Browsing by Subject "Governance"

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  • Hemminki, Elina (2015)
    Background: The relevance and quantity of clinical research has caused concern and regulation is claimed to hinder clinical research. This paper compares clinical research regulations in Finland to those of England, Canada, and the USA around 2010-2011. Methods: Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi-or unstructured interviews of experts. For the analysis, a theoretical framework was made, data from various sources was synthesized, and features of the systems were simplified and classified. The various specific names and terms used in the data were changed into general ones. Results: Common structures for the regulation existed in all four countries, but the details and scope varied. The research regulated within the main system was determined by research type (Finland), the financer of the health system (England), or research site (Canada, USA). Only Finland had specific legislation on medical research. The overriding impression of the regulatory systems was one of complexity. All countries had extra regulation for drug research. The types of drug research covered varied from trials with unlicensed (new) products or new indications (USA and Canada), to all types of interventional drug research (England), where 'interventional' was interpreted broadly (Finland). The complexity of regulations had led to the creation of various big and small businesses to help researchers and sponsors. There was notable variation in the role played by the public research funder. The role played by health care was difficult to study and seemed to involve varying interests as researchers were also health care employees. Research ethics committees were important and their tasks also included aspects other than ethics. Conclusions: This study revealed that a comparison between countries can provide useful insights into the distinctive aspects of each country's system, as well as identifying common features that require international action.
  • Kedrin, Ivan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The research belongs to the sphere of anti-corruption and attempts to enrich the knowledge on Bosnia and Herzegovina's anti-corruption policy and its features. The research question is associated with the facts that Bosnia and Herzegovina pursues the inconsistent policy in the sphere and analysts notice flaws in the policy. The present research introduces the assumption that anti-corruption reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina were aimed at decreasing the level of attention to state's internal policy on the part of international organizations and at simplifying and accelerating the admission to the European Union. The current project is linked to neo-institutionalism as methodological framework. The general purpose of the investigation is to identify the conditions and processes related to the choice of such a policy by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Exploring the research question the qualitative content analysis and expert interviews are applied. The qualitative content analysis is used to take into account reports of international organizations monitoring the process of reforms in the country while expert interviews serve as a method for the profound examination of the Bosnian case. Thus, the results anticipated involve a complete analysis of the anti-corruption agenda in Bosnia and Herzegovina and findings giving a valid explanation for the inconsistencies in its implementation.
  • Miras, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how people displaced by climate change can be accommodated within the European Union's existing migration governance system while taking into consideration the recent failures and injustices of this system during the so-called refugee crisis. The intention for framing the discussion about climate-induced migration in the context of the refugee crisis is not to compare or equate the two phenomena but to highlight the many injustices and protection gaps that exist under the current migration regimes, and to analyze how climate change will impact these regimes and the legal protections provided for migrants, asylum seekers, and displaced peoples. To begin this analysis, this thesis first looks at the relationship between climate change and migration, where it is determined that climate-induced migration is a complex and multi-causal phenomenon that can impact human mobility in multiple ways. People displaced by climate change face multiple protection gaps in both international and EU law, and there is currently no distinct instrument or coherent policy approach from the EU that is directly applicable to ‘climate migrants’ or climate-induced migration. The second part of this analysis looks at the fractured structure of EU migration governance and how the systems and mechanisms in place failed to adequately protect asylum seekers during the refugee crisis, with a focus on the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). This analysis showed that the EU failed to implement its supranational migration policies efficiently during the refugee crisis, which had a detrimental impact on securing and ensuring the legal protections of migrants and asylum seekers. Part of this failure was due to the lack of unity and trust between Member States, and also because the EU adopted an increasingly securitized approach to migration, abandoning its human rights obligations in order to create a false sense of security. The conclusion of this study found that the increasing securitization of both climate change and the EU’s migration and asylum policies will likely have negative consequences for people displaced by climate change and seeking protection in the EU. The continual and persistent portrayal of climate-induced migration as a potential security threat has hindered the development of any effective policies to address the issue, and the EU has shown little political will to radically rethink its current migration laws, mechanisms, or governance systems. The impacts of climate change will only further contribute to the protection gaps and marginalization that migrants and asylum seekers already face, and the way forward is to continue funding scientific research that captures the complex and multi-causal nature of climate-induced migration, which will help move migration and asylum policies beyond their current securitized outlook and provide evidence-based policies that will better protect those displaced by climate change.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Ubani, Martin; Sakaranaho, Tuula (Springer, 2020)
    SpringerBriefs in Religious Studies
    This chapter seeks take part in an emerging research where religion is approached as a whole school endeavor. Previous research and policy recommendations typically focused on teaching about religion in school, but the accommodation of religious diversity in the wider school culture merits more attention. Based on observations in our multiple case studies, we discuss the multi-level governance of religious diversity in Finnish multi-faith schools with a particular focus on the challenges of religious literacy for educators. The three examples we present focus on the inclusion of Muslims in Finnish schools and in particular on the challenges for educator (1) in interpreting the distinction between religion and culture, (2) in recognizing and handling intra-religious diversity, and (3) in being aware of Protestant conceptions of religion and culture. A theme cutting across these examples is how they reflect the tendencies either to see different situations merely through the lens of religion (religionisation), or not to recognize the importance of religion at all (religion-blindness). We argue that religious literacy should be recognized and developed as a vital part of the intercultural competencies of educators.
