Browsing by Subject "Ghana"

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  • Juurikkala, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The purpose of this study is to explore, interpret and describe Ghanaian home economics education. The data for the study were collected during my university exchange in Ghana in the spring 2014. The theoretical background focuses on learning and teaching and cultural relatedness in those two phenomena. It also sets Ghana in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa with the focus on Ghanaian education. This study describes the contents and the implementations of home economics education through a cultural perspective. Methods. The data were collected using three different methods. It consists of interviews of three local home economics teachers and a learning assignment for 22 pupils which was implemented in a home economics class. Also, the data were produced by observing home economics classes in two different junior high schools for six weeks. The data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the study, home economics appeared as a subject that increases well-being. From the teachers' point of view home economics has far-reaching impacts for pupils' futures. The teachers had an urge to make pupils learn. The role of a teacher was significant in the classes and the interaction between pupils and teacher quite one-sided. The inadequate resources for teaching made it difficult to teach with diverse teaching methods. The results of the learning assignment reflected the contents and the implementations of home economics education. The answers were many-sided but less creative. Culture was strongly present in everything. The study does not qualify for broad generalizations about Ghanaian home economics education. However, culture and its impacts on teaching and learning are important to take into consideration in every educational context.
  • Kallinen, Timo (2004)
    This is a study of how political hierarchy is constructed among the Asante. It explores the principles that legitimate chieftaincy and hierarchies among chiefly offices. Furthermore, it shows how the institution of chieftaincy is connected to certain aspects of social structure and belief system and how it is precisely because of this connectedness that chieftaincy continues to be viable despite major changes in Asante (or Ghanaian) society. The study is based on one-year fieldwork in Ghana (2000-2001). In addition to that, some archival materials have been used. The Asante people belong to a large ethnic and language group called the Akan. The Akan people live in the coastal and forest areas of Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. The social and political organisation of all Akan groups is more or less uniform. It is often said that the Akan political order provides a classic example of a chiefdom or segmentary state. The best known of the Akan polities is the kingdom of Asante (Ashanti), which is a union of a number of autonomous chiefdoms under one king. Every Asante chiefdom is a distinct territorial unit centred on the chief's capital town or village. Today the Asante kingdom coexists with the Republic of Ghana. In terms of modern anthropology, the classical definition of Asante social and political structure is by Meyer Fortes. His theory on Asante as a hierarchical, centralized polity, which coexists with a segmentary lineage system, is the starting point of this study. The study begins by discussing the Asante kinship and marriage systems in Chapter 2, and particularly how the ideas of hierarchy and political relations relate to them. This discussion is linked to Fortes' view of the matrilineal descent group as the primary political unit among the Asante. Fortes' idea of the hierarchy of offices in the Asante kingdom and its component chiefdoms approximated the idea of graduated authority or a chain of command, and hence he saw the structure of the kingdom as similar to that of a modern nation state. In the disseratation, a different kind of concept of hierarchy is introduced. In addition to the chain of command, the chiefs are also connected through the segmentary lineage system, bilateral kinship, friendship, and spatial cohabitation. These relations are also hierarchical, but they are based on the concept of seniority and not authority. These matters are discussed in Chapter 4. Since these relations are also a matter of political competition, they also become subject to complicated processes of reordering. These processes, which also involve a reconnection of the present time to the founding past through genealogies and historical narratives, are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 shows how both relations of authority and seniority are thought and discussed by reference to kinship terminology. Chapter 7 discusses how in the Asante thought power in seen to transcend human agency. Chiefs are considered to obtain power from the supernatural through sacrifice, but this requires recognition of deities, ancestors, subordinate officeholders, and subjects as exchange partners. Supernatural agencies receive sacrifices for power and subordinates are given jural rights for providing victims for sacrifice. These ritual exchanges shape the relations between the offices of chiefs as well as between the chiefs and the people. Chapter 8 shows how authority is shared and exercised in ritual and the commonplace Western notion that authority is always vested in formal office-centered structures is questioned. Chapter 9 discusses the position of the institution of chieftaincy in Asante (and Ghana) today and how it has endured the challenges of colonial and post-colonial times. It is concluded that Asante chieftaincy is a specific type of non-western political institution deep-rooted in the Asante society and culture, and thus it has not been replaced by the colonial or later post-colonial governments.
