Browsing by Subject "Gestational diabetes mellitus"

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  • Arora, Geeti P; Almgren, Peter; Brøns, Charlotte; Thaman, Richa G; Vaag, Allan A; Groop, Leif; Prasad, Rashmi B (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a more common problem in India than in many other parts of the world but it is not known whether this is due to unique environmental factors or a unique genetic background. To address this question we examined whether the same genetic variants associated with GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in Caucasians also were associated with GDM in North Indian women. Methods Five thousand one hundred pregnant women of gestational age 24–28 weeks from Punjab were studied by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed by both WHO1999 and 2013 criteria. 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with T2D and glycemic traits (12 of them also with GDM) and 6 SNPs from previous T2D associations based on Indian population (some also with European) were genotyped on a Sequenom platform or using Taqman assays in DNA from 4018 women. Results In support of previous findings in Caucasian GDM, SNPs at KCJN11 and GRB14 loci were nominally associated with GDM1999 risk in Indian women (both p = 0.02). Notably, T2D risk alleles of the variant rs1552224 near CENTD2, rs11708067 in ADCY5 and rs11605924 in CRY2 genes associated with protection from GDM regardless of criteria applied (p < 0.025). SNPs rs7607980 near COBLL1 (p = 0.0001), rs13389219 near GRB14 (p = 0.026) and rs10423928 in the GIPR gene (p = 0.012) as well as the genetic risk score (GRS) for these previously shown insulin resistance loci here associated with insulin resistance defined by HOMA2-IR and showed a trend towards GDM. GRS comprised of 3 insulin secretion loci here associated with insulin secretion but not GDM. Conclusions GDM in women from Punjab in Northern India shows a genetic component, seemingly driven by insulin resistance and secretion and partly shared with GDM in other parts of the world. Most previous T2D loci discovered in European studies did not associate with GDM in North India, indicative of different genetic etiology or alternately, differences in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure between populations in which the associated SNPs were identified and Northern Indian women. Interestingly some T2D risk variants were in fact indicative of being protective for GDM in these Indian women.
  • Arora, Geeti P.; Almgren, Peter; Brons, Charlotte; Thaman, Richa G.; Vaag, Allan A.; Groop, Leif; Prasad, Rashmi B. (2018)
    Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a more common problem in India than in many other parts of the world but it is not known whether this is due to unique environmental factors or a unique genetic background. To address this question we examined whether the same genetic variants associated with GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in Caucasians also were associated with GDM in North Indian women. Methods: Five thousand one hundred pregnant women of gestational age 24-28 weeks from Punjab were studied by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed by both WHO1999 and 2013 criteria. 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with T2D and glycemic traits (12 of them also with GDM) and 6 SNPs from previous T2D associations based on Indian population (some also with European) were genotyped on a Sequenom platform or using Taqman assays in DNA from 4018 women. Results: In support of previous findings in Caucasian GDM, SNPs at KCJN11 and GRB14 loci were nominally associated with GDM1999 risk in Indian women (both p = 0.02). Notably, T2D risk alleles of the variant rs1552224 near CENTD2, rs11708067 in ADCY5 and rs11605924 in CRY2 genes associated with protection from GDM regardless of criteria applied (p <0.025). SNPs rs7607980 near COBLL1 (p = 0.0001), rs13389219 near GRB14 (p = 0.026) and rs10423928 in the GIPR gene (p = 0.012) as well as the genetic risk score (GRS) for these previously shown insulin resistance loci here associated with insulin resistance defined by HOMA2-IR and showed a trend towards GDM. GRS comprised of 3 insulin secretion loci here associated with insulin secretion but not GDM. Conclusions: GDM in women from Punjab in Northern India shows a genetic component, seemingly driven by insulin resistance and secretion and partly shared with GDM in other parts of the world. Most previous T2D loci discovered in European studies did not associate with GDM in North India, indicative of different genetic etiology or alternately, differences in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure between populations in which the associated SNPs were identified and Northern Indian women. Interestingly some T2D risk variants were in fact indicative of being protective for GDM in these Indian women.
