Browsing by Subject "HAND"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-12 of 12
  • Hakala, Jussi; Häkkinen, Jukka (2022)
    This article presents a novel method for measuring contact points in human-object interaction. Research in multiple prehension-related fields, e.g., action planning, affordance, motor function, ergonomics, and robotic grasping, benefits from accurate and precise measurements of contact points between a subject's hands and objects. During interaction, the subject's hands occlude the contact points, which poses a major challenge for direct optical measurement methods. Our method solves the occlusion problem by exploiting thermal energy transfer from the subject's hand to the object surface during interaction. After the interaction, we measure the heat emitted by the object surface with four high-resolution infrared cameras surrounding the object. A computer-vision algorithm detects the areas in the infrared images where the subject's fingers have touched the object. A structured light 3D scanner produces a point cloud of the scene, which enables the localization of the object in relation to the infrared cameras. We then use the localization result to project the detected contact points from the infrared camera images to the surface of the 3D model of the object. Data collection with this method is fast, unobtrusive, contactless, markerless, and automated. The method enables accurate measurement of contact points in non-trivially complex objects. Furthermore, the method is extendable to measuring surface contact areas, or patches, instead of contact points. In this article, we present the method and sample grasp measurement results with publicly available objects.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Tervo, Aino E.; Metsomaa, Johanna; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J. (2020)
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols often include a manual search of an optimal location and orientation of the coil or peak stimulating electric field to elicit motor responses in a target muscle. This target search is laborious, and the result is user-dependent. Here, we present a closed-loop search method that utilizes automatic electronic adjustment of the stimulation based on the previous responses. The electronic adjustment is achieved by multi-locus TMS, and the adaptive guiding of the stimulation is based on the principles of Bayesian optimization to minimize the number of stimuli (and time) needed in the search. We compared our target-search method with other methods, such as systematic sampling in a predefined cortical grid. Validation experiments on five healthy volunteers and further offline simulations showed that our adaptively guided search method needs only a relatively small number of stimuli to provide outcomes with good accuracy and precision. The automated method enables fast and user-independent optimization of stimulation parameters in research and clinical applications of TMS.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti (2019)
    It has been shown recently that when participants are required to pronounce a vowel at the same time with the hand movement, the vocal and manual responses are facilitated when a front vowel is produced with forward-directed hand movements and a back vowel is produced with backward-directed hand movements. This finding suggests a coupling between spatial programing of articulatory tongue movements and hand movements. The present study revealed that the same effect can be also observed in relation to directional leg movements. The study suggests that the effect operates within the common directional processes of movement planning including at least tongue, hand and leg movements, and these processes might contribute sound-to-meaning mappings to the semantic concepts of 'forward' and 'backward'.
  • Stoycheva, Polina; Kauramäki, Jaakko; Newell, Fiona N.; Tiippana, Kaisa (2021)
    Laterality effects generally refer to an advantage for verbal processing in the left hemisphere and for non-verbal processing in the right hemisphere, and are often demonstrated in memory tasks in vision and audition. In contrast, their role in haptic memory is less understood. In this study, we examined haptic recognition memory and laterality for letters and nonsense shapes. We used both upper and lower case letters, with the latter designed as more complex in shape. Participants performed a recognition memory task with the left and right hand separately. Recognition memory performance (capacity and bias-free d') was higher and response times were faster for upper case letters than for lower case letters and nonsense shapes. The right hand performed best for upper case letters when it performed the task after the left hand. This right hand/left hemisphere advantage appeared for upper case letters, but not lower case letters, which also had a lower memory capacity, probably due to their more complex spatial shape. These findings suggest that verbal laterality effects in haptic memory are not very prominent, which may be due to the haptic verbal stimuli being processed mainly as spatial objects without reaching robust verbal coding into memory.
  • Vainio, Lari; Vainio, Martti (2022)
    Grasping and mouth movements have been proposed to be integrated anatomically, functionally and evolutionarily. In line with this, we have shown that there is a systematic interaction between particular speech units and grip performance. For example, when the task requires pronouncing a speech unit simultaneously with grasp response, the speech units [i] and [t] are associated with relatively rapid and accurate precision grip responses, while [ɑ] and [k] are associated with power grip responses. This study is aimed at complementing the picture about which vowels and consonants are associated with these grasp types. The study validated our view that the high-front vowels and the alveolar consonants are associated with precision grip responses, while low and high-back vowels as well as velar consonants or those whose articulation involves the lowering of the tongue body are associated with power grip responses. This paper also proposes that one reason why small/large concepts are associated with specific speech sounds in the sound-magnitude symbolism is because articulation of these sounds is programmed within the overlapping mechanisms of precision or power grasping.
  • Pitkanen, Minna; ShogoYazawa; Airaksinen, Katja; Lioumis, Pantelis; Nurminen, Jussi; Pekkonen, Eero; Makela, Jyrki P. (2019)
    The mapping of the sensorimotor cortex gives information about the cortical motor and sensory functions. Typical mapping methods are navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). The differences between these mapping methods are, however, not fully known. TMS center of gravities (CoGs), MEG somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs), corticomuscular coherence (CMC), and corticokinematic coherence (CKC) were mapped in ten healthy adults. TMS mapping was performed for first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. SEFs were induced by tactile stimulation of the index finger. CMC and CKC were determined as the coherence between MEG signals and the electromyography or accelerometer signals, respectively, during voluntary muscle activity. CMC was mapped during the activation of FDI and ECR muscles separately, whereas CKC was measured during the waving of the index finger at a rate of 3-4 Hz. The maximum CMC was found at beta frequency range, whereas maximum CKC was found at the movement frequency. The mean Euclidean distances between different localizations were within 20 mm. The smallest distance was found between TMS FDI and TMS ECR CoGs and longest between CMC FDI and CMC ECR sites. TMS-inferred localizations (CoGs) were less variable across participants than MEG-inferred localizations (CMC, CKC). On average, SEF locations were 8 mm lateral to the TMS CoGs (p <0.01). No differences between hemispheres were found. Based on the results, TMS appears to be more viable than MEG in locating motor cortical areas.
