Browsing by Subject "HAEMOPHILUS-INFLUENZAE"

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  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Jero, Jussi (2016)
    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.
  • Vuori-Holopainen, Elina; Salo, Eeva; Saxen, Harri; Hedman, Klaus; Hyypiä, Timo; Lahdenperä, Raija; Leinonen, Maija; Tarkka, Eveliina; Vaara, Martti; Peltola, Heikki (2002)
    Childhood pneumonia is usually treated without determining its etiology. The causative organism can be isolated from specimens of blood, empyema fluid, or lung aspirate, but this is rarely done. The potential of transthoracic needle aspiration for identification of causative agents was tested with use of modern microbiological methods. Aspiration was performed for 34 children who had radiological signs compatible with community-acquired pneumonia and had alveolar consolidation. In addition to bacterial and viral cultures and viral antigen detection, nucleic acid detection for common respiratory pathogens was performed on aspirate specimens. Aspiration disclosed the etiology in 20 (59%) of 34 cases overall and in 18 (69%) of 26 patients from whom a representative specimen was obtained. Aspiration's advantages are high microbiological yield and a relatively low risk of a clinically significant adverse event. Aspiration should be used if identification of the causative agent outweighs the modest risk of the procedure.
  • Tenhu, Elina; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Savonius, Okko; Rugemalira, Emilie; Roine, Irmeli; He, Qiushui; Pelkonen, Tuula (2020)
    Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe disease caused by various bacterial pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) protect humans from invading pathogens. In this study, we determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ofTLR4andTLR9are associated with susceptibility to and outcome of BM in Angolan children. Samples were taken from 241 patients and 265 age-matched ethnic controls. The SNPsTLR4rs4986790 (896A > G) andTLR9rs187084 (-1486T > C) were determined by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The frequency of variant genotypes inTLR4was significantly higher in patients withHaemophilus influenzaemeningitis than controls (odds ratio (OR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-5.4;p= 0.021), whereas the frequency of variant genotypes inTLR9was significantly lower in patients withH. influenzaemeningitis than controls (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9;p= 0.036). No such differences were found with other causative pathogens, such asStreptococcus pneumoniaeandNeisseria meningitidis. At the time of discharge, patients with meningitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria who were carriers of variantTLR4genotypes had a higher risk of ataxia (OR, 12.91; 95% CI, 1.52-109.80;p= 0.019) and other neurological sequelae (OR, 11.85; 95% CI, 1.07-131.49;p= 0.044) than those with the wild-typeTLR4genotype. Our study suggests an association betweenH. influenzaemeningitis and genetic variation betweenTLR4andTLR9in Angolan children.
  • Udden, Fabian; Filipe, Matuba; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Yamba-Yamba, Linda; Fuursted, Kurt; Kuatoko, Palmira Pintar; Larsson, Mans; Bjurgert, Jonas; Mansson, Viktor; Pelkonen, Tuula; Reimer, Ake; Riesbeck, Kristian (2020)
    Children in Angola are affected by a high burden of disease caused by pneumococcal infections. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the childhood immunization programme in 2013 but the serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are unknown. We did a cross-sectional nasopharyngeal carriage study in Luanda and Saurimo, Angola (PCV13 3rd dose coverage 67% and 84%, respectively) during November to December 2017 comprising 940 children aged 4-12 years. The main objective was to assess vaccine serotype coverage and antimicrobial susceptibility rates for S. pneumoniae. Our secondary aim was to characterize colonizinig strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Pneumococcal colonization was found in 35% (95% CI 32-39%) of children (n = 332), with 41% of serotypes covered by PCV13. The most common serotypes were 3 (8%), 18C (6%), 23F (6%), 11A (6%), 34 (6%), 19F (5%) and 16 (5%). Carriage of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was detected in 13% (95% CI 11-15%) and 15% (95% CI 13-17%) of children, respectively. Non-susceptibility to penicillin was common among pneumococci (40%), particularly among PCV13-included serotypes (50% vs. 33%; p = 0.003), although the median minimal inhibitory concentration was low (0.19 mg/mL, IQR 0.13-0.25 mg/mL). Most pneumococci and H. influenzae were susceptible to amoxicillin (99% and 88%, respectively). Furthermore, resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was>70% among all three species. Multidrug-resistant pneumococci (non-susceptible to > 3 antibiotics; 7% [n = 24]) were further studied with whole genome sequencing to investigate clonality as an underlying cause for this phenotype. No clearly dominating clone(s) were, however, detected. The results indicate that continued use of PCV13 may have positive direct and herd effects on pneumococcal infections in Angola as carriage of vaccine serotypes was common in the non-vaccinated age group. Finally, amoxicillin is assessed to be a feasible empirical treatment of respiratory tract infections in Angola. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.