Browsing by Subject "Growth"

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  • Palviainen, Marjo; Aaltonen, Heidi; Laurén, Ari; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2020)
    Biochar is charred material formed by the pyrolysis of organic matter. The addition of biochar to soil may offer a chance to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon stocks, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth. Vast majority of biochar studies are conducted in agricultural soils, and field experiments studying the effect of biochar on tree growth in boreal forests are lacking. We applied spruce biochar amendments of 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1) to the soil surface in young boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland and studied the responses in tree growth and needle nitrogen (N) and N-15 concentrations during the first three years after treatment. The biochar amendment of 10 Mg ha(-1) increased the diameter growth of dominant trees significantly, on average by 1 mm year(-1), which corresponded to 25% increase compared to control during the three years study period. The positive growth responses were less pronounced in height than in diameter growth. The biochar amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) increased the height growth of dominant trees by 0.16 m or 12% compared to the control during three years. Biochar amendments did not affect N and N-15 concentrations in needles. The results suggest that wood biochar amendment can be a climate-friendly method to increase tree biomass production in nutrient poor, xeric, young Scots pine forests.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Aaltonen, Heidi; Laurén, Ari; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2020)
    Biochar is charred material formed by the pyrolysis of organic matter. The addition of biochar to soil may offer a chance to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon stocks, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth. Vast majority of biochar studies are conducted in agricultural soils, and field experiments studying the effect of biochar on tree growth in boreal forests are lacking. We applied spruce biochar amendments of 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1) to the soil surface in young boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland and studied the responses in tree growth and needle nitrogen (N) and N-15 concentrations during the first three years after treatment. The biochar amendment of 10 Mg ha(-1) increased the diameter growth of dominant trees significantly, on average by 1 mm year(-1), which corresponded to 25% increase compared to control during the three years study period. The positive growth responses were less pronounced in height than in diameter growth. The biochar amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) increased the height growth of dominant trees by 0.16 m or 12% compared to the control during three years. Biochar amendments did not affect N and N-15 concentrations in needles. The results suggest that wood biochar amendment can be a climate-friendly method to increase tree biomass production in nutrient poor, xeric, young Scots pine forests.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Aaltonen, Heidi; Laurén, Ari; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2020)
    Biochar is charred material formed by the pyrolysis of organic matter. The addition of biochar to soil may offer a chance to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon stocks, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth. Vast majority of biochar studies are conducted in agricultural soils, and field experiments studying the effect of biochar on tree growth in boreal forests are lacking. We applied spruce biochar amendments of 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1) to the soil surface in young boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland and studied the responses in tree growth and needle nitrogen (N) and N-15 concentrations during the first three years after treatment. The biochar amendment of 10 Mg ha(-1) increased the diameter growth of dominant trees significantly, on average by 1 mm year(-1), which corresponded to 25% increase compared to control during the three years study period. The positive growth responses were less pronounced in height than in diameter growth. The biochar amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) increased the height growth of dominant trees by 0.16 m or 12% compared to the control during three years. Biochar amendments did not affect N and N-15 concentrations in needles. The results suggest that wood biochar amendment can be a climate-friendly method to increase tree biomass production in nutrient poor, xeric, young Scots pine forests.
  • Mikkola, T. M.; von Bonsdorff, M. B.; Osmond, C.; Salonen, M. K.; Kajantie, E.; Cooper, C.; Valimaki, M. J.; Eriksson, J. G. (2017)
    We examined the associations between childhood growth and bone properties among women at early old age. Early growth in height predicted greater bone area and higher bone mineral mass. However, information on growth did not improve prediction of bone properties beyond that predicted by body size at early old age. We examined the associations between body size at birth and childhood growth with bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early old age. A subgroup of women (n = 178, mean 60.4 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-1944, participated in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the lumbar spine and hip. Height and weight at 0, 2, 7, and 11 years, obtained from health care records, were reconstructed into conditional variables representing growth velocity independent of earlier growth. Weight was adjusted for corresponding height. Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders. Birth length and growth in height before 7 years of age were positively associated with femoral neck area (p <0.05) and growth in height at all age periods studied with spine bone area (p <0.01). Growth in height before the age of 7 years was associated with BMC in the femoral neck (p <0.01) and birth length and growth in height before the age of 7 years were associated with BMC in the spine (p <0.05). After entering adult height into the models, nearly all associations disappeared. Weight gain during childhood was not associated with bone area or BMC, and aBMD was not associated with early growth. Optimal growth in height in girls is important for obtaining larger skeleton and consequently higher bone mass. However, when predicting bone mineral mass among elderly women, information on early growth does not improve prediction beyond that predicted by current height and weight.
