Browsing by Subject "HABITAT USE"

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  • Calboli, Federico C. F.; Byström, Pär; Merilä, Juha (2016)
    Specialization for the use of different resources can lead to ecological speciation. Accordingly, there are numerous examples of ecologically specialized pairs of fish species in postglacial lakes. Using a polymorphic panel of single nucleotide variants, we tested for genetic footprints of within-lake population stratification in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) collected from three habitats (viz. littoral, benthic, and pelagic) within a northern Swedish lake. Analyses of admixture, population structure, and relatedness all supported the conclusion that the fish from this lake form a single interbreeding unit.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiaeinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itaemies, Juhani; Vaehae, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelae, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri (2012)
  • Tidenberg, Eeva-Maria; Liukko, Ulla-Maija; Stjernberg, Torsten (2019)
    This atlas is based on information in museum collections, literature, databases and unpublished data. In the last 150 years, the number of bat species in Finland increased from six to thirteen. Of these, five are common and regularly breeding (Eptesicus nilssonii, Myotis brandtii, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis mystacinus, Plecotus auritus), and eight rare (Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis dasycneme, Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus pygmaeus, Vespertilio murinus), of which breeding of two (M. nattereri, P. nathusii) have been confirmed. The total number of records in the study is 11 234, of which 9717 are identified to species. The records are from 940 (25%) 10-km2 squares of Finland’s land area. Of the records, 89% are new (1993–2014). Of the recorded bat species, only Eptesicus nilssonii occurs in each of the 21 biogeographical provinces. A decreasing south–north gradient in species richness and abundance exists which may be related to research efforts that are clearly higher in the south.
  • Calandra, Ivan; Labonne, Gaelle; Mathieu, Olivier; Henttonen, Heikki; Leveque, Jean; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Renvoise, Elodie; Montuire, Sophie; Navarro, Nicolas (2015)
    In the Arctic, food limitation is one of the driving factors behind small mammal population fluctuations. Active throughout the year, voles and lemmings (arvicoline rodents) are central prey in arctic food webs. Snow cover, however, makes the estimation of their winter diet challenging. We analyzed the isotopic composition of ever-growing incisors from species of voles and lemmings in northern Finland trapped in the spring and autumn. We found that resources appear to be reasonably partitioned and largely congruent with phylogeny. Our results reveal that winter resource use can be inferred from the tooth isotopic composition of rodents sampled in the spring, when trapping can be conducted, and that resources appear to be partitioned via competition under the snow.
  • Kerches-Rogeri, Patricia; Ramos, Danielle Leal; Siren, Jukka; Teles, Beatriz de Oliveira; Cruz Alves, Rafael Souza; Priante, Camila Fatima; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Araujo, Marcio Silva; Ovaskainen, Otso (2021)
    Background There is growing evidence that individuals within populations can vary in both habitat use and movement behavior, but it is still not clear how these two relate to each other. The aim of this study was to test if and how individual bats in a Stunira lilium population differ in their movement activity and preferences for landscape features in a correlated manner. Methods We collected data on movements of 27 individuals using radio telemetry. We fitted a heterogeneous-space diffusion model to the movement data in order to evaluate signals of movement variation among individuals. Results S. lilium individuals generally preferred open habitat with Solanum fruits, regularly switched between forest and open areas, and showed high site fidelity. Movement variation among individuals could be summarized in four movement syndromes: (1) average individuals, (2) forest specialists, (3) explorers which prefer Piper, and (4) open area specialists which prefer Solanum and Cecropia. Conclusions Individual preferences for landscape features plus food resource and movement activity were correlated, resulting in different movement syndromes. Individual variation in preferences for landscape elements and food resources highlight the importance of incorporating explicitly the interaction between landscape structure and individual heterogeneity in descriptions of animal movement.