  • Masalin, Senja; Rönö, Kristiina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2019)
    AimsTo assess the relationship between body surface area (BSA) at birth and future risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsThis is an observational cohort study from Vantaa, Finland. The cohort included 1548 Finnish primiparous women, aged 15-28 years, without pre-existing diabetes, who gave birth 2009-2015. All women were born full-term and had complete information about their birth weight and length, from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Additional data for the study were provided by individual patient health records and Statistics Finland. Study participants were divided into five levels (I-V) according to BSA at birth, based on normal distribution.ResultsThere was an inverse association between BSA at birth and risk for GDM (p=0.015 for linearity, after adjustments for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking). The odds ratio (OR) for GDM in level V, with the largest BSA at birth, compared with level I, with the smallest BSA at birth, was 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.83]; adjusted for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking. The OR for GDM was 0.8 (95% CI 0.68-0.95, p=0.009) for each one standard deviation increase in BSA at birth, adjusted for the same confounders. BSA at birth correlated with adult anthropometry: correlation coefficients were r=0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21) for weight, r=0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.35) for height, and r=0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.11) for BMI.ConclusionsBody surface area at birth is inversely associated with future risk for GDM in primiparous women.
  • Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling; Zhang, Yuqing; Yap, Qai Ven; Yu, Guoqi; Soh, Shu E.; Loy, See Ling; Lau, Hui Xing; Chan, Shiao-Yng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Yap, Fabian Kok Peng; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap Seng; Zhang, Jun; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2021)
    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse health outcomes for mothers and offspring. Prevalence of GDM differs by country/region due to ethnicity, lifestyle and diagnostic criteria. We compared GDM rates and risk factors in two Asian cohorts using the 1999 WHO and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Methods The Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) and the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort are prospective birth cohorts. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and medical history were collected from interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants underwent a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation. Logistic regressions were performed. Results Using the 1999 WHO criteria, the prevalence of GDM was higher in GUSTO (20.8%) compared to SBC (16.6%) (p = 0.046). Family history of hypertension and alcohol consumption were associated with higher odds of GDM in SBC than in GUSTO cohort while obesity was associated with higher odds of GDM in GUSTO. Using the IADPSG criteria, the prevalence of GDM was 14.3% in SBC versus 12.0% in GUSTO. A history of GDM was associated with higher odds of GDM in GUSTO than in SBC, while being overweight, alcohol consumption and family history of diabetes were associated with higher odds of GDM in SBC. Conclusions We observed several differential risk factors of GDM among ethnic Chinese women living in Shanghai and Singapore. These findings might be due to heterogeneity of GDM reflected in diagnostic criteria as well as in unmeasured genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors.
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    Aims: Was to determine whether the birth weight of the infant predicts prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or both) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) during long-term follow-up of women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The women with or without GDM during their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 1989-2009 (n=876) were contacted and invited for an evaluation. They were stratified into two groups according to the newborn's birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and >90th percentile (large-for-gestational-age; LGA) (n = 116). Glucose tolerance was investigated with an oral glucose tolerance test after a mean follow-up time of 7.3 (SD 5.1) years. Results: The incidence of T2DM was 11.8% and 0% in the women with and without GDM, respectively, after an LGA delivery. The incidence of prediabetes increased with offspring birth weight categories in the women with and without GDM: from 46.3% and 26.2% (AGA) to 52.9% and 29.2% (LGA), respectively. Conclusions: GDM women with LGA infants are at an increased risk for subsequent development of T2DM and therefore represent a target group for intervention to delay or prevent T2DM development. In contrast, an LGA delivery without GDM does not increase T2DM risk. (C) 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Miettinen, Helena E.; Rono, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Gylling, Helena (2018)
