Browsing by Subject "Global change"

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  • Terraube, Julien (2019)
    This Forum article synthesizes the current evidence on the links between predator-prey interactions, protected areas and spatial variations in Lyme disease risk in Fennoscandia. I suggest key research directions to better understand the role of protected areas in promoting the persistence of diverse predator guilds. Conserving predators could help reducing host populations and Lyme disease risk in northern Europe. There is an urgent need to find possible win-win solutions for biodiversity conservation and human health in ecosystems facing rapid global environmental change.
  • Sumasgutner, Petra; Terraube, Julien; Coulon, Aurélie; Villers, Alexandre; Chakarov, Nayden; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Korpimäki, Erkki (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Selecting high-quality habitat and the optimal time to reproduce can increase individual fitness and is a strong evolutionary factor shaping animal populations. However, few studies have investigated the interplay between land cover heterogeneity, limitation in food resources, individual quality and spatial variation in fitness parameters. Here, we explore how individuals of different quality respond to possible mismatches between a cue for prey availability (land cover heterogeneity) and the actual fluctuating prey abundance. Results We analyse timing of breeding and reproductive success in a migratory population of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) breeding in nest-boxes, over a full three-year abundance cycle of main prey (voles), and consider several components of individual quality, including body condition, blood parasite infection, and genetic diversity (n = 448 adults) that act on different time scales. Older individuals, and kestrel parents in higher body condition started egg-laying earlier than younger birds and those in lower body condition. Additionally, egg-laying was initiated earlier during the increase and decrease phases (2011 and 2012) than during the low phase of the vole cycle (2013). Nestling survival (ratio of eggs that fledged successfully) was higher in early nests and in heterogeneous landscapes (i.e., mosaic of different habitat types), which was evident during the increase and decrease phases of the vole cycle, but not during the low vole year. Conclusions We found a strong positive effect of landscape heterogeneity on nestling survival, but only when voles were relatively abundant, whereas a difference in the timing of breeding related to territory landscape heterogeneity was not evident. Therefore, landscape heterogeneity appeared as the main driver of high reproductive performance under favourable food conditions. Our results show that landscape homogenization linked to agricultural intensification disrupts the expected positive effect of vole abundance on reproductive success of kestrels.
  • Sumasgutner, Petra; Terraube, Julien; Coulon, Aurélie; Villers, Alexandre; Chakarov, Nayden; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Korpimäki, Erkki (2019)
    Selecting high-quality habitat and the optimal time to reproduce can increase individual fitness and is a strong evolutionary factor shaping animal populations. However, few studies have investigated the interplay between land cover heterogeneity, limitation in food resources, individual quality and spatial variation in fitness parameters. Here, we explore how individuals of different quality respond to possible mismatches between a cue for prey availability (land cover heterogeneity) and the actual fluctuating prey abundance.
  • Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Anneville, Orlane; Arnaud, Fabien; Baulaz, Yoann; Bouffard, Damien; Domaizon, Isabelle; Bocaniov, Serghei A.; Chevre, Nathalie; Dittrich, Maria; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Dunlop, Erin S.; Dur, Gael; Guillard, Jean; Guinaldo, Thibault; Jacquet, Stephan; Jamoneau, Aurelien; Jawed, Zobia; Jeppesen, Erik; Krantzberg, Gail; Lenters, John; Leoni, Barbara; Meybeck, Michel; Nava, Veronica; Noges, Tiina; Noges, Peeter; Patelli, Martina; Pebbles, Victoria; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Rasconi, Serena; Ruetz, Carl R.; Rudstam, Lars; Salmaso, Nico; Sapna, Sharma; Straile, Dietmar; Tammeorg, Olga; Twiss, Michael R.; Uzarski, Donald G.; Ventela, Anne-Mari; Vincent, Warwick F.; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Wangberg, Sten-Ake; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. (2020)
    Large lakes of the world are habitats for diverse species, including endemic taxa, and are valuable resources that provide humanity with many ecosystem services. They are also sentinels of global and local change, and recent studies in limnology and paleolimnology have demonstrated disturbing evidence of their collective degradation in terms of depletion of resources (water and food), rapid warming and loss of ice, destruction of habitats and ecosystems, loss of species, and accelerating pollution. Large lakes are particularly exposed to anthropogenic and climatic stressors. The Second Warning to Humanity provides a framework to assess the dangers now threatening the world's large lake ecosystems and to evaluate pathways of sustainable development that are more respectful of their ongoing provision of services. Here we review current and emerging threats to the large lakes of the world, including iconic examples of lake management failures and successes, from which we identify priorities and approaches for future conservation efforts. The review underscores the extent of lake resource degradation, which is a result of cumulative perturbation through time by long-term human impacts combined with other emerging stressors. Decades of degradation of large lakes have resulted in major challenges for restoration and management and a legacy of ecological and economic costs for future generations. Large lakes will require more intense conservation efforts in a warmer, increasingly populated world to achieve sustainable, high-quality waters. This Warning to Humanity is also an opportunity to highlight the value of a long-term lake observatory network to monitor and report on environmental changes in large lake ecosystems. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for Great Lakes Research.