  • Lopez-Baucells, Adria; Rocha, Ricardo; Andriatafika, Zo; Tojosoa, Tafita; Kemp, James; Forbes, Kristian M.; Cabeza, Mar (2017)
    Humanised landscapes are causing population declines and even extinctions of wildlife, whereas a limited number of species are adapting to the new niches and resources within these modified habitats. Synanthropy is widespread among many vertebrates and often causes co-habitation conflicts between humans and wildlife species. Bats often roost in anthropogenic structures, and especially in the tropics, mitigation of human-bat conflicts arising from co-habitation is hampered by a paucity of research focusing on roost preferences. We assessed roost selection by bats in villages around Ranomafana National Park, eastern Madagascar. Ten villages were surveyed, with bats occupying 21 of the 180 evaluated buildings. Of those, 17 were public buildings harbouring large molossid colonies. Although beneficial ecosystem services provided by bats are well-known, several cases of colony eviction were noted, mostly due to unwanted co-habitation. Bat preference was driven by the type of building, its height and a lack of fire use by the inhabitants. Colonies were mainly found under metal sheets within large empty chambers, whereas only isolated bats were detected in the roofs of traditional cabins. Temperatures up to 50 degrees C were recorded inside a roost, representing one of the highest temperatures recorded for an African maternity roost. Molossidae bats appear to have found a suitable alternative to their native roosts in hollow, old and tall trees in pristine forests, which are becoming rare in Madagascar. This suggests that human-bat interactions in Madagascar will likely increase alongside rural development and the loss of primary forest habitats. Shifting to modern construction methods while combining traditional techniques with proper roof sealing could prevent the establishment of bat colonies in undesired locations, whereas co-habitation conflicts could alternatively be minimised by reducing direct interaction with humans. In light of our results, we urge caution with bat evictions, and greater attention when introducing modern building practices, often supported by foreign initiatives, to poor rural communities in developing countries.
  • Da Silva, Filipe O.; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Savriama, Yoland; Ollonen, Joni; Mahlow, Kristin; Herrel, Anthony; Mueller, Johannes; Di-Poi, Nicolas (2018)
    The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.
  • Nummi, Petri; Suontakanen, Eeva-Maria; Holopainen, Sari; Väänänen, Veli-Matti (2019)
    Avian species respond to ecological variability at a range of spatial scales and according to life history stage. Beaver dams create wetland systems for waterbirds that are utilized throughout different stages of the breeding season. We studied how beaver?induced variability affected mobile pairs and more sedentary broods along with the production of Common Teal Anas crecca at the patch and landscape scale on their breeding grounds. Beavers Castor spp. are ecosystem engineers that enhance waterfowl habitats by impeding water flow and creating temporary flooding. Two landscapes in southern Finland with (Evo) and without (Nuuksio) American Beavers Castor canadensis were used in this study. To investigate the patch?scale effect, pair and brood densities along with brood production were first compared at beaver?occupied lakes and non?beaver lakes in the beaver landscape. Annual pair and brood densities/km shoreline and brood production were compared between beaver and non?beaver landscapes. Facilitative effects of beaver activity were manifest on brood density at both patch and landscape scales: these were over 90 and 60 percent higher in beaver patches and landscapes, respectively. An effect of beaver presence on pair density was only seen at the landscape level. Pair density did not strongly affect brood production, as shown earlier for relatively mildly density?dependent Teal populations. Because the extent of beaver flooding was a crucial factor affecting annual Teal production in the study area, we infer beaver activity has consequences for the local Teal population. Ecosystem engineering by the beaver could therefore be considered as a restoration tool in areas where waterfowl are in need of high?quality habitats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Krüger, Heidi; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Holopainen, Sari; Nummi, Petri (2018)
    European populations of many ground-nesting farmland birds have declined in recent decades. Increases in predator populations and nest predation may play an important role in this decline, along with habitat loss. However, the role of various predators has often remained unclear. We conducted a study with artificial nests and wildlife cameras (n=104) in agricultural landscapes during 2015-2016 in South Finland. Our trials formed a 400-m wide gradient from forest to field. The aim of our study was to monitor nest survival and nest predators in a spatial and temporal scale. We tested the effect of distance to the forest and nest visibility to nest predation. During an 8-day period, 39.4% of the artificial nests were predated. Fifty percent of the predators were birds, 40% mammals, and 10% remained unknown. The three dominant predators of our artificial nests were the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) with 11 nests and the hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) and the magpie (Pica pica) with 10 depredated nests each. Our analysis indicates that avian predators preyed upon nests in open fields further away from the forest edge, whereas mammalian predation concentrated closer to the forest edge. Predation occurred more likely at the beginning of the survey and nest survival increased as days passed. Our study highlights the efficiency of using wildlife camera traps in nest predation studies. We also suggest that the ongoing expansion of alien predators across Europe may have a greater impact on ground-nesting bird populations than previously anticipated.