  • Mensah-Abrambah, Emmanuel (2005)
    This thesis studies and analyses the effects of the interplay between African Traditional Medicine land Western Medicine on infant health and attempts to restore their health in the Central region of Ghana. The core of the study was to detect parents actions when their infants fell sick as well as measure the socio-economic conditions with infants health. The primary aim however, is to look for parents/social meaning of illness, methods and problems of medication in Ghana and their 1significance in reducing infant mortality. The study is based in Cape Coast, the ancient capital of Ghana, it is descriptive, exploratory and the japproach of my research is qualitative methodology and the principal research method was; unstructured and semi-structured interviews with 50 respondents. Also the materials of the thesis contain secondary sources such as published data from surveys. The study shows that the first people to act with regard to an attempt to restore a child's health may be the parents. The study further shows that people make sense of illness through known; relationships such as, family members, care providers, and known cultural categories such as wichcraft/oracles, and biomedical health care promotions. The study provides evidence to conclude that there are two medical systems in Ghana, African !traditional medicine and Western medicine and the two systems should be allowed to work side by side.
  • Kallinen, Timo (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2016)
    Studia Fennica Anthropologica
  • Edwin, David A.; Glover, Evam Kofi (2016)
    One of the major concerns in Ghana, like in most developing countries today, is how to manage the influx of youth migration from rural north to cities in urban south; in search of opportunities and a better life. The present study was undertaken generally for the purpose of investigating the causes of rural-urban migration of youth from northern Ghana to southern Ghana, with a view of providing insights into the growth, direction, and continuation of internal migration flows in Ghana. More specifically, the aim of the study was to investigate the pull factors influencing in-migration; to investigate the push factors influencing out-migration and to recommend policy and programme interventions for strengthening support programme activities for migrants. The study, therefore, attempts to answer the following questions: What are the push factors affecting out-migration? What are the pull factors affecting in-migration? What policy and programme interventions can help strengthen support programme activities for migrants? The study involved a cross-sectional survey conducted with a total of 89 respondents randomly selected from the list of beneficiaries of a NGO programme in Tamale in Ghana, through questionnaire-based interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation. Results show that major factors triggering migration in the northern sector comprise a complex mix of pull and push factors which include learning vocation, social amenities, freedom, general poverty, inability of parents to play their roles, poor job availability in the rural areas. The study suggests that the Government should find more innovative strategies to empower rural communities in other forms of income generating activities such as providing access to skill training and micro-credit facilities that could give better livelihoods to parents and support for families in especially rural areas in Ghana.
  • Garcia, Leandro; Johnson, Rob; Johnson, Alex; Abbas, Ali; Goel, Rahul; Tatah, Lambed; Damsere-Derry, James; Kyere-Gyeabour, Elvis; Tainio, Marko; de Sá, Thiago H.; Woodcock, James (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 155, 106680
    Background: Health impact assessments of alternative travel patterns are urgently needed to inform transport and urban planning in African cities, but none exists so far. Objective: To quantify the health impacts of changes in travel patterns in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Methods: We estimated changes to population exposures to physical activity, air pollution, and road traffic fatality risk and consequent health burden (deaths and years of life lost prematurely – YLL) in response to changes in transportation patterns. Five scenarios were defined in collaboration with international and local partners and stakeholders to reflect potential local policy actions. Results: Swapping bus and walking trips for car trips can lead to more than 400 extra deaths and 20,500 YLL per year than travel patterns observed in 2009. If part of the rise in motorisation is from motorcycles, we estimated an additional nearly 370 deaths and over 18,500 YLL per year. Mitigating the rise in motorisation by swapping long trips by car or taxi to bus trips is the most beneficial for health, averting more than 600 premature deaths and over 31,500 YLL per year. Without significant improvements in road safety, reduction of short motorised trips in favour of cycling and walking had no significant net health benefits as non-communicable diseases deaths and YLL benefits were offset by increases in road traffic deaths. In all scenarios, road traffic fatalities were the largest contributor to changes in deaths and YLL. Conclusions: Rising motorisation, particularly from motorcycles, can cause significant increase in health burden in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area. Mitigating rising motorisation by improving public transport would benefit population health. Tackling road injury risk to ensure safe walking and cycling is a top priority. In the short term, this will save lives from injury. Longer term it will help halt the likely fall in physical activity.