  • Peivastegan, Bahram; Hadizadeh, Iman; Nykyri, Johanna; Nielsen, Kare Lehmann; Somervuo, Panu; Sipari, Nina; Tran, Cuong; Pirhonen, Minna (2019)
    BackgroundStored potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are sensitive to wet conditions that can cause rotting in long-term storage. To study the effect of water on the tuber surface during storage, microarray analysis, RNA-Seq profiling, qRT-PCR and phytohormone measurements were performed to study gene expression and hormone content in wet tubers incubated at two temperatures: 4 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The growth of the plants was also observed in a greenhouse after the incubation of tubers in wet conditions.ResultsWet conditions induced a low-oxygen response, suggesting reduced oxygen availability in wet tubers at both temperatures when compared to that in the corresponding dry samples. Wet conditions induced genes coding for heat shock proteins, as well as proteins involved in fermentative energy production and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are transcripts that have been previously associated with low-oxygen stress in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Wet treatment also induced senescence-related gene expression and genes involved in cell wall loosening, but downregulated genes encoding protease inhibitors and proteins involved in chloroplast functions and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Many genes involved in the production of phytohormones and signaling were also affected by wet conditions, suggesting altered regulation of growth by wet conditions. Hormone measurements after incubation showed increased salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) concentrations as well as reduced production of jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in wet tubers. After incubation in wet conditions, the tubers produced fewer stems and more roots compared to controls incubated in dry conditions.ConclusionsIn wet conditions, tubers invest in ROS protection and defense against the abiotic stress caused by reduced oxygen due to excessive water. Changes in ABA, SA and IAA that are antagonistic to jasmonates affect growth and defenses, causing induction of root growth and rendering tubers susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens. Water on the tuber surface may function as a signal for growth, similar to germination of seeds.
  • Peivastegan, Bahram; Hadizadeh, Iman; Nykyri, Johanna; Nielsen, Kåre L; Somervuo, Panu; Sipari, Nina; Tran, Cuong; Pirhonen, Minna (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Stored potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are sensitive to wet conditions that can cause rotting in long-term storage. To study the effect of water on the tuber surface during storage, microarray analysis, RNA-Seq profiling, qRT-PCR and phytohormone measurements were performed to study gene expression and hormone content in wet tubers incubated at two temperatures: 4 °C and 15 °C. The growth of the plants was also observed in a greenhouse after the incubation of tubers in wet conditions. Results Wet conditions induced a low-oxygen response, suggesting reduced oxygen availability in wet tubers at both temperatures when compared to that in the corresponding dry samples. Wet conditions induced genes coding for heat shock proteins, as well as proteins involved in fermentative energy production and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are transcripts that have been previously associated with low-oxygen stress in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Wet treatment also induced senescence-related gene expression and genes involved in cell wall loosening, but downregulated genes encoding protease inhibitors and proteins involved in chloroplast functions and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Many genes involved in the production of phytohormones and signaling were also affected by wet conditions, suggesting altered regulation of growth by wet conditions. Hormone measurements after incubation showed increased salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) concentrations as well as reduced production of jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in wet tubers. After incubation in wet conditions, the tubers produced fewer stems and more roots compared to controls incubated in dry conditions. Conclusions In wet conditions, tubers invest in ROS protection and defense against the abiotic stress caused by reduced oxygen due to excessive water. Changes in ABA, SA and IAA that are antagonistic to jasmonates affect growth and defenses, causing induction of root growth and rendering tubers susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens. Water on the tuber surface may function as a signal for growth, similar to germination of seeds.