  • Rantala, Marttiina V.; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Luoto, Tomi P.; Ojala, Antti. E. K.; Smol, John P.; Nevalainen, Liisa (2021)
    Global environmental change alters the production, terrestrial export, and photodegradation of organic carbon in northern lakes. Sedimentary biogeochemical records can provide a unique means to understand the nature of these changes over long time scales, where observational data fall short. We deployed in situ experiments on two shallow subarctic lakes with contrasting light regimes; a clear tundra lake and a dark woodland lake, to first investigate the photochemical transformation of carbon and nitrogen elemental (C/N ratio) and isotope (delta C-13, delta N-15) composition in lake water particulate organic matter (POM) for downcore inferences. We then explored elemental, isotopic, and spectral (inferred lake water total organic carbon [TOC] and sediment chlorophyll a [CHLa]) fingerprints in the lake sediments to trace changes in aquatic production, terrestrial inputs and photodegradation before and after profound human impacts on the global carbon cycle prompted by industrialization. POM pool in both lakes displayed tentative evidence of UV photoreactivity, reflected as increasing delta C-13 and decreasing C/N values. Through time, the tundra lake sediments traced subtle shifts in primary production, while the woodland lake carried signals of changing terrestrial contributions, indicating shifts in terrestrial carbon export but possibly also photodegradation rates. Under global human impact, both lakes irrespective of their distinct carbon regimes displayed evidence of increased productivity but no conspicuous signs of increased terrestrial influence. Overall, sediment biogeochemistry can integrate a wealth of information on carbon regulation in northern lakes, while our results also point to the importance of considering the entire spectrum of photobiogeochemical fingerprints in sedimentary studies.
  • Hällfors, Maria; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Aandahl, Tone; Lehtimäki, Iida-Maria; Nilsson, Lars Ola; Ruotsalainen, Anna; Schulman, Leif E.; Hyvärinen, Marko T. (2020)
    Ongoing anthropogenic climate change alters the local climatic conditions to which species may be adapted. Information on species' climatic requirements and their intraspecific variation is necessary for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. We used a climatic gradient to test whether populations of two allopatric varieties of an arctic seashore herb (Primula nutans ssp.finmarchica) show adaptation to their local climates and how a future warmer climate may affect them. Our experimental set-up combined a reciprocal translocation within the distribution range of the species with an experiment testing the performance of the sampled populations in warmer climatic conditions south of their range. We monitored survival, size, and flowering over four growing seasons as measures of performance and, thus, proxies of fitness. We found that both varieties performed better in experimental gardens towards the north. Interestingly, highest up in the north, the southern variety outperformed the northern one. Supported by weather data, this suggests that the climatic optima of both varieties have moved at least partly outside their current range. Further warming would make the current environments of both varieties even less suitable. We conclude that Primula nutans ssp. finmarchica is already suffering from adaptational lag due to climate change, and that further warming may increase this maladaptation, especially for the northern variety. The study also highlights that it is not sufficient to run only reciprocal translocation experiments. Climate change is already shifting the optimum conditions for many species and adaptation needs also to be tested outside the current range of the focal taxon in order to include both historic conditions and future conditions.
  • Valimaki, Kaisa; Linden, Andreas; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2016)
    A multitude of studies confirm that species have changed their distribution ranges towards higher elevations and towards the poles, as has been predicted by climate change forecasts. However, there is large interspecific variation in the velocity of range shifts. From a conservation perspective, it is important to understand which factors explain variation in the speed and the extent of range shifts, as these might be related to the species' extinction risk. Here, we study shifts in the mean latitude of occurrence, as weighted by population density, in different groups of landbirds using 40 years of line transect data from Finland. Our results show that the velocity of such density shifts differed among migration strategies and increased with decreasing body size of species, while breeding habitat had no influence. The slower velocity of large species could be related to their longer generation time and lower per capita reproduction that can decrease the dispersal ability compared to smaller species. In contrast to some earlier studies of range margin shifts, resident birds and partial migrants showed faster range shifts, while fully migratory species were moving more slowly. The results suggest that migratory species, especially long-distance migrants, which often show decreasing population trends, might also have problems in adjusting their distribution ranges to keep pace with global warming.