  • Suominen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study examines the roles of midwives who assist in home births in semi-urban areas in Ashanti Region, Ghana. The study belongs to the field of medical anthropology. The aim of this thesis is to give indepth information about the role and place of these midwives in their communities and in the wider society in Ghana. The midwives have different backgrounds and practices. Most of them do not have a formal education in midwifery or nursing which makes them to be in a marginal position in a medical landscape where childbirth in gradually but rapidly moving into health facilities. The study is a qualitative ethnography on the work, practices and roles of these midwives in maternity health care services. The data for this research was gathered during a fieldwork in Ashanti Region, Ghana in January and February 2019. The main material consists of semi structured interviews, informal discussions, observations and fieldnotes. Interviews with five midwives who take care of home births form the main material of this research. Additionally, some hospital workers were interviewed as well as a few mothers concerning their opinions on hospital birth culture and home births. Some of the main results of the study are that midwives who take care of home births still have roles even though their work is gradually being replaced by formally trained health workers. Some women still turn to their help because of the good care and presence they give to their patients. These midwives have been crossing the boundaries of health care sectors, and they are still crossing boundaries of different kind for example by cooperating with the formal sector of health care in different ways in a medically pluralistic landscape in Ghana.
  • Bofah, Emmanuel A; Hannula, Markku S. (Springer US, 2017)
    Abstract In large scale international assessment studies, questionnaires are typical used to query students’ home possessions. Composite scores are computed from responses to the home resource questionnaires and are used as a measure of family socioeconomic background in achievement comparison or for statistical control. This paper deals with profiling the socio-economic status (SES) of Ghanaian students’ in the context of the TIMSS 2011 study. Latent class analysis was used to profile students into respective SES classes based on the students’ responses to 11 questions concerning their home resources. The results showed three clearly distinct socio-economic profiles: high-, middle- and low-SES. Moreover, a discriminate analysis was conducted to explore the degree to which the groups are accurately classified. The discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 92.20% of the individual students into their appropriate SES group. A gender comparison of these classes suggested stable measurement invariance for the latent class indicators. This article contributes to addressing the composition of SES by providing statistical criteria to evaluate SES using empirical data.
  • Kovács, Gyöngyi; Spens, Karen (2009)
    International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management
  • Rosengren, L.M.; Raymond, C.M.; Sell, M.; Vihinen, H. (2020)
    Leverage points from systems research are increasingly important to understand how to support transformations towards sustainability, but few studies have considered leverage points in strengthening adaptive capacity to climate change. The existing literature mainly considers strengthening adaptive capacity as a steady and linear process. This article explores possibilities to fast track positive adaptive capacity trajectories of small-scale farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana. Leverage points were identified by triangulating data from semi-structured interviews with farmers (n=72), key informant interviews (n=7) and focus group discussions (FG1 n=17; FG2 n=20). The results present two ways to approach adaptation planning: 1) using four generic leverage points (gender equality, social learning, information and knowledge, and access to finance) or 2) combining the adaptive capacity and leverage point frameworks, thereby creating 15 associations. The generic points provide a set of topics as a starting point for policy and intervention planning activities, while the 15 associations support the identification of place-specific leverage points. Four benefits of using leverage points for adaptive capacity in adaptation planning were identified: guidance on where to intervene in a system, ability to deal with complex systems, inclusion of both causal and teleological decision-making, and a possibility to target deep, transformative change. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Crentsil, Perpetual (2001)
    This thesis studies medical beliefs and practices in Ghana. Its aim is to analyse the kind of social interaction/social relations inherent in informal communication in health-seeking behaviours. The primary aim, however, is to look for people's social meaning of illness-- what sense they make of illness-- in the interplay between informal communication and health-seeking activities. The study is based in Twuim, a rural fishing village in Ghana. It is descriptive, exploratory, and largely ethnographic in approach. The ethnographic data is based on more than five months of participant observation fieldwork and unstructured ethnographic interviews with 33 respondents. Social relations and interaction are important in informal communication in the quest for therapy. The family emerges as the unit for therapy communication and social relations. Thus, three case studies are presented as part of the analysis of the family and therapy discussions. This study shows that people make sense of illness through known relationships with people such as family members and care providers, and known cultural categories such as witchcraft/oracles and biomedical health care promotion. Through these mechanisms, the people derive their social meaning of illness largely from both natural and supernatural ideas about illness. The analytical focus follows Arthur Kleinman's model of sector analysis of medical systems, which uses the structuralist approach. The other framework is the analysis of discourse, following Michel Foucault. One of the main conclusions is a suggestion for the integration of biomedicine and traditional medicine in Ghana as a way to expand the country's health care resources.
