Browsing by Subject "Genome"

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  • Mgbeahuruike, Anthony C.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Nelson, David R.; Yadav, Jagjit S. (2017)
    The molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of the pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum s.l., the conifer tree and the biocontrol fungus, Phlebiopsis gigantea have not been fully elucidated. Members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) protein family may contribute to the detoxification of components of chemical defence of conifer trees by H. annosum during infection. Additionally, they may also be involved in the interaction between H. annosum and P. gigantea. A genome-wide analysis of CYPs in Heterobasidion irregulare was carried out alongside gene expression studies. According to the Standardized CYP Nomenclature criteria, the H. irregulare genome has 121 CYP genes and 17 CYP pseudogenes classified into 11 clans, 35 families, and 64 subfamilies. Tandem CYP arrays originating from gene duplications and belonging to the same family and subfamily were found. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the families of H. irregulare CYPs were monophyletic groups except for the family CYP5144. Microarray analysis revealed the transcriptional pattern for 130 transcripts of CYP-encoding genes during growth on culture filtrate produced by P. gigantea. The high level of P450 gene diversity identified in this study could result from extensive gene duplications presumably caused by the high metabolic demands of H. irregulare in its ecological niches. (C) 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Whitman, William B.; Lindström, Kristina (2017)
    Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26(T) of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G + C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26(T) contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) plasmids, suggesting that HBR26(T) may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26(T), the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26(T) is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42(T)) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26(T) share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96-100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by phylogenetic analyses of combined sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and glnII. The closest reference type strains for HBR26(T) were R. etli CFN42(T) (94% similarity of the combined recA and glnII sequences) and Rhizobium bangladeshense BLR175(T) (93%). Genomic ANI calculation based on protein-coding genes also revealed that the closest reference strains were R. bangladeshense BLR175(T) and R. etli CFN42(T) with ANI values 91.8 and 90.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, the ANI values between HBR26(T) and BLR175(T) or CFN42(T) are far lower than the cutoff value of ANI (> = 96%) between strains in the same species, confirming that HBR26(T) belongs to a novel species. Thus, on the basis of phylogenetic, comparative genomic analyses and ANI results, we formally propose the creation of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. with strain HBR26(T) (= HAMBI 3550(T)= LMG 29711(T)) as the type strain. The genome assembly and annotation data is deposited in the DOE JGI portal and also available at European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers FMAJ01000001-FMAJ01000062.
  • Aserse, Aregu A; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Whitman, William B; Lindström, Kristina (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26T of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G + C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26T contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42T plasmids, suggesting that HBR26T may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26T, the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26T is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42T) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26T share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96–100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by phylogenetic analyses of combined sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and glnII. The closest reference type strains for HBR26T were R. etli CFN42T (94% similarity of the combined recA and glnII sequences) and Rhizobium bangladeshense BLR175T (93%). Genomic ANI calculation based on protein-coding genes also revealed that the closest reference strains were R. bangladeshense BLR175T and R. etli CFN42T with ANI values 91.8 and 90.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, the ANI values between HBR26T and BLR175T or CFN42T are far lower than the cutoff value of ANI (> = 96%) between strains in the same species, confirming that HBR26T belongs to a novel species. Thus, on the basis of phylogenetic, comparative genomic analyses and ANI results, we formally propose the creation of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. with strain HBR26T (=HAMBI 3550T=LMG 29711T) as the type strain. The genome assembly and annotation data is deposited in the DOE JGI portal and also available at European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers FMAJ01000001-FMAJ01000062.
  • Dhaygude, Kishor Uttam; Johansson, Helena; Kulmuni, Jonna Katharina; Sundström, Liselotte (2019)
    We present the genome organization and molecular characterization of the three Formica exsecta viruses, along with ORF predictions, and functional annotation of genes. The Formica exsecta virus-4 (FeV4; GenBank ID: MF287670) is a newly discovered negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus representing the first identified member of order Mononegavirales in ants, whereas the Formica exsecta virus-1 (FeV1; GenBank ID: KF500001), and the Formica exsecta virus-2 (FeV2; GenBank ID: KF500002) are positive single-stranded RNA viruses initially identified (but not characterized) in our earlier study. The new virus FeV4 was found by re-analyzing data from a study published earlier. The Formica exsecta virus-4 genome is 9,866 bp in size, with an overall G + C content of 44.92%, and containing five predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Our bioinformatics analysis indicates that gaps are absent and the ORFs are complete, which based on our comparative genomics analysis suggests that the genomes are complete. Following the characterization, we validate virus infection for FeV1, FeV2 and FeV4 for the first time in field-collected worker ants. Some colonies were infected by multiple viruses, and the viruses were observed to infect all castes, and multiple life stages of workers and queens. Finally, highly similar viruses were expressed in adult workers and queens of six other Formica species: F. fusca, F. pressilabris, F. pratensis, F. aquilonia, F. truncorum and F. cinerea. This research indicates that viruses can be shared between ant species, but further studies on viral transmission are needed to understand viral infection pathways.
  • Kabel, Mirjam A.; Jurak, Edita; Mäkelä, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2017)
    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is economically the most important commercially produced edible fungus. It is grown on carbon- and nitrogen-rich substrates, such as composted cereal straw and animal manure. The commercial mushroom production process is usually performed in buildings or tunnels under highly controlled environmental conditions. In nature, the basidiomycete A. bisporus has a significant impact on the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems as a saprotrophic decayer of leaf litter. In this mini-review, the fate of the compost plant cell wall structures, xylan, cellulose and lignin, is discussed. A comparison is made from the structural changes observed to the occurrence and function of enzymes for lignocellulose degradation present, with a special focus on the extracellular enzymes produced by A. bisporus. In addition, recent advancements in whole genome level molecular studies in various growth stages of A. bisporus in compost are reviewed.
  • Dhaygude, Kishor; Nair, Abhilash; Johansson, Helena; Wurm, Yannick; Sundström, Liselotte (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Adapting to changes in the environment is the foundation of species survival, and is usually thought to be a gradual process. However, transposable elements (TEs), epigenetic modifications, and/or genetic material acquired from other organisms by means of horizontal gene transfer (HGTs), can also lead to novel adaptive traits. Social insects form dense societies, which attract and maintain extra- and intracellular accessory inhabitants, which may facilitate gene transfer between species. The wood ant Formica exsecta (Formicidae; Hymenoptera), is a common ant species throughout the Palearctic region. The species is a well-established model for studies of ecological characteristics and evolutionary conflict. Results In this study, we sequenced and assembled draft genomes for F. exsecta and its endosymbiont Wolbachia. The F. exsecta draft genome is 277.7 Mb long; we identify 13,767 protein coding genes, for which we provide gene ontology and protein domain annotations. This is also the first report of a Wolbachia genome from ants, and provides insights into the phylogenetic position of this endosymbiont. We also identified multiple horizontal gene transfer events (HGTs) from Wolbachia to F. exsecta. Some of these HGTs have also occurred in parallel in multiple other insect genomes, highlighting the extent of HGTs in eukaryotes. Conclusion We present the first draft genome of ant F. exsecta, and its endosymbiont Wolbachia (wFex), and show considerable rates of gene transfer from the symbiont to the host. We expect that especially the F. exsecta genome will be valuable resource in further exploration of the molecular basis of the evolution of social organization.