Browsing by Subject "Global warming"

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  • Monnens, Marlies; Frost, Emily J.; Clark, Miriam; Sewell, Mary A.; Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Artois, Tom (2019)
    A new rhabdocoel of the genus Syndesmis Silliman, 1881 (Umagillidae) is described from the intestine of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus (Valenciennes, 1846) Mortensen, 1943a. This new species, Syndesmis kurakaikina n. sp., is morphologically distinct and can easily be recognised by its very long (+/- 1 mm) styles and its bright-red colour. In addition to providing a formal description, we present some observations on reproduction and life history of this new species. Fecundity is comparable to that of other umagillids and the rate of egg production and development increases with temperature. Hatching in this species is induced by intestinal fluids of its host. Relevant to global warming, we assessed the effect of temperature on survival, fecundity, and development. The tests indicate that Syndesmis kurakaikina n. sp. is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures (11-25 degrees C) and that its temperature optimum lies between 18.0 and 21.5 degrees C. Egg viability is, however, significantly compromised at the higher end of this temperature range, with expelled egg capsules often being deformed and showing increasingly lower rates of hatching. Given this, a rise in global temperature might increase the risk of Syndesmis kurakaikina n. sp. infecting new hosts and would possibly facilitate the spread of these endosymbionts.
  • Heikkinen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Subarctic ponds are important habitats for many freshwater species. The recent increase in global temperatures have stressed on the study of these habitats as rising water temperatures may have severe consequences to these cold and harsh ecosystems. Despite its importance, this topic has been largely overlooked in scientific research. Diatoms are microscopic, single-celled benthic algae, which are important indicators for environmental quality. Elevation is one of the main environmental variables controlling the composition and richness of diatom species as it shapes communities through several environmental variables such as temperature and water chemistry. The aim of this thesis was to illustrate the variability in diatom species richness and community composition along an elevational gradient in Kilpisjärvi and reveal the most important environmental drivers. As an additional focus, the applicability of the BenthoTorch sampling device was tested in measuring benthic algae biomass. Field and laboratory measurements were done using universal standards. Statistical analyses included multiple univariate and multivariate data analysis techniques. It was found that water pH, aluminium concentration and air temperature explained the variation in species richness and community composition the most. Elevation had only a secondary, non-significant role in shaping the diatom communities in subarctic ponds. Nearby sites showed similar compositions in terms of water chemistry and diatom communities. Biotope characterisation did not provide any further insight into the differences or similarities of diatom community composition or species richness. There were some differences in how genera responded to environmental variables. The centre of distributional range of many taxa was below the mid-point of the elevational gradient but species often occupied the whole elevational gradient. Rare taxa appeared at the ends of the elevational spectrum. The amount of singleton taxa was high (25.8%) and can be expected to increase with climate change. The BenthoTorch did provide reasonable results for benthic algae in the subarctic when compared to previous literature, but further research is required to grasp its full potential. More examination into the relationship between explanatory variables can be suggested (e.g. total phosphorus and ion balance) to gain better understanding on the changes in diatom species richness and community composition along elevational gradients.
  • Szabo, Zoltan; Buczko, Krisztina; Haliuc, Aritina; Pal, Ilona; Korponai, Janos L.; Begy, Robert-Csaba; Veres, Daniel; Luoto, Tomi P.; Zsigmond, Andreea R.; Magyari, Eniko K. (2020)
    A multiproxy approach including chironomid, diatom, pollen and geochemical analyses was applied on short gravitational cores retrieved from an alpine lake (Lacul Balea) in the Southern Carpathians (Romania) to unveil how this lake responded to natural and anthropogenic forcing over the past 500 years.On the basis of chironomid and diatom assemblage changes, and supported by sediment chemical data and historical information, we distinguished two main phases in lake evolution. Before 1926 the lake was dominated by chironomids belonging to Micropsectra insignilobus-type and benthic diatoms suggesting well-oxygenated oligotrophic environment with only small-scale disturbance. We considered this state as the lake's safe operational space. After 1926 significant changes occurred: Tanytarsus lugens-type and T. mendax-type chironomids took over dominance and collector filterers increased until 1970 pointing to an increase in available nutrients. The diatom community showed the most pronounced change between 1950 and 1992 when planktonic diatoms increased. The highest trophic level was reconstructed between 1970 and 1992, while the indicator species of increasing nutrient availability, Asterionella formosa spread from 1982 and decreased rapidly at 1992. Statistical analyses evidenced that the main driver of the diatom community change was atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) fertilization that drastically moved the community towards planktonic diatom dominance from 1950. The transformation of the chironomid community was primarily driven by summer mean temperature increase that also changed the dominant feeding guild from collector gatherers to collector falterers. Our results overall suggest that the speed of ecosystem reorganisation showed an unprecedented increase over the last 100 years; biological systems in many cases underwent threshold type changes, while several system components displayed non-hysteretic change between alternating community composition. We conclude that Lake Balea is outside of its safe operating space today. The main trigger of changes since 1926 was climate change and human impact acting synergically. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Milicic, Marija; Vujic, Ante; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Climate change presents a serious threat to global biodiversity. Loss of pollinators in particular has major implications, with extirpation of these species potentially leading to severe losses in agriculture and, thus, economic losses. In this study, we forecast the effects of climate change on the distribution of hoverflies in Southeast Europe using species distribution modelling and climate change scenarios for two time-periods. For 2041-2060, 19 analysed species were predicted to increase their areas of occupancy, with the other 25 losing some of their ranges. For 2061-2080, 55% of species were predicted to increase their area of occupancy, while 45% were predicted to experience range decline. In general, range size changes for most species were below 20%, indicating a relatively high resilience of hoverflies to climate change when only environmental variables are considered. Additionally, range-restricted species are not predicted to lose more area proportionally to widespread species. Based on our results, two distributional trends can be established: the predicted gain of species in alpine regions, and future loss of species from lowland areas. Considering that the loss of pollinators from present lowland agricultural areas is predicted and that habitat degradation presents a threat to possible range expansion of hoverflies in the future, developing conservation management strategy for the preservation of these species is crucial. This study represents an important step towards the assessment of the effects of climate changes on hoverflies and can be a valuable asset in creating future conservation plan, thus helping in mitigating potential consequences.
  • Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Linden, Andreas; Karlsson, Mans; Andersson, Arne; Crewe, Tara L.; Dunn, Erica H.; Gregory, George; Karlsson, Lennart; Kristiansen, Vidar; Mackenzie, Stuart; Newman, Steve; Roer, Jan Erik; Sharpe, Chris; Sokolov, Leonid V.; Steinholtz, Asa; Stervander, Martin; Tirri, Ina-Sabrina; Tjornlov, Rune Skjold (2019)
    Climate change has been shown to shift the seasonal timing (i.e. phenology) and distribution of species. The phenological effects of climate change on living organisms have often been tested using first occurrence dates, which may be uninformative and biased. More rarely investigated is how different phases of a phenological sequence (e.g. beginning, central tendency and end) or its duration have changed over time. This type of analysis requires continuous observation throughout the phenological event over multiple years, and such data sets are rare. In this study we examined the impact of temperature on long-term change of passage timing and duration of the spring migration period in birds, and which species' traits explain species-specific variation. Data used covered 195 species from 21 European and Canadian bird observatories from which systematic daily sampling protocols were available. Migration dates were negatively associated with early spring temperature and timings had in general advanced in 57 years. Short-distance migrants advanced the beginning of their migration more than long-distance migrants when corrected for phylogenic relatedness, but such a difference was not found in other phases of migration. The advancement of migration has generally been greater for the beginning and median phases of migration relative to the end, leading to extended spring migration seasons. Duration of the migration season increased with increasing temperature. Phenological changes have also been less noticeable in Canada even when corrected for rate of change in temperature. To visualize long-term changes in phenology, we constructed the first multi-species spring migration phenology indicator to describe general changes in median migration dates in the northern hemisphere. The indicator showed an average advancement of one week during five decades across the continents (period 1959-2015). The indicator is easy to update with new data and we therefore encourage future research to investigate whether the trend towards longer periods of occurrence or emergence in spring is also evident in other migratory populations. Such phenological changes may influence detectability in monitoring schemes, and may have broader implications on population and community dynamics.
  • Rousi, Matti; Possen, Boy J. M. H.; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mikola, Juha (2019)
    Silver (Betula pendula) and pubescent birch (B. pubescens) are the two main broad-leaved tree species in boreal forests and Subarctic areas, with great significance for both northern societies and ecosystems. Silver birch has more economical importance as it grows taller, but pubescent birch reaches much further North. The adaptability and genetic diversity of Subarctic birch populations are assumed to derive from inter- and intraspecific hybridization. Southern pollen clouds could in turn increase the adaptability of northern populations to warming climate. In the boreal forest zone of warmer climate, incompatibility reactions may prevent interspecific hybridization and much depends on the synchrony of flowering. Direct in situ observations are, however, mostly lacking and earlier results concerning the spatial and temporal match of flowering phenology between the species are contradictory. Conclusions based on pollen catches may also be biased as the pollen of silver and pubescent birch are notoriously difficult to sort out and the geographical origin of pollen is virtually impossible to determine. Here we employ direct flowering observations and reanalyze old pollen and seed production data, collected along a South-North gradient in Finland, to shed more light on these issues. Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization is an unlikely mechanism of adaptation in silver and pubescent birch as there is no significant overlap in flowering either near Subarctic or in more southern boreal areas (covering latitudes 60-68 degrees N). Long-distance southern gene flow also unlikely has importance in the adaptation of northern populations to a warming climate as heat sum requirements for flowering in northern and southern populations are equal and northern birches are therefore not receptive at the time of southern flowering. Long-term data of pollen and seed production in turn suggest that pubescent birch is more effective in seed production through the whole South North gradient, but increasingly so towards the North. However, it appears that this difference is not due to silver birch flowering and regeneration being more sensitive to interannual variation as earlier suggested. Although there are more factors than reproduction alone that can affect species distributions, these two findings indicate that climate warming may not significantly alter the relative abundances of silver and pubescent birch in Subarctic Fennoscandia.