  • Amoah, Joseph (2003)
    Sub-Saharan Africa exhibits higher fertility rate than in all the other major regions of the world. This situation is basically responsible for the high population growth and its negative repercussions in the region. In the recent past, however, a few African countries including Ghana have witnessed modest declines in fertility. The Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1988, 1993 and 1998 estimate the country’s total fertility rate as 6.4, 5.5 and 4.6 children per woman respectively, after hovering around 7 since the Second World War. The country thus experienced an unprecedented fertility decline of almost 2 children per woman in a decade. The study aims at reviewing the evidence that fertility transition has begun in Ghana. The proximate and socio-economic determinants of fertility are analysed to reveal the causes of the fertility decline. The data are obtained from the 1988, 1993 and 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys, based on nationally representative samples of 4488, 4562 and 4843 women between the reproductive ages of 15 and 49 respectively. The study uses the Bongaarts proximate determinant indices to examine the effects of the intermediate fertility variables. It analyses the relationship between selected socio-economic variables and fertility by using logistic regression technique through the software package, Statistical Programme for Social Scientists (SPSS). The study demonstrates that, generally, postpartum infecundability is the most important fertility inhibitor amongst the proximate determinants. Relatively though, it is not a contributory factor to the fertility decline in the decade under review. The modest upsurge in contraception in the first half of the decade predominantly accounts for the fertility decline. The type of area of residence and the educational status of the respondents emerged as the most significant socio-economic predictors of fertility. However, there is no statistically significant fertility difference between the women with primary education and those without any education. The study meanwhile, indicates that ethnicity and religion are not significant determinants of fertility in Ghana.
  • Peltonen, Aino Hanna Katariina (2008)
    Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selittää, miksi ghanalaisten suhtautuminen uusliberalistiseen talouspolitiikkaan on muuttunut radikaalisti viimeisten kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana. Vuonna 1983 aloitetut talouden rakennesopeutusohjelmat aiheuttivat lukuisia mielenosoituksia, lakkoja ja melakoita 1990-luvun puolivälissä. Tämän jälkeen poliittinen vastarinta on vähentynyt huomattavasti, vaikka elintaso maassa ei ole juurikaan parantunut. Mielipidetutkimukset osoittavat, että vaikka ghanalaiset kokevat taloudellisen tilanteensa pääasiassa huonontuneen, maan uusliberaali talouspolitiikka nähdään hyödyllisenä ja jopa välttämättömänä. Muuttuneiden asenteiden syitä ei ole kovin syvällisesti tutkittu, vaikka muutamia vaihtoehtoisia selitysmalleja löytyykin. Antonio Gramscin kehittämät hegemonian ja orgaanisen intellektuellin käsitteet auttavat hahmottamaan niitä prosesseja, jotka ovat vaikuttaneet äkilliseen muutokseen ghanalaisten asenteissa. Tutkielma osoittaa historiallisen analyysin ja gramscilaisen teorian avulla, että Ghanan poliittinen eliitti on orgaanisten intellektuelliensa avustuksella onnistunut luomaan poliittisen ilmapiirin, jossa uusliberalismilla on hegemoninen asema. Tämä on tapahtunut lähinnä yhdistämällä demokratian käsite hallituksen harjoittamaan talouspolitiikkaan sillä tavalla, että vaatiessaan demokratiaa ghanalaiset ovat automaattisesti joutununeet hyväksymään myös uusliberalistisen talouspolitiikan. Tutkielmassa käytettävä historiallinen analyysi keskittyy lähinnä vuoden 1983 jälkeisiin tapahtumiin. Aikaisempia historiallisia tapahtumia analysoidaan myös lyhyesti sen vuoksi, että ne selittävät nykyisen hegemonian taustaa ja niin sanottua orgaanista kriisiä, jonka viime vuosien hegemonia on onnistunut ratkaisemaan. Ghanan politiikan vallitsevin piirre aina vuoden 1957 itsenäisyydestä asti on ollut ideologinen kiista pan-afrikkalaisen sosialismin ja länteen suuntautuvan liberalismin välillä. Tutkielma osoittaa, että orgaaniset intellektuellit ovat edesauttaneet liberalismin nousua hegemoniseen asemaan marginalisoimalla afrikkalaisen sosialismin tarjoamat vaihtoehdot.