    Background and aims: Impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy may associate with changes in fetal cholesterol metabolism. We investigated if gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects newborn cholesterol metabolism as determined by cord blood squalene and non-cholesterol sterols. Furthermore, we examined potential correlations between cord blood and maternal serum non-cholesterol sterols. Methods: Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were taken in the third trimester of pregnancy, and cord blood samples collected from their newborns at birth. Squalene and non-cholesterol sterols were analyzed from serum and cord blood by gas liquid chromatography. All women with GDM were in good glycaemic control. Results: The ratios of squalene and non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol (100 x mu mol/mmol of cholesterol) in cord blood did not differ between the infants born to mothers with GDM (n = 15) or mothers with normal glucose tolerance (n = 13). The ratios of sitosterol and campesterol to cholesterol in the cord blood correlated with the corresponding maternal serum ratios (r = 0.70, p <0.0001) in both groups. Conclusions: In obese women under good glycaemic control, GDM did not affect newborn cholesterol metabolism. Cord blood sitosterol and campesterol ratios to cholesterol correlated with the corresponding maternal serum ratios thus potentially reflecting maternal-fetal cholesterol transport. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Grotenfelt, N. E.; Wasenius, N.; Eriksson, J. G.; Huvinen, E.; Stach-Lempinen, B.; Koivusalo, S. B.; Rönö, K. (2020)
    Aim. - To assess in women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) the effect of a lifestyle intervention on the metabolic health of their offspring around 5 years after delivery. Methods. - For the original Finnish gestational diabetes prevention study (RADIEL), 720 women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or previous GDM were enrolled before or during early pregnancy and allocated to either an interventional (n = 126) or conventional (n = 133) care group. The present 5-year follow-up substudy assessed the metabolic health outcomes of their offspring. Ageand gender-standardized residuals of metabolic health components (waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, and fasting insulin/glucose ratio) were also combined to determine the accumulation of metabolic effects. Body composition was assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Results. - Offspring of women in the intervention group had a less optimal metabolic profile after the 5-year follow-up compared with offspring in the usual care group (P = 0.014). This difference in metabolic health was primarily related to lipid metabolism, and was more prominent among boys (P = 0.001) than girls (P = 0.74). Neither GDM, gestational weight gain, prepregnancy BMI, offspring age nor timing of randomization (before or during pregnancy) could explain the detected difference, which was also more pronounced among the offspring of GDM pregnancies (P= 0.010). Offspring body composition was similar in both groups (P> 0.05). Conclusion. - The lifestyle intervention aimed at GDM prevention was associated with unfavourable metabolic outcomes among offspring at around 5 years of age. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    Background: Whether the delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant predicts future maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. To this aim, we investigated the incidence of MetS and its components in women with or without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a view to the birth weight of the offspring. Methods: Eight hundred seventy six women treated for their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 19892009 underwent a follow-up study (mean follow-up time 7.3 (SD 5.1) years), of whom 489 women with GDM and 385 normoglycemic controls. The women were stratified into two groups according to the newborn's birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and > 90th percentile (LGA) (n = 116). MetS and its components were evaluated in the follow-up study according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: LGA vs. AGA delivery was associated with a higher incidence of MetS at follow-up in women with a background of GDM (54.4% vs. 43.6%), but not in women without GDM. Conclusion: An LGA delivery in women with GDM is associated with a higher risk of future MetS and this group is optimal to study preventive measures for MetS. In contrast, an LGA delivery after a normoglycemic pregnancy was not associated with an increased future maternal MetS risk.
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Whether the delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant predicts future maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. To this aim, we investigated the incidence of MetS and its components in women with or without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a view to the birth weight of the offspring. Methods Eight hundred seventy six women treated for their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 1989–2009 underwent a follow-up study (mean follow-up time 7.3 (SD 5.1) years), of whom 489 women with GDM and 385 normoglycemic controls. The women were stratified into two groups according to the newborn’s birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and > 90th percentile (LGA) (n = 116). MetS and its components were evaluated in the follow-up study according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results LGA vs. AGA delivery was associated with a higher incidence of MetS at follow-up in women with a background of GDM (54.4% vs. 43.6%), but not in women without GDM. Conclusion An LGA delivery in women with GDM is associated with a higher risk of future MetS and this group is optimal to study preventive measures for MetS. In contrast, an LGA delivery after a normoglycemic pregnancy was not associated with an increased future maternal MetS risk.
