Browsing by Subject "Gut"

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  • Semenova, Svetlana; Rozov, Stanislav; Panula, Pertti (2017)
    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC is an enzyme with multiple functions in vertebrates. COMT methylates and thus inactivates catecholamine neurotransmitters and metabolizes xenobiotic catechols. Gene polymorphism rs4680 that influences the enzymatic activity of COMT affects cognition and behavior in humans. The zebrafish is widely used as an experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research, but most aspects of COMT function in this species have remained uncharacterized. We hypothesized that both comt genes play essential roles in zebrafish. Both comt-a and comt-b were widely expressed in zebrafish tissues, but their relative abundance varied considerably. Homogenates of zebra fish organs, including the brain, showed enzymatic COMT activity that was the highest in the liver and kidney. Treatment of larval zebrafish with the COMT inhibitor Ro41-0960 shifted the balance of catecholamine metabolic pathways towards increased oxidative metabolism. Whole-body concentrations of dioxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a product of dopamine oxidation, were increased in the inhibitor treated larvae, although the dopamine levels were unchanged. Thus, COMT is likely to participate in the processing of catecholamine neurotransmitters in the zebrafish, but the inhibition of COMT in larval fish is compensated efficiently and does not have pronounced effects on dopamine levels. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Aalto, Kristiina; Lahdenne, Pekka; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2017)
    Background: Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) on non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may experience abdominal pain. In adults, NSAID use has been linked to an increase in fecal calprotectin (FC) levels, a surrogate marker for gut inflammation. In JIA, data on gut inflammation related to drug use is scarce. Methods: JIA patients followed up at the outpatient pediatric rheumatology clinic in Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland were routinely assessed for FC if they complained about abdominal pain, had an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or used NSAIDs on a daily basis. The FC levels were related to the presence of abdominal pain, to ESR, and to the presence of HLA-B27. Results: Of the total group of 90 patients (median age 9.1 years; 45 JIA patients with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), 25 without DMARD medication, and 20 arthralgia patients as controls), approximately 50% used NSAIDs, of whom 40% complained about abdominal pain. In patients with abdominal pain, one-third had elevated FC values (>100 mu g/g). The FC values, for the most part, declined along with the discontinuation or reduction of NSAIDs and after intensifying the DMARD medication, where after the pain disappeared. In patients with an elevated ESR, the FC values and ESR normalized in parallel. The presence of HLA-B27 was not associated with FC levels. Conclusion: In patients with JIA and abdominal pain, it may be useful to determine the FC when evaluating the need for further gastrointestinal examinations.
  • Gerritsen, Jacoline; Hornung, Bastian; Renckens, Bernadette; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins; Rijkers, Ger T.; Schaap, Peter J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke (2017)
    Background. The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) after growth on three different carbohydrate sources, and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results. We present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to synthesize amino acids and vitamins, whereas multiple and partially redundant pathways for the utilization of different relatively simple carbohydrates are present. Transcriptome analysis allowed identification of the key components in the degradation of glucose, L-fucose and fructo-oligosaccharides. Discussion. This revealed that R. ilealis CRIBT is adapted to a nutrient-rich environment where carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins are abundantly available.
  • Mannisto, Ville; Färkkilä, Martti; Pussinen, Pirkko; Jula, Antti; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Åberg, Fredrik (2019)