  • Mähönen, Jukka Tapio (2020)
    Corporate reporting and governance are interlinked: Accounting and reporting inventions created the modern company, and without the modern company there is no entity from which to report. Due to its raison d’etre, reporting remained finance-centered, to protect financial capital providers. From the 1970’s, the question of the interests of ‘stakeholders’ emerged, with attempts of ‘social reporting’, ‘corporate social responsibility’, ‘environmental’, and ‘social and environmental’ and finally ‘integrated’ accounting and reporting. These trends are reflected also in the European Union legal framework, both in regulation of especially financial intermediaries and the ‘non-financial’ reporting. This article is based on an extensive literature review, research conducted in the Sustainable Market Actors for Responsible Trade (SMART) project, and socio-legal and economic empirical research based conceptual analysis of the impact of these reporting systems and their relationship to financial accounting and reporting. The result of the research is that sustainability is reduced to focus on institutional investors and other members in the investment supply chain, and climate change issues only, and new regulatory solutions are required. Based on the most recent developments in EU law and in European jurisdictions, possible paths forward are envisaged to encourage sustainability in reporting and assurance, and through that, in governance. As an outcome a set of regulatory reform proposals are given based on the SMART recommendations.
  • Aarrevaara, Timo; Sakaranaho, Tuula; Konttori, Johanna (Springer, 2020)
    SpringerBriefs in Religious Studies
    In this book we have sought new perspectives for religious literacy by defining it as a governance function in society. This concluding chapter examines the frameworks for creating new knowledge and skills for actors in the civil service, in other service sectors and industry by considering the expositions of chapter authors elsewhere in the book. As noted variously by the authors, there is no unified scholarly debate on religious literacy, but there is a debate that should be recognised in Finnish society with its expanding pluralism by understanding how secular laws and religious practices intersect will be greatly improved as increased religious literacy develops in Finland. Religious literacy should be seen broadly within civil administration as a key factor in its performance.
  • Lehikoinen, Annukka Maaria; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet (2019)
    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of natural resources requires recognition of the systemic intertwining of ecosystems and human society and an inter-sectoral approach. We used a Bayesian influence diagram to integrate different types of knowledge for evaluating alternative sectoral and inter-sectoral strategies to manage the dioxin problem of Baltic salmon and herring fisheries. The following strategies were evaluated: 1) decreasing dioxin and nutrient loading to the ecosystem, 2) herring and salmon fishing strategies, 3) dietary recommendations, and 4) improved information concerning the benefits of fish eating. In total nine decisions and their combinations were evaluated in the light of three alternative assessment criteria: 1) the dioxin concentrations of Baltic herring and salmon, 2) the human consumption of Baltic salmon and herring, and the associated health risks and benefits, and 3) the commercial value of herring and salmon catches. The results demonstrate the requirement to understand the effects of management measures in a holistic way: managing only one species or policy domain may not be effective, and may also have unanticipated systemic effects in the ecosystem. In general, optimal management depends to some extent on the assessment criteria used, as well as the order in which the decisions are made. Unsynchronized management decisions in different sectors may decrease each other’s effectiveness. This implies that to control the dioxin problem as effectively as possible, collaboration between the public health, environmental and fisheries sectors is needed.
  • Gritsenko, Daria (2018)
    This paper contributes to the development of a polycentric perspective on energy infrastructure governance by developing the concept of network of adjacent actions situations (NAAS). Examining the case of LNG infrastructure development in the Baltic Sea region, it clarifies how choices made in interlinked policy areas may affect infrastructural policy output in a regional context. It is argued that LNG is expanding as a new major energy technology around the Baltic due to its capacity to fulfill policy expectations in three issue-areas: enhancing energy security, providing low-sulphur bunker fuel, and balancing renewables in the power sector. The analysis of linkages between these actions situations emphasizes the spatial, temporal, and discursive aspects of energy infrastructure governance at the regional level. The application of NAAS as an analytical tool to map out the unintended consequences of infrastructural choices is relevant in policymaking.