  • Shen, Yun; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Li, Wei; Wang, Leishen; Tian, Huiguang; Chen, Jinbo; Qi, Lu; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hu, Gang (2019)
    Aims: To investigate the risk of postpartum metabolic syndrome in women with GDM compared with those without GDM in a Chinese population. Methods: Tianjin GDM observational study included 1263 women with a history of GDM and 705 women without GDM. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess risks of postpartum metabolic syndrome between women with and without GDM. Postpartum metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by two commonly used criteria. Results: During a mean 3.53 years of follow up, 256 cases of metabolic syndrome were identified by using the NCEPATPIII criteria and 244 cases by using the IDF criteria. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of metabolic syndrome in women with GDM compared with those without GDM were 3.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-6.63) for NCEP ATPIII criteria and 3.90 (95% CI 2.13-7.14) for IDF criteria. Women with GDM had higher multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and high blood pressure than women without GDM. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycemia were not significant between women with and without GDM, however, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hyperglycemia became significant when we used the modified criteria. Conclusions: The present study indicated that women with prior GDM had significantly higher risks for postpartum metabolic syndrome, as well as its individual components. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Laine, Merja K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Pennanen, Pirjo; Eriksson, Johan G. (2021)
    Background The impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the duration of breastfeeding varies between shortening and no impact. Breastfeeding seems to reduce both maternal and offspring risk for type 2 diabetes and offspring risk for overweight or obesity later in life. The aim of our study was to evaluate in primiparous women whether GDM had an influence on the duration of breastfeeding, and further, to evaluate the factors that influenced on the duration of breastfeeding. Methods The study cohort (N = 1089) consisted of all primiparous women with a Finnish background excluding women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus who lived in the city of Vantaa, Finland, gave birth to a singleton living child between 2009 and 2015, and with valid data on breastfeeding available. The diagnosis of GDM was based on a standard 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Data were obtained from Finnish national registers and from the medical records of the city of Vantaa. Results No differences were observed in the duration of breastfeeding between women diagnosed with GDM and without GDM, 7.5 (Standard Deviation [SD] 3.7) months versus 7.9 (SD 3.5) months (p = 0.17). Women diagnosed with GDM breastfed boys for a longer duration than girls (maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, marital status, educational attainment, duration of pregnancy, and smoking habits adjusted p = 0.042). Women who breastfed <6 months were younger, were more likely smokers, had shorter education, and higher pre-pregnancy body mass index than women who breastfed over 6 months (p <0.001 for linearity). Conclusions In primiparous women GDM did not influence breastfeeding duration. The positive health effects of breastfeeding should be emphasized especially in young, overweight and less educated women in order to minimize the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes for themselves and their offspring.
  • Laine, Merja K; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Pennanen, Pirjo; Eriksson, Johan G (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background The impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the duration of breastfeeding varies between shortening and no impact. Breastfeeding seems to reduce both maternal and offspring risk for type 2 diabetes and offspring risk for overweight or obesity later in life. The aim of our study was to evaluate in primiparous women whether GDM had an influence on the duration of breastfeeding, and further, to evaluate the factors that influenced on the duration of breastfeeding. Methods The study cohort (N = 1089) consisted of all primiparous women with a Finnish background excluding women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus who lived in the city of Vantaa, Finland, gave birth to a singleton living child between 2009 and 2015, and with valid data on breastfeeding available. The diagnosis of GDM was based on a standard 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Data were obtained from Finnish national registers and from the medical records of the city of Vantaa. Results No differences were observed in the duration of breastfeeding between women diagnosed with GDM and without GDM, 7.5 (Standard Deviation [SD] 3.7) months versus 7.9 (SD 3.5) months (p = 0.17). Women diagnosed with GDM breastfed boys for a longer duration than girls (maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, marital status, educational attainment, duration of pregnancy, and smoking habits adjusted p = 0.042). Women who breastfed < 6 months were younger, were more likely smokers, had shorter education, and higher pre-pregnancy body mass index than women who breastfed over 6 months (p <  0.001 for linearity). Conclusions In primiparous women GDM did not influence breastfeeding duration. The positive health effects of breastfeeding should be emphasized especially in young, overweight and less educated women in order to minimize the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes for themselves and their offspring.
  • Masalin, Senja; Laine, Merja K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Raina, Marko; Pennanen, Pirjo; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Aims: To evaluate the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal height on offspring birthweight. Methods: This is an observational cohort study, encompassing 4 111 Finnish primiparous women from Vantaa city, Finland, with singleton deliveries between 2009 and 2015. Data were obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. The study population was divided into five groups according to maternal height. Cut-offs for height levels were I = 173 cm. The main outcome measure was offspring birthweight, expressed as Z-scores according to sex and gestational age. Results: Independently, both maternal height and GDM increased offspring birthweight (p <0.001 for height and GDM). When studying the interaction, a significant increase in offspring birthweight was noted only in extreme height categories; group I = 173 cm (p <0.001) and the impact was similar in both sexes. Maternal height had no impact on offspring ponderal index (p = 0.20 for trend). Conclusions: In extreme height categories, short and tall primiparous women with GDM are at risk for delivering larger offspring compared to women without GDM of similar height. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H; Viljakainen, Heli T; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M; Helve, Otto M; Hytinantti, Timo K; Mäkitie, Outi M; Andersson, Sture (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (≥ 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH)D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved. Trial registration The project protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov in November 8, 2012 ( NCT01723852 ).
