s a long history in the structure and procedures of the Finnish government but they don’t often match with the challenges that our global information society has brought us. This requires phenomenal-based working. The focus of this study is to clarify what kind of perceptions Finnish public officers have about phenomenal-based working. The aim of this study is also to find out which factors increase and decrease phenomenal-based working from the viewpoint of public officers. Methods. Nine public officers participated in this study. 7 public officers had a position in a Finnish department whereas 2 participants worked for a bureau or a public institution. The data was collected by interviewing the participants. After collecting the interview data, it was qualitatively content analysed using both inductive and abductive analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on the results of this study, the perceptions of the public officers of phenomenal-based working highlighted the structures and control mechanisms used in the government such as budget and government programme. Megatrends, systemic apprehension, collaboration with different public organizations and the ability to look at things from different perspectives were also emphasized in the perceptions of the intervieews. The public officers saw that cooperative projects across the government, work rotation, experimental culture, diverse expertise, network management, participatory collaboration and agile processes played a big role in phenomenal-based working. The communication and facilitation skills were appreciated in the government. Hidden agendas and the competition between the public organizations were rooted deeply in the culture of the Finnish government. The aforementioned factors made the collaboration of the organizations difficult in different domains.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Another aim was to examine the interaction effect of social engagement and introversion on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout. The purpose of this was to understand how introverts with higher social engagement perform in terms of their self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout in comparison to introverts with lower social engagement. The theory of this study focused on social engagement, which has been suggested the fourth dimension of school engagement. Social interactions help students’ learning, and enhance critical thinking and problem solving. Introversion was selected for this study as introverts are usually stereotypically seen as unsocial and unwilling to work with other people. The data for this study were collected through questionnaires of the Mind the Gap Research Group of the University of Helsinki in 2013–2016. Sample size was 862 students. The analytical methods were confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical multiple regression. The results indicated that a two-factor model best fit the social engagement scale. These two dimensions were named the social engagement approach and social engagement avoidance. When examining self-esteem, the interactions between the social engagement approach and introversion were significant. This suggests that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Interaction terms for the social engagement approach and social engagement in terms of schoolwork engagement and burnout were not found.
  • Kautonen-Jusslin, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background and objectives. The aim of this study was to clarify the usage of the concept of continuous learning. Another aim was to understand what conditions or expectations were set for continuous learning in different settings. These questions were examined by reviewing scientific research and reviews to identify themes in which the concept of continuous learning was used. Continuous learning is in the centre of Finnish government programme with expectation to correspond to the needs of changing working life and to enable longer careers for individuals. Corporates are also leaning on continuous learning to minimize business risk and enhance profitability by offering training or job rotation for employees. Bonding the concept of continuous learning to specific models or targets creates a contradiction to fundamentals of learning which is continuous regardless of context. Based on this setting the concept of continuous learning is reviewed from the angles of lifelong learning, political aspiration, and financial interests, for example the enhancement or change of working life. Methods. This research was conducted as a systematic literature review. This method was recognized to be the most informative when investigating the usage of the concept of continuous learning as previous meta-analysis brings out the different angles and context in which the concept was used. Data was collected from three databases and sixteen articles or reviews were included in this research. Results and conclusions. The concept of continuous learning was connected to theoretical framework of this study which included lifelong learning, political discussion, and financial interests. Especially remarks considering working life and its demands stood out from the data. These were tightly connected with political and financial interests from individual as well as societal perspectives. Continuous learning can be viewed a necessity to prosper in working life and life in general. This perception narrows down the fundamental meaning of learning as a continuous process.
  • Hellsten, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to find out views about future of leadership in school and early childhood education (ECE) from persons who work at the moment as leaders in this field. Although school and ECE are different fields, they are very similar to each other when it comes to leadership. Leaders’ work is diverse from pedagogical leadership to personnel and financial leadership including also simple office routines. In this study I wanted to show the similarity of these two fields with regard to leadership because in earlier studies these fields are separated from each other. The topic of this study is relevant because there are already challenges to find competent professionals in the leadership positions in school and ECE fields. Additionally the leadership practices are not up to date in the changing environment. It is necessary to develop the leadership practices and training in the education field so that it can be functional in the future. The material in this study is a part of the material collected in the needs of Edu Leaders -project. The aim of Edu Leaders -project is to produce advanced studies for professionals who work in leadership positions in education. The material used in this study consist of nine group interviews in which attended all together 29 professionals who work in leadership positions in education field. Analysis was performed by using thematic analysis. This is a case study where generalizability is not the aim. This study showed that by the views of these leaders, leaders in education field will need interaction skills and self-management skills in the future. It also showed that divers models of distributed leadership are needed in the future. The results showed that training and education for those who already work as leaders and for those who are going to work as leaders in education field should be developed so that the training is suitable for the changes of the working environment and field. According to this study the future challenges are increasing workload of leaders resulting exhaustion and the challenge of training and finding competent professionals.
  • Hussi, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective of the study. Transition from studies to work can be considered as an important process in human life and it has impact on personal well-being. Study and work engagement, which are affected by individual, collective, and situational factors, have been shown to have positive effects. In this study, study and work engagement is defined as a long-term and fulfilling positive experience which is shown as vigour, dedication, and absorption. More detailed studies of engagement in the transition from higher education to work is missing from generalized fields. Aim of this study is to examine meaningful experiences of the study and work engagement in the transition from university to work with master students and Masters of Educational Science. Aim of the study is also to examine the objects in the interviewees’ studies and work of engagement. Methods. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews collected in total from 20 participants. Critical incident -technique was applied in the interviews. 9 of the interviewees were students of educational sciences and 11 of them were Masters of Educational Science. All of them were working. The data were qualitatively analysed by abductive content analysis. Results and conclusions. The meaningful experiences in the studies and work were similar in both groups. The meaningful experiences of the interviewed students were related to the beginning of the studies, courses and events, internships, the first work in related field, present situation, and future. The interviewed masters’ meaningful experiences lacked experiences of pedagogical studies. Also, instead of challenges in studies and work the interviewees described challenges which affected on studying and working, and other challenges. The objects of the interviewees’ meaningful experiences were mainly the studies and work or matters followed by those.