  • Tuikkanen, Joona-Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tutkimus käsittelee vanhoillislestadiolaisen Suomen Rauhanyhdistysten Keskusyhdistyksen (SRK) ja sen amerikkalaisen sisarliikkeen Laestadian Lutheran Churchin tapaa harjoittaa lähetystyötä. Lähetystyön tarkastelussa käytetään viitekehyksenä kahta Länsi-Afrikan maata; Togoa ja Ghanaa. Tutkimustehtävänä oli selvittää, minkälaista kuvaa vanhoillislestadiolaiset lehdet Päivämies sekä Siionin Lähetyslehti haluavat antaa Togossa ja Ghanassa tehdystä lähetystyöstä, mitä se kertoo SRK:n ja LLC:n lähetystyökäsityksestä ja kuinka SRK:n lähetystyökäsitys vertautuu Suomen Lähetysseuran (SLS) lähetystyökäsitykseen. Vertailussa hyödynnän David Boschin lähetyshistorian paradigmoja. Tutkimuksessa myös arvioidaan SRK:n Länsi-Afrikan lähetystyöhön kohdistunutta kritiikkiä. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytettiin vanhoillislestadiolaisia Päivämies ja Siionin Lähetyslehti -lehdistä niitä vuodesta 1995 vuoteen 2021 julkaisuja, jotka käsittelevät Togoa tai Ghanaa. Lehtien sisältö on jaettu temaattisesti taloudellista tukea, uskon samankaltaisuutta, kulttuurieroja, lähetystyötä ja kielenkäyttöä käsitteleviin osioihin. Lehtien sisällön lisäksi tutkimuksen kokonaiskuvan muodostamisessa on käytetty apuna togolaisen vanhoillislestadiolaisen kontaktihenkilön Nicolas Koffi Dehin omia havaintoja. Vanhoillislestadiolaisuuden Afrikan lähetystyön kritiikkiä käsittelevä materiaali on kerätty Omat Polut ja Uusi Suomi -sivustojen blogikirjoituksista. SLS:n lähetystyönkäsitys on saatu heidän vuonna 2015 julkaisemastaan teologisesta asiakirjasta Elämään ja oikeudenmukaisuuteen: Suomen Lähetysseuran toiminnan teologinen perusta ja yhteistyön periaatteet. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että Päivämies ja Siionin Lähetyslehti kuvaavat Togon ja Ghanan lähetystyötä onnistuneena hankkeena vakiinnuttaa vanhoillislestadiolaisuutta Länsi-Afrikkaan. Lehdissä painottuu paikallisten halukkuus ja innokkuus uskoa juuri SRK:n ja LLC:n opettamalla tavalla. Kulttuurisia eroja korostetaan silloin, kun ne ovat uskon edistämisen kannalta positiivisia ja sivuutetaan, jos ne ovat ongelmallisia. Suurimpana haasteena lähetystyölle lehdet ilmoittavat olevan varojen puutteet sekä paikallisten matala elintaso, jotka ovat toimivan infrastruktuurin rakentamisen esteenä. Artikkeleiden yhtenä tarkoituksena on paitsi lähetystyön etenemisen raportointi myös taloudellisen tuen kerääminen SRK:n lähetystyölle. SRK:n ja LLC:n lähetystyö edustaa valistuksen modernia paradigmaa, jossa uskonto pyritään siirtämään toiseen kulttuurin mahdollisimman tarkasti kulttuuriset eroavaisuudet sivuuttaen. Vanhoillislestadiolaisuuden eksklusiivinen seurakuntakäsitys vahvistaa SRK:n ja LLC:n halukkuutta säilyttää uskonnon harjoittamistapa mahdollisimman samanlaisena kaikkialla maailmassa. SLS puolestaan edustaa postmodernia ekumeenista paradigmaa, jossa lähetystyössä pyritään huomioimaan ja hyväksymään kulttuurisen kontekstin vaikutukset uskon ymmärtämiseen. Uskonnon harjoittamiseen, ymmärtämiseen ja opillisiin korostuksiin liittyvät eroavaisuudet nähdään haasteen sijasta mahdollisuutena laajentaa yhteistä ymmärrystä uskosta.
