Browsing by Subject "HABITS"

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  • Meemken, Marie-Theres; Horstmann, Annette (2019)
    Altered eating behavior due to modern, food-enriched environments has a share in the recent obesity upsurge, though the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to assess whether higher weight or weight gain are related to stronger effects of external cues on motivation-driven behavior. 51 people with and without obesity completed an appetitive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) paradigm. During training, button presses as well as presentation of fractal images resulted in three palatable and one neutral taste outcome. In the subsequent test phase, outcome-specific and general behavioral bias of the positively associated fractal images on deliberate button press were tested under extinction. While all participants showed signs of specific transfer, general transfer was not elicited. Contrary to our expectations, there was no main effect of weight group on PIT magnitude. Participants with obesity exhibited higher scores in the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Disinhibition scale, replicating a very robust effect from previous literature. Individual Restraint scores were able to predict body-mass index (BMI) change after a three-year period. Our data indicate that PIT is an important player in how our environment influences the initiation of food intake, but its effects alone cannot explain differences in—or future development of—individual weight.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Tuorila, Hely; Viljakainen, Heli (2020)
    Convincing evidence suggests that diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well studied. We, therefore, evaluated children's consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n8461; mean age 11 center dot 1 (sd0 center dot 9) years) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens cohort study. Using a sixteen-item FFQ including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4 center dot 0), medium (Q2 + Q3, range 4 center dot 0-10 center dot 5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off > 10 center dot 5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on the measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1 center dot 20, 95 % CI 1 center dot 02, 1 center dot 41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0 center dot 79, 95 % CI 0 center dot 67, 0 center dot 92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1 center dot 32, 95 % CI 1 center dot 14, 1 center dot 53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely were associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children's consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.
  • Malin, Maarit; Jaakkola, Nina; Luukkonen, Ritva; Heloma, Antero; Lamminpaa, Anne; Reijula, Kari (2020)
    Objectives: Occupational health (OH) professionals could play a prominent role in smoking cessation treatment and support (SCTS) and help individuals and workplaces become smoke free. However, their role has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess differences between OH professionals' perceptions of their role in SCTS by measuring three groups of OH professionals' attitudes, knowledge, and motivation concerning SCTS. Methods: We collected data through an online survey completed by a cross-sectional sample of OH professionals: OH physicians (n = 182), OH nurses (n = 296), and OH physiotherapists (n = 96), collected from national trade union registers. The differences between the OH professional groups were analyzed using ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests. Results: The OH professionals had a positive attitude toward offering SCTS and were highly motivated to enhance their knowledge of this topic and acquire further training. The OH physicians and OH nurses assessed their current knowledge as sufficient. Conversely, the OH physiotherapists' level of knowledge was seen as insufficient. Traditionally, OH physicians and OH nurses have been responsible for carrying out SCTS, but the majority of the OH physiotherapists thought that SCTS should also be included in their job description. Conclusions: All the OH professionals were highly motivated to deepen their knowledge of SCTS. The barriers between different professionals need to be recognized in occupational health services (OHS). OHS should organize its SCTS more effectively, strengthen their contributions to smoking cessation programs, and recognize the potential of OH physiotherapists for providing SCTS and enable them to expand their training.
  • Oivio, Ulla-Maija; Pesonen, Paula; Ylipalosaari, Merja; Kullaa, Arja; Salo, Tuula (2020)
    Background In this cross-sectional study we investigated the oral mucosal changes in a middle-aged Finnish population. We analyzed the prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and the influence of smoking, snuff and alcohol use on the mucosal changes. Methods Of the 12,068 members of the NFBC 1966, a total of 1961 participants (16.2%) constituted the study population. Mucosal changes were diagnosed and photographed by seven general dentists, and two specialists re-analyzed all the diagnoses based on the documentation Cross-tabulation with Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Of the participants, 10.5% had some mucosal changes, of which 81.8% were diagnosed as oral mucosal lesions (OML) and 18.2% as normal variations. Of the normal variations, the most common were Fordyce granules (1.2%), fissured tongue (1.1%) and geographic tongue (0.9%). The most common OMLs were white lesions (6.5%), of which oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid reactions (OLR), grouped as oral lichenoid diseases, were present in 3.5%, males more often (3.8% vs. 3.1%). OLP was found in 1.5% of all participants, females more often (1.8% vs. 1.2%), while OLR was more common in males (2.7% vs. 1.3%). Leukoplakia was identified in 0.5% of the population; twice more often in males (0.6% vs. 0.3%). Erythroplakia was not found. Current smokers had higher risk for oral mucosal changes than former or non-smokers (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.11-4.28), and snuff, used occasionally or regularly, also raised the risk (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.48-4.70). Conclusions In the middle-aged northern Finland population, 4% of OMLs were potentially malignant disorders, including OLR (2%), OLP (1.5%) and leukoplakia (0.5%). In particular, smoking and snuff use increased the risk for having any oral mucosa changes.
  • Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Braaten, Tonje; Hansen, Merethe Selnes; Licaj, Idlir (2019)
    We aimed to investigate physical activity (PA) and risk of different histological subtypes of lung cancer according to smoking status and body mass index using repeated measurements in a large cohort of women in Norway. The study sample for the multiple imputation analyses consisted of 86,499 and for the complete-case analysis 80,802 women. Repeated measurements of PA level, smoking habits, weight, and height were available for 54,691 women (63.2%), who were included in repeated measurement analyses combined with multiple imputation to address attrition. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. During a median follow-up of 12.9years, 866 cases of primary lung cancer were identified. We found an inverse association between PA and lung cancer overall. The results were consistent from multiple imputed data analysis to complete-case analysis of PA and possible confounders. We observed a similar trend for adenocarcinoma, but not for squamous cell or small cell carcinomas. Our findings suggest a more pronounced association between lung cancer overall and PA levels in current and former smokers, and in normal-weight and overweight participants with increasing PA levels. The potential of a modifiable lifestyle factor as PA to reduce the risk of lung cancer independently of smoking status is important in public health.
  • Kasila, K.; Hallman, M.; Kautiainen, H.; Vanhala, M.; Kettunen, T. (2018)
    Aims: This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians (N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. Results: In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Conclusion: Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.