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Mäkitie, Outi M.; Andersson, Sture (2017)
    Background: Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results: GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D >= 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (>= 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH) D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved.
  • Litwin, Linda; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Sarkola, Taisto (2020)
    Aims We aimed to investigate associations between pre-pregnancy obesity, gestational diabetes (GDM), offspring body composition, and left ventricular diastolic and systolic function in early childhood. Methods This is an observational study, including 201 mother-child pairs originating from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL; 96 with GDM, 128 with pre-pregnancy obesity) with follow-up from gestation to 6-year postpartum. Follow-up included dyads anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, and child left ventricular function with comprehensive echocardiography (conventional and strain imaging). Results Offspring left ventricular diastolic and systolic function was not associated with gestational glucose concentrations, GDM, or pregravida obesity. Child body fat percentage correlated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI in the setting of maternal obesity (r = 0.23,P = 0.009). After adjusting for child lean body mass, age, sex, systolic BP, resting HR, maternal lean body mass, pre-gestational BMI, and GDM status, child left atrial volume increased by 0.3 ml (95% CI 0.1, 0.5) for each 1% increase in child body fat percentage. Conclusions No evidence of foetal cardiac programming related to GDM or maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was observed in early childhood. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with early weight gain. Child adiposity in early childhood is independently associated with increased left atrial volume, but its implications for long-term left ventricle diastolic function and cardiovascular health remain unknown.
  • West, Sammeli; Ollila, Meri-Maija; Franks, Stephen; Piltonen, Terhi; Jokelainen, Jari; Nevalainen, Jaana; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Auvinen, Juha; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Morin-Papunen, Laure (2020)
    Introduction The aim of the study was to determine the association of body mass index (BMI), self-reported symptoms or diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hyperandrogenemia with the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) through reproductive life. Material and methods A cohort of women born in 1966 were investigated at ages 14, 31 and 46. Women with self-reported PCOS symptoms (presence of both oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism) at age 31 or with formally diagnosed polycystic ovaries (PCO)/PCOS by age 46 formed the group of self-reported PCOS (srPCOS, n = 222) and were compared with women without self-reported PCOS symptoms or diagnosis (n = 1357). We investigated also the association of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism or biochemical hyperandrogenism) at age 31 with the occurrence of GDM throughout reproductive life. Results Self-reported PCOS alone was not a risk factor for GDM, but combined with overweight at age 31 (odds ratio [OR] 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.86) or 46 (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.58-5.83) srPCOS was associated with GDM when compared with normal weight controls. The association disappeared when comparing overweight srPCOS women with overweight controls. However, hyperandrogenemia at age 31, but not hirsutism, was associated with GDM even after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions The increased risk of GDM in women with srPCOS was mostly attributed to overweight or obesity. Importantly, normal weight women with srPCOS did not seem to be at increased risk for developing GDM. However, hyperandrogenemia was associated with GDM even after adjustment for BMI. These findings strengthen the importance of weight management in reproductive-age women and suggest a noteworthy role of hyperandrogenemia in the pathophysiology of GDM.