  • Aaltonen, Aleksi (2011)
    In this paper we propose a theoretical framework to understand the governance of internet-mediated social production. Focusing on one of the most popular websites and reference tools, Wikipedia, we undertake an exploratory theoretical analysis to clarify the structure and mechanisms driving the endogenous change of a large-scale social production system. We argue that the popular transactions costs approach underpinning many of the analyses is an insufficient framework for unpacking the evolutionary character of governance. The evolution of Wikipedia and its shifting modes of governance can be better framed as a process of building a collective capability, namely the capability of editing and managing a new kind of encyclopedia. We understand Wikipedia evolution as a learning phenomenon that gives over time rise to governance mechanisms and structures as endogenous responses to the problems and conditions that the ongoing development of Wikipedia itself has produced over the years. Finally, we put forward five empirical hypotheses to test the theoretical framework.
  • Munck af Rosenschold, Johan (2019)
    The study of short-term projects to implement policy has lately gained ground among scholars of environmental governance and public administration. The increasing reliance on and prevalence of projects, or ‘projectification’, has spurred critical debates on the ability of projects to contribute to long-term goals, including sustainability, as well as institutional change. Yet, the literature on projectification lacks specificity in terms of how projects are understood, how the relationship between projects and permanent organizations looks like, and how projects can influence institutional orders. The aim of this paper is to systematize the literature in order to uncover the process of transforming project outputs into institutional change. Three models of projectified governance – mechanistic, organic, and adaptive – is presented, providing a conceptual apparatus that advances the study of projects in environmental policy and governance. The paper argues that the adaptive model, with its reliance on multi-scalar networks for the coordination of project activities and knowledge, shows most promise in achieving institutional change to address complex environmental problems.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina (2018)
    Cities in different parts of the world are going through intensive transformations based on institutional efforts to govern urban spaces and populations in the face of global environmental change and neoliberalization of governance. This essay examines inequalities and interconnectivities in urban governance and justice, drawing on a case-study of three, socially-differentiated sectors of the city of Villahermosa, Mexico, between 2011 and 2016. My analysis contributes to a multi-dimensional approach toward justice, and the cognate fields of right to the city, and segregation and inequality, that encompasses: (1) (re)distribution of residents’ exposure to risks and access to services; (2) recognition of the causes and consequences of risks and vulnerabilities; (3) fields of representation available for different residents; and (4) residents’ capabilities to recover from disasters and achieve everyday well-being within the existing urban governance and service provision structures. Instead of conceptualizing segregated cities as composed of isolated worlds, I argue that it is only possible to understand how the prevailing forms of governance produce multifaceted inequalities through a relational analysis of how residents from different parts of the city interact with the authorities and with each other. The study shows how residents’ tactics to accommodate, reconfigure and contest institutional endeavors to place them in hierarchical positions link to their differentiated ways of constructing urban space.
  • Buijs, Arjen; Elands, Birgit; Havik, Gilles; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca; Gerőházi, Eva; van der Jagt, Alexander; Mattijssen, Thomas; Steen Møller, Maja; Vierikko, Kati Hannele (Green surge, 2016)
    In this report we have investigated 18 examples of innovative governance arrangements in urban green space management across Europe. In this analyses, we focused on three interrelated research questions: i) What do innovative governance arrangements look like in terms of aims, actors, structure, contexts, dynamics, and which of their elements can be seen as innovative? ii) Which are the most important perceived effects of these arrangements in their environmental and political contexts? iii) What lessons can be drawn from the supporting and hindering factors for these arrangements, and the power dynamics that take place?
  • Sakaranaho, Tuula; Aarrevaara, Timo; Konttori, Johanna (Springer, 2020)
    SpringerBriefs in Religious Studies
    Religion has become a pressing matter in different fields of multicultural European society, which raises the question as to how best to govern religious diversity. What we argue in this book is that a successful governance of religious diversity necessitates the development of religious literacy. As such, religious literacy can be understood in a variety of ways depending on the particular context. This book draws on different empirical case studies concerning Finland, covering traditional Finnish religious movements and issues pertaining to immigration and the growing ethnic and religious diversity of Finnish society. In doing so, it delves, among other matters, into the field of school education and state policies against radicalization and violence.
