Browsing by Subject "Glucose metabolism"

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  • Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Berntzen, Bram; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2019)
  • Heiskanen, Marja A.; Honkala, Sanna M.; Hentila, Jaakko; Ojala, Ronja; Lautamäki, Riikka; Koskensalo, Kalle; Lietzen, Martin S.; Saunavaara, Virva; Saunavaara, Jani; Helmiö, Mika; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Collado, Maria C.; Malm, Tarja; Lahti, Leo; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rinne, Juha O.; Hannukainen, Jarna C. (2021)
    Background: Obesity and physical inactivity are major global public health concerns, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regulation of glucose homeostasis involves cross-talk between the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and gut microbiota, and is affected by genetics. Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS) aims to gain new systems-level understanding of the central metabolism in human body, and how exercise training affects this cross-talk. Methods: CROSSYS is an exercise training intervention, in which participants are monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) and within a pair at least the other is overweight. Twins are recruited from three population-based longitudinal Finnish twin studies, including twins born in 1983-1987, 1975-1979, and 1945-1958. The participants undergo 6-month-long exercise intervention period, exercising four times a week (including endurance, strength, and high-intensity training). Before and after the exercise intervention, comprehensive measurements are performed in Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland. The measurements include: two positron emission tomography studies (insulin-stimulated whole-body and tissue-specific glucose uptake and neuroinflammation), magnetic resonance imaging (brain morphology and function, quantification of body fat masses and organ volumes), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (quantification of fat within heart, pancreas, liver and tibialis anterior muscle), echocardiography, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies, a neuropsychological test battery as well as biosamples from blood, urine and stool. The participants also perform a maximal exercise capacity test and tests of muscular strength. Discussion: This study addresses the major public health problems related to modern lifestyle, obesity, and physical inactivity. An eminent strength of this project is the possibility to study monozygotic twin pairs that share the genome at the sequence level but are discordant for BMI that is a risk factor for metabolic impairments such as insulin resistance. Thus, this exercise training intervention elucidates the effects of obesity on metabolism and whether regular exercise training is able to reverse obesity-related impairments in metabolism in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors.
  • Heiskanen, Marja A.; Honkala, Sanna M.; Hentilä, Jaakko; Ojala, Ronja; Lautamäki, Riikka; Koskensalo, Kalle; Lietzén, Martin S.; Saunavaara, Virva; Saunavaara, Jani; Helmiö, Mika; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Collado, Maria C.; Malm, Tarja; Lahti, Leo; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rinne, Juha O.; Hannukainen, Jarna C. (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Obesity and physical inactivity are major global public health concerns, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regulation of glucose homeostasis involves cross-talk between the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and gut microbiota, and is affected by genetics. Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS) aims to gain new systems-level understanding of the central metabolism in human body, and how exercise training affects this cross-talk. Methods CROSSYS is an exercise training intervention, in which participants are monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) and within a pair at least the other is overweight. Twins are recruited from three population-based longitudinal Finnish twin studies, including twins born in 1983–1987, 1975–1979, and 1945–1958. The participants undergo 6-month-long exercise intervention period, exercising four times a week (including endurance, strength, and high-intensity training). Before and after the exercise intervention, comprehensive measurements are performed in Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland. The measurements include: two positron emission tomography studies (insulin-stimulated whole-body and tissue-specific glucose uptake and neuroinflammation), magnetic resonance imaging (brain morphology and function, quantification of body fat masses and organ volumes), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (quantification of fat within heart, pancreas, liver and tibialis anterior muscle), echocardiography, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies, a neuropsychological test battery as well as biosamples from blood, urine and stool. The participants also perform a maximal exercise capacity test and tests of muscular strength. Discussion This study addresses the major public health problems related to modern lifestyle, obesity, and physical inactivity. An eminent strength of this project is the possibility to study monozygotic twin pairs that share the genome at the sequence level but are discordant for BMI that is a risk factor for metabolic impairments such as insulin resistance. Thus, this exercise training intervention elucidates the effects of obesity on metabolism and whether regular exercise training is able to reverse obesity-related impairments in metabolism in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03730610 . Prospectively registered 5 November 2018.
  • Westberg, Anna P.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Aims: We aimed to examine the association between maternal adiposity and glucose metabolism in adult offspring without diabetes, simultaneous taking offspring own adiposity into account. Methods: This longitudinal birth cohort study (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study) included 1,440 non-diabetic subjects examined at a mean age of 62 years. Subjects were divided into quartiles according to maternal body mass index (BMI). The impact of maternal BMI on offspring body composition was also studied. Results: There were no differences in fasting glucose between the groups. In men, maternal BMI was inversely associated with mean 2-hour glucose concentration after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (p <0.001) and mean homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.049). According to the subjects' own BMI, high maternal BMI was associated with lower 2-hour glucose concentrations only in non-obese men and with lower HOMA-IR only in obese men. Maternal BMI was not associated with glucose concentrations nor with HOMA-IR in women. In addition, maternal BMI was positively associated with a higher offspring lean body mass in men. Conclusions: High maternal BMI was associated with lower 2-hour plasma glucose concentration, especially in non-obese men. Offspring lean body mass may be a mediating factor for the association. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.