  • Seppä-Lassila, Leena; Eerola, Ulla; Orro, Toomas; Härtel, Heidi; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo (2017)
    Healthy, thriving calves are essential for beef calf production. We studied the health status and factors associated with the growth of beef calves in six cow-calf herds during the first month of the calves’ lives and at weaning age (200 days). The six herds were visited three times, when calves were approximately 3 days, 16 days and 30 days of age. On each visit calves (n=37) were clinically examined, weighed or measured, blood samples were collected, faecal samples obtained and deep nasopharyngeal swabs were taken. Each blood sample was analysed for acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid-A, fibrinogen), total proteins and albumin, the faecal sample for intestinal tract pathogens (rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella, oocysts of Eimeria coccidia and Cryptosporidium, and nematode eggs), and the nasopharyngeal swab for respiratory tract pathogens (bovine coronavirus (BCV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bacteria and mycoplasma). Clinical diagnosis of respiratory tract disease, diarrhoea or umbilical disease was set at 15.0% for all the three consecutive examinations combined (n=107), but only few pathogens were detected from the samples. The increased levels of acute phase proteins were neither associated with any of the diseases nor with the pathogens. Random intercept linear models were used to explore factors affecting early (3–30 days) and long-term (3–200 days) growth, showing that calves with elevated serum amyloid-A concentrations at the age of 16 days had lower long-term growth. Increased albumin concentration at 30 days of age and higher parity of the dam increased early-term growth. The lack of association between a disease and the acute phase protein may stem from the low disease prevalence in the beef calves examined. The measurement of acute phase proteins of a young calf can help identify animals with possible future growth deficiencies, although the mechanisms through which the association between acute phase proteins and growth has yet to be explained. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
  • Immeli, Lotta; Sankilampi, Ulla; Mäkelä, Pauliina M.; Leskinen, Markus; Sund, Reijo; Andersson, Sture; Luukkainen, Päivi (2021)
    Very low birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants may be predisposed to undernutrition during the nutritional transition phase from parenteral to enteral nutrition. We studied the associations among the length of the transition phase, postnatal macronutrient intake, and growth from birth to term equivalent age in VLBW infants. This retrospective cohort study included 248 VLBW infants born before 32 weeks of gestation and admitted to the Children’s Hospital, Helsinki, Finland during 2005–2013. Daily nutrient intakes were obtained from computerized medication administration records. The length of the transition phase correlated negatively with cumulative energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake at 28 days of age. It also associated negatively with weight and head circumference growth from birth to term equivalent age. For infants with a long transition phase (over 12 d), the estimates (95% CI) for weight and head circumference z-score change from birth to term equivalent age were −0.3 (−0.56, −0.04) and −0.44 (−0.81, −0.07), respectively, in comparison to those with a short transition phase (ad 7 d). For VLBW infants, rapid transition to full enteral feeding might be beneficial. However, if enteral nutrition cannot be advanced, well-planned parenteral nutrition during the transition phase is necessary to promote adequate growth.
  • Piekkala, Anni; Kaila, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi; Luukkainen, Päivi (2016)
  • Setänen, Sirkku; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena (2018)
  • Dingilian, Kayane K.; Lippe, Martina; Kubečka, Jakub; Krohn, Jan; Li, Chenxi; Halonen, Roope; Keshavarz, Fatemeh; Reischl, Bernhard; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Signorell, Ruth; Wyslouzil, Barbara E. (2021)
    Studies of vapor phase nucleation have largely been restricted to one of two limiting cases—nucleation controlled by a substantial free energy barrier or the collisional limit where the barrier is negligible. For weakly bound systems, exploring the transition between these regimes has been an experimental challenge, and how nucleation evolves in this transition remains an open question. We overcome these limitations by combining complementary Laval expansion experiments, providing new particle formation data for carbon dioxide over a uniquely broad range of conditions. Our experimental data together with a kinetic model using rate constants from high-level quantum chemical calculations provide a comprehensive picture of new particle formation as nucleation transitions from a barrier-dominated process to the collisional limit.
  • Laakkonen, Hanne; Happonen, Juha-Matti; Marttinen, Eino; Paganus, Aila; Holtta, Tuula; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai (2010)
  • Nummela, Mari; Hartiala, Pauliina; Niemi, Tarja; Koskinen, Seppo K. (2018)
  • Asheim, Eirik R.; Andreassen, Anna H.; Morgan, Rachael; Jutfelt, Fredrik (2020)
    Global warming is predicted to increase both acute and prolonged thermal challenges for aquatic ectotherms. Severe short- and medium-term thermal stress over hours to days may cause mortality, while longer sub-lethal thermal challenges may cause performance declines. The inter-relationship between the responses to short, medium and longer thermal challenges is unresolved. We asked if the same individuals are tolerant to both rapid and slow warming challenges, a question that has so far received little attention. Additionally, we investigated the possibility of a thermal syndrome where individuals in a population are distributed along a warm-type to cold-type axis. We tested whether different thermal traits correlate across individuals by acclimating 200 juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) to sub- or supra-optimal temperatures for growth (22 and 34 degrees C) for 40 days and measuring growth and thermal tolerance at two different warming rates. We found that tolerance to rapid warming correlated with tolerance to slow warming in the 22 degrees C treatment. However, individual tolerance to neither rapid nor slow warming correlated with growth at the supra-optimal temperature. We thus find some support for a syndrome-like organisation of thermal traits, but the lack of connection between tolerance and growth performance indicates a restricted generality of a thermal syndrome. The results suggest that tolerance to rapid warming may share underlying physiological mechanisms with tolerance to slower heating, and indicate that the relevance of acute critical thermal tolerance extends beyond the rapid ramping rates used to measure them.
  • Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer (2016)
    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively.
  • Jokinen, Kari; Salovaara, Anna-Kaisa Johanna; Wasonga, Daniel; Edelmann, Minnamari; Simpura, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2022)
    Leafy vegetables like lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) naturally have high nitrate content and the European Commission has set maximum level for nitrate in lettuce. Glycinebetaine is an organic osmolyte alleviating plant stress, but its role in leaf nitrate accumulation remains unknown. The uptake of glycinebetaine by lettuce roots, and its potential to regulate lettuce nitrate content and improve plant quality were investigated. Two hydroponic lettuce experiments were conducted with different glycinebetaine application rates (Exp1 : 0, 1, 7.5, and 15 mM; Exp2: 0, 1 + 1 + 1, 1 + 10, and 4 mM). Plants were analyzed at varying time points. Root application resulted in glycinebetaine uptake and translocation to the leaves. Glycinebetaine concentrations > 7.5 mM reduced leaf nitrate up to 40% and increased leaf dry matter content. Glycinebetaine showed a positive effect on leaf mineral and amino acid composition. Thus, glycinebetaine could be a novel strategy to reduce the nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce.
  • Heikkurinen, Pasi; Ruuska, Toni; Wilen, Kristoffer; Ulvila, Marko (2019)
    This article aims to reconcile tensions around 'the Anthropocene' by reviewing and integrating the discourses on the new geological epoch. It is argued that the Anthropocene discourses based on natural and social sciences are complementary. The anthropogenic epoch detrimental to the Earth's biodiversity, however, does not reduce to any discourse. Instead of calling to reject discourses that do not accept this limitation of language or alternatively do not show sensitivity to contextual matters, the article demonstrates how different Anthropocene discourses can be combined. The study concludes that in order to exit the epoch, anthropocentric discourses on the Anthropocene remain ineffective unless complemented by non-anthropocentric discourses.
  • Huttunen, Heta; Hero, Matti; Lääperi, Mitja; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Swan, Heikki; Hirsch, Joel; Miettinen, Päivi; Raivio, Taneli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Synnynnäinen ionikanavasairaus pitkä QT -oireyhtymä (long QT syndrome, LQTS) on perinnöllinen hengen-vaarallisia rytmihäiriöitä aiheuttava sairaus. LQTS johtuu sydänlihassolujen ionikanavien rakenteita koodaa-vien geenien mutaatioista. Yleisimmät mutaatiot ovat KCNQ1-geenissä, ja ne aiheuttavat sairauden alamuo-don LQT1. KCNQ1 sijaitsee kromosomin 11p15.5 leimautuneella alueella, ja se koodittaa jänniteriippuvaista kaliumkanavaa, Kv7.1:a. Kaksi KCNQ1:n aktivoivaa mutaatiota aiheuttavat autosomaalisesti dominantisti periytyvän kasvuhormonin vajauksen ja äidiltä perittynä ienfibromatoosin. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli analysoida LQTS -potilaiden, joilla on toiminnan hävittävä mutaatio (loss-of-function mutaatio) KCNQ1-geenissä, kasvua ja endokriinisia ominaisuuksia. Keskityimme erityisesti varhaisen kasvun ja parent-of-origin -mutaation suhteeseen. Tutkimuksessa analysoitiin LQT1-potilaiden (n=104) syntymäpituutta ja -painoa, syntymän jälkeistä kasvua ensimmäisen vuoden osalta sekä potilaiden endokriinisia ominaisuuksia. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että poti-laat, jotka olivat perineet KCNQ1-mutaation äidiltään, olivat syntymässä lyhyempiä kuin potilaat, jotka olivat perineet mutaation isältään. Jatkoanalyysit osoittivat, että vain potilaat, joiden äidit olivat saaneet beetasal-paajaa raskaana ollessaan, olivat lyhyempiä ja kevyempiä kuin ne potilaat, jotka olivat perineet mutaation isältään. Äidin beetasalpaajan käyttö raskauden aikana oli myös yhteydessä matalampiin napa-TSH-pitoisuuksiin sekä merkittävään saavutuskasvuun ensimmäisen elinvuoden aikana. Myöhemmin eroa ei ha-vaittu. Tutkimuksemme mukaan KCNQ1:n loss-of-function -mutaatiot eivät ole yhteydessä epänormaaliin kasvuun. Sen sijaan analyysiemme mukaan äidin raskauden aikainen beetasalpaajan käyttö näyttää rajoittavan ras-kaudenaikaista LQT1-potilaiden kasvua, mitä seuraa nopea saavutuskasvu ensimmäisen elinvuoden aikaan.