  • Mäenpää, Hanna; Mäkinen, Simo; Kilamo, Terhi; Mikkonen, Tommi; Männistö, Tomi; Ritala, Paavo (2018)
    This article examines organization and governance of commercially influenced Open Source Software development communities by presenting a multiple-case study of six contemporary, hybrid OSS projects. The findings provide in-depth understanding on how to design the participatory nature of the software development process, while understanding the factors that influence the delicate balance of openness, motivations, and governance. The results lay ground for further research on how to organize and manage developer communities where needs of the stakeholders are competing, yet complementary.
  • Mäenpää, Hanna; Mäkinen, Simo; Kilamo, Terhi; Mikkonen, Tommi; Männistö, Tomi; Ritala, Paavo (Springer London, 2018)
    Abstract This article examines organization and governance of commercially influenced Open Source Software development communities by presenting a multiple-case study of six contemporary, hybrid OSS projects. The findings provide in-depth understanding on how to design the participatory nature of the software development process, while understanding the factors that influence the delicate balance of openness, motivations, and governance. The results lay ground for further research on how to organize and manage developer communities where needs of the stakeholders are competing, yet complementary.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (Издательство Европейского университета в Санкт-Петербурге, 2017)
    Серия препринтов Центра исследований модернизации
  • Titus, Brian K.; Brown, Kevin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Vanguelova, Elena; Stupak, Inge; Evans, Alexander; Clarke, Nicholas; Guidi, Claudia; Bruckman, Viktor J.; Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kęstutis; de Vries, Wim; Hirai, Keizo; Kaarakka, Lilli; Hogg, Karen; Reece, Pam (2021)
    Forest biomass harvesting guidelines help ensure the ecological sustainability of forest residue harvesting for bioenergy and bioproducts, and hence contribute to social license for a growing bioeconomy. Guidelines, typically voluntary, provide a means to achieve outcomes often required by legislation, and must address needs related to local or regional context, jurisdictional compatibility with regulations, issues of temporal and spatial scale, and incorporation of appropriate scientific information. Given this complexity, comprehensive reviews of existing guidelines can aid in development of new guidelines or revision of existing ones. We reviewed 32 guidelines covering 43 jurisdictions in the USA, Canada, Europe and East Asia to expand upon information evaluated and recommendations provided in previous guideline reviews, and compiled a searchable spreadsheet of direct quotations from documents as a foundation for our review. Guidelines were considered in the context of sustainable forest management (SFM), focusing on guideline scope and objectives, environmental sustainability concerns (soils, site productivity, biodiversity, water and carbon) and social concerns (visual aesthetics, recreation, and preservation of cultural, historical and archaeological sites). We discuss the role of guidelines within the context of other governance mechanisms such as SFM policies, trade regulations and non-state market-driven (NSMD) standards, including certification systems. The review provides a comprehensive resource for those developing guidelines, or defining sustainability standards for market access or compliance with public regulations, and/or concerned about the sustainability of forest biomass harvesting. We recommend that those developing or updating guidelines consider (i) the importance of well-defined and understood terminology, consistent where possible with guidelines in other jurisdictions or regions; (ii) guidance based on locally relevant research, and periodically updated to incorporate current knowledge and operational experience; (iii) use of indicators of sensitive soils, sites, and stands which are relevant to ecological processes and can be applied operationally; and (iv) incorporation of climate impacts, long-term soil carbon storage, and general carbon balance considerations when defining sustainable forest biomass availability. Successful implementation of guidelines depends both on the relevance of the information and on the process used to develop and communicate it; hence, appropriate stakeholders should be involved early in guideline development.
  • Tynkkynen, Nina; Schönach, Paula; Pihlajamäki, Mia; Nechiporuk, Dmitry (2014)
  • Selier, Sarah-Anne Jeanetta; Slotow, Rob; Di Minin, Enrico (2016)
    Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans. We used elephant count data from aerial surveys for seven years in a generalized linear model, which accounted for temporal correlation, to investigate the effect of six socioeconomic and ecological variables on the number of elephant at the country level in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area (GMTFCA). Important factors in predicting elephant numbers were the proportion of total land surface under cultivation, human population density and the number of tourists visiting the country. Specifically, elephant numbers were higher where the proportion of total land surface under cultivation was the lowest; where population density was the lowest and where tourist numbers had increased over the years. Our results confirm that human disturbance is affecting elephant numbers, but highlight that the benefits provided by ecotourism could help enhance elephant conservation. While future studies should include larger areas and more detailed data at the site level, we stress that the development of coordinated legislation and policies to improve land-use planning are needed to reduce the impact of increasing human populations and agriculture on elephant.