  • Laine, M. K.; Kautiainen, H.; Gissler, M.; Raina, M.; Aahos, I.; Jarvinen, K.; Eriksson, J. G. (2018)
    Objectives: Both short stature and adiposity are risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the importance of stature and degree of adiposity on development of GDM in primiparous women. Study design: Longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In the city of Vantaa, Finland, between 2009 and 2015, all together 7750 primiparous women without previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus gave birth. Of these, 5223 women were >= 18 years of age with information on height, weight, and complete data from a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test composing the study participants of this study. Results: A 155-cm tall woman with a body mass index (BMI) of 25.5 kg/m(2) had a similar risk for GDM as a 175-cm tall woman with a BMI of 27.1 kg/m(2). Women shorter than 159 cm had the highest prevalence of GDM, 28.7%, whereas women with height between 164 and 167 cm had the lowest prevalence of GDM, 19.9% (P <0.001). Height was inversely and significantly associated with both 1- and 2-h glucose values (both P <0.001). Conclusions: To avoid over diagnosis of GDM, an unbiased strategy is needed to determine and diagnose GDM in women with different stature and degree of adiposity. (c) 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vilmi-Kerala, Tiina; Lauhio, Anneli; Tervahartiala, Taina; Palomaki, Outi; Uotila, Jukka; Sorsa, Timo; Palomaki, Ari (2017)
    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has significant implications for the future health of the mother. Some clinical studies have suggested subclinical inflammation and vascular dysfunction after GDM. We aimed to study whether concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and -9, as well as values of arterial stiffness differ between women with and without a history of GDM a few years after delivery. We also investigated possible effects of obesity on the results. Methods: We studied two cohorts-120 women with a history of GDM and 120 controls-on average 3.7 years after delivery. Serum concentrations of hsCRP were determined by immunonephelometric and immunoturbidimetric methods, MMP-8 by immunofluorometric assay, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using the foot-to-foot velocity method from carotid and femoral waveforms by using a SphygmoCor device. Arterial compliance was measured non-invasively by an HDI/PulseWave T CR-2000 arterial tonometer. All 240 women were also included in subgroup analyses to study the effect of obesity on the results. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with adjustment for confounding factors. Results: PWV after pregnancy complicated by GDM was significantly higher than after normal pregnancy, 6.44 +/- 0.83 (SD) vs. 6.17 +/- 0.74 m/s (p = 0.009). Previous GDM was also one of the significant determinants of PWV in multiple linear regression analyses. On the other hand, compliance indices of both large (p = 0.092) and small (p = 0.681) arteries did not differ between the study cohorts. Serum TIMP-1 levels were significantly increased after previous GDM (p = 0.020). However, no differences were found in the serum levels of MMP-8, MMP-9 or hsCRP. In subgroup analyses, there were significantly higher concentrations of hsCRP (p = 0.015) and higher PWV (p <0.001) among obese women compared with non-obese ones. Conclusions: PWV values were significantly higher after GDM compared with normoglycemic pregnancies and were associated with prolonged TIMP-1 upregulation. Cardiovascular risk factors were more common in participants with high BMI than in those with previous GDM.
  • Vilmi-Kerälä, Tiina; Lauhio, Anneli; Tervahartiala, Taina; Palomäki, Outi; Uotila, Jukka; Sorsa, Timo; Palomäki, Ari (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has significant implications for the future health of the mother. Some clinical studies have suggested subclinical inflammation and vascular dysfunction after GDM. We aimed to study whether concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and -9, as well as values of arterial stiffness differ between women with and without a history of GDM a few years after delivery. We also investigated possible effects of obesity on the results. Methods We studied two cohorts—120 women with a history of GDM and 120 controls—on average 3.7 years after delivery. Serum concentrations of hsCRP were determined by immunonephelometric and immunoturbidimetric methods, MMP-8 by immunofluorometric assay, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using the foot-to-foot velocity method from carotid and femoral waveforms by using a SphygmoCor device. Arterial compliance was measured non-invasively by an HDI/PulseWave™CR-2000 arterial tonometer. All 240 women were also included in subgroup analyses to study the effect of obesity on the results. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with adjustment for confounding factors. Results PWV after pregnancy complicated by GDM was significantly higher than after normal pregnancy, 6.44 ± 0.83 (SD) vs. 6.17 ± 0.74 m/s (p = 0.009). Previous GDM was also one of the significant determinants of PWV in multiple linear regression analyses. On the other hand, compliance indices of both large (p = 0.092) and small (p = 0.681) arteries did not differ between the study cohorts. Serum TIMP-1 levels were significantly increased after previous GDM (p = 0.020). However, no differences were found in the serum levels of MMP-8, MMP-9 or hsCRP. In subgroup analyses, there were significantly higher concentrations of hsCRP (p = 0.015) and higher PWV (p < 0.001) among obese women compared with non-obese ones. Conclusions PWV values were significantly higher after GDM compared with normoglycemic pregnancies and were associated with prolonged TIMP-1 upregulation. Cardiovascular risk factors were more common in participants with high BMI than in those with previous GDM.