  • Kinos-Järvinen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The research task of this Master's thesis is to describe, analyze and interpret how the principals of Finnish elementary schools and high schools experience their workload and their job satisfaction. These are examined by the workload and resource factors of principal’s job. In addition, the ways of how the workload appears and ways of recovery are discussed. The thesis is a qualitative pilot study for a broader welfare research conducted by the Finnish Principals Association, which will be implemented during 2019. Previous studies on the work of a Finnish principal have shown that his job description is extensive, that the workload is high and job satisfaction is put to the test every day. This research was guided by the following research questions: How do principals experience their workload and work satisfaction? What are the factors that the principals feel stressing them on their work and how does the workload show? What do the principals feel are resource factors in their work and how and by what means do they recover? The material consists of interviews with sixteen Finnish principals of elementary schools and high schools. The interviews were conducted as a semi-structured theme interview. The interview questions related to the principal’s own experience of their job satisfaction, workload, the ways in which the workload appears, their experience of the resources of their work, and how they feel they success to recover, and how do they recover. The material was analyzed phenomenographically because the subject of the research were the subjective perceptions and experiences of the principals. According to the material, the Finnish principals are very satisfied with their work, despite its relatively high workload. The experience of satisfaction arises especially through the independence, significance and influence of the work. The principal's experience and attitude also seemed to be relevant to how the workload was experienced. Generally, the workload was described high and the load was described to appear as typical stress-induced warning signs, but the principals, however, judged the workload as being reasonable. The workload was considered to be a natural part of the principal's work and the respondents tended to have a constructive attitude towards it. The principals also reported that their own recovery was generally successful, which according to respondents was of great importance to coping with work.
  • Lipponen, Elsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of my Master’s Thesis was to find out what kind of tasks were set for education in the 2019 parliamentary election programs. For years, researchers in the United States and Europe have studied the educationalization of social problems, which refers to the tendency to look to educational institutions in resolving the pressing social problems. In Finland, this phenomenon has rarely been studied under its own concept. Previous studies on the change in educational policy towards more individual-centered and market-oriented thinking suggested that educationalization also takes place in the Finnish context as well. In my research, I try to find out the kind of tasks political parties assign to education in their election programs and how they present the educationalization of social problems. The aim of my research is to create a picture of the most common tasks to be set for the education in the spring 2019 parliamentary election programs and to analyze the educationalization associated with the programs. The material of my research is the election programs of the parties elected to Parliament in the 2019 parliamentary elections. In my study, I relied on a frame analysis, which I use to structure the most common tasks and ideals set for education. After compiling the frames, I analyze each frame based on previous research. In my analysis, I seek to highlight the educationalization that appears in the election programs. The tasks given by the parties were very much in line with each other. The results showed a clear educationalization, which identified various complex societal problems as the responsibility for education, without specifying in more detail how education could actually solve the problem. More extensive research on educationalization is needed in the Finnish context, for example, to find out whether the resources given to education are in line with the increased number of tasks.
  • Parman, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Based on previous studies, neoliberal features have been observed in Finnish education policy. The government has made education-related reforms in recent years. My research examines the recent public debate surrounding education reforms in a neoliberal framework. I examine what themes, goals, rationales, and attitudes toward education reform are given in the public debate. I will try to find out how neoliberalism manifests itself in these debates. The aim of my dissertation is to bring out the public debate around education reforms and education policy. The study of the debate is intended to bring out different perspectives and voices, from education policy experts, academics, students, and individual citizens. I examine the manifestations of neoliberal education policy in the light of these debates. My research is a qualitative study. I search answers to two research questions. My data consists of articles. As a research method, I used content analysis. The data of my research consists of 51 articles by Helsingin Sanomat published in 2015–2019. Articles were analyzed by content analysis. Through content analysis, I found four different themes. I looked at the results in a neoliberal framework. The education reform debate revolved around student selection, industry changers, education cuts, and education policy. The debate around education reforms was controversial. On the one hand, education reforms were justified as profitable and good ideas, but on the other hand, they were criticized and questioned. Educational reforms raised concerns and appeared to pose threats to education and the scientific community, as well as to society. Based on the discussion, neoliberal features emerge in education reforms.
  • Kuronen, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The aim of this research was to address the possible connections between school choice and school segregation. The study covered three countries that were Finland, Sweden and England. The theoretical background of this research was based on the most relevant concepts for this research. These concepts were neoliberalism, New Public Management, school choice, educational markets and segregation. Method. I conducted this research as a systematic literature review which means that the data consisted of other researches. The collection of the material was conducted systematically from three different databases. The final material consists of 17 articles, 7 of them from Sweden and 5 from Finland and 5 from England. After the search I analysed all the articles from the point of my research question. From those results I formed a synthesis about each country. Results and conclusion. According to the results there were segregation between schools and in many cases, it was the result of school choice. In some cases, school segregation was explained to be the cause of residential segregation and the cause of residential segregation and school choice combined. In Finland and Sweden school choice explained school segregation more often than it did in England.