  • Villberg, Jaana (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Tässä tutkielmassa kuvataan tekijöitä, jotka haittaavat naisten toimintaa kunnanvaltuutettuina tehokkaalla tai naisten itsensä haluamalla tavalla sekä vaikuttavat heidän mahdollisuuksiinsa vaikuttaa päätöksentekoon Ghanan paikallishallinnossa. Tutkimuksessa analysoidaan sekä paikallishallintoon nimitettyjen että vaaleilla valittujen naisten asemaa valtuutettuina, mitä aiemmissa tutkimuksissa Ghanan paikallishallinnosta ei ole tehty. Ghanassa nimittäin 30 prosenttia kunnanvaltuutetuista nimitetään tehtäväänsä. Lopulta tutkimuksessa analysoidaan nimitettyjen ja vaaleilla valittujen naisvaltuutettujen mahdollisuuksia edustaa halutessaan naisten intressejä. Hon kunnanvaltuuston tapaus oli erittäin kiinnostava, sillä vuonna 2006 naisten osuus kunnanvaltuutetuista nousi 35,7 prosenttiin. Aiemmin naisia oli ollut valtuustossa huomattavasti vähemmän. Tutkimusta varten tehtiin kenttätyötä Ghanassa. Tutkimus perustuu 16 Hon kunnanvaltuutetun haastatteluun ja kunnan pormestarin kanssa käytyyn keskusteluun. Kartoitan Hon kunnanvaltuuston naisvaltuutettujen toimintaan vaikuttavia tekijöitä ja naisedustajien työssä kohtaamia esteitä sekä naisvaltuutettujen omien kokemusten että miespuolisten kunnanvaltuutettujen näkemysten kautta. Tutkimustulokset osoittivat, että naisvaltuutetut kohtasivat työssään monia haasteita. Moni esteistä oli yhdistettävissä toimimattomiin rakenteisiin, miehisiin normeihin ja käytäntöihin sekä toisaalta naisten miehiä huonompaan sosiaaliseen asemaan. Esimerkiksi liikkuminen vaalialueella ja jopa kokouksiin saapuminen oli joillekin naisille suuri haaste. Myös paikallisten ihmisten vaatimukset saada henkilökohtaista rahallista hyötyä valtuutetuilta nousivat esiin naisten esteenä. Toisaalta näkemysten esittäminen kokouksissa vaikutti naisille ongelmalliselta eli huomio kiinnittyi naisten poliittiseen kokemattomuuteen sekä valtuuston institutionaaliseen kulttuuriin. Nimitettyjen naisten asema kunnanvaltuustossa paljastui erilaiseksi kuin vaaleilla valittujen naisedustajien. Nimitettyjen edustajien järjestelmä, jota on perusteltu mahdollisuutena lisätä naisten intressien edustusta paikallishallinnossa, näyttäytyi tutkimusten tulosten perusteella kyseenalaisena keinona lisätä naisten edustusta paikallishallinnossa. Nimitettyjä valtuutettuja ei esimerkiksi nähty legitiimeinä ihmisten edustajina paikallishallinnossa vaan heidän katsottiin edistävän puolueensa intressejä, ei paikallisten ihmisten. Nimitettyjen edustajien järjestelmä myös paljastui paikalliselle poliittiselle eliitille suosiolliseksi järjestelmäksi valita kiintiön kautta edustajiksi itselleen, ei paikallisille ihmisille tai paikallisille naisille, sopivia edustajia.