  • Heldstab, Sandra A.; Kosonen, Zaida K.; Koski, Sonja E.; Burkart, Judith M.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Isler, Karin (2016)
    Humans occupy by far the most complex foraging niche of all mammals, built around sophisticated technology, and at the same time exhibit unusually large brains. To examine the evolutionary processes underlying these features, we investigated how manipulation complexity is related to brain size, cognitive test performance, terrestriality, and diet quality in a sample of 36 non-human primate species. We categorized manipulation bouts in food-related contexts into unimanual and bimanual actions, and asynchronous or synchronous hand and finger use, and established levels of manipulative complexity using Guttman scaling. Manipulation categories followed a cumulative ranking. They were particularly high in species that use cognitively challenging food acquisition techniques, such as extractive foraging and tool use. Manipulation complexity was also consistently positively correlated with brain size and cognitive test performance. Terrestriality had a positive effect on this relationship, but diet quality did not affect it. Unlike a previous study on carnivores, we found that, among primates, brain size and complex manipulations to acquire food underwent correlated evolution, which may have been influenced by terrestriality. Accordingly, our results support the idea of an evolutionary feedback loop between manipulation complexity and cognition in the human lineage, which may have been enhanced by increasingly terrestrial habits.
  • Sandelin, Henrik; Waris, Eero; Hirvensalo, Eero; Vasenius, Jarkko; Huhtala, Heini; Raatikainen, Timo; Helkamaa, Teemu (2018)
    Background and purpose Optimal treatment for distal radius fractures remains controversial, with a significant number of fractures resulting in complications and long-term morbidity. We investigated patient injury claims related to distal radius fractures to detect the critical steps in the treatment leading to avoidable adverse eventsPatients and methods We analyzed all compensated patient injury claims in Finland between 2007 and 2011. Claims were collected from the Patient Insurance Center's (PIC) nationwide claim register. Patients of all ages were included. Each claim decision, original patient records, and radiographs related to treatment were reviewed.Results During the study period, the PIC received 584 claims regarding distal radius fractures, of which 208 (36%) were compensated. Pain and impaired wrist function were the most common subjective reasons to file claims among compensated patients. In 66/208 patients, more than 1 adverse event leading to patient injury was detected. The detected adverse events could be divided into 3 main groups: diagnostic errors (36%, n = 103), decision/planning errors (30%, n = 87), and insufficient technical execution (32%, n = 91). Issues related to malalignment were the main concerns in each group. Diagnostic errors were often related to incorrect assessment of the fracture (re)displacement (75%, n = 78). All of the decision-making errors concerned physicians' decisions to accept unsatisfactory fracture alignment. The most common technical error was insufficient reduction (29%, n = 26).Interpretation We identified avoidable adverse events behind patient injuries related to distal radius fracture treatment. This study will help physicians to recognize the critical steps in the treatment of this common fracture and enhance patient safety.
  • Multanen, J.; Ylinen, J.; Karjalainen, T.; Kautiainen, H.; Repo, J. P.; Häkkinen, A. (2020)
    Background and Aims: The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is the most commonly used outcome measure in the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to translate the original Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire into Finnish and validate its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: We translated and culturally adapted the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire into Finnish. Subsequently, 193 patients completed the Finnish version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, 6-Item CTS Symptoms Scale, and EuroQol 5 Dimensions 12 months after carpal tunnel release. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was re-administered after a 2-week interval. We calculated construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and coefficient of repeatability. We also examined floor and ceiling effects. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation required only minor modifications to the questions. Both subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale) correlated significantly with the CTS-6 and EuroQol 5 Dimensions, indicating good construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 for both the Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale, indicating high internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 for both scales. The coefficient of repeatability was 0.80 for the Symptom Severity Scale and 0.68 for the Functional Status Scale. We observed a floor effect in the Functional Status Scale in 28% of participants. Conclusion: Our study shows that the present Finnish version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is reliable and valid for the evaluation of symptom severity and functional status among surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome patients. However, owing to the floor effect, the Functional Status Score may have limited ability to detect differences in patients with good post-operative outcomes.
  • Vainio, Lari; Rantala, Aleksi; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Martti (2017)
    Previous research has shown that precision and power grip performance is consistently influenced by simultaneous articulation. For example, power grip responses are performed relatively fast with the open-back vowel [a], whereas precision grip responses are performed relatively fast with the close-front vowel [i]. In the present study, the participants were presented with a picture of a hand shaped to the precision or power grip. They were required to pronounce speech sounds according to the front/above perspective of the hand. The results showed that not only the grip performance is affected by simultaneously pronouncing the speech sound but also the production of speech sound can be affected by viewing an image of a grip. The precision grip stimulus triggered relatively rapid production of the front-close vowel [i]. In contrast, the effect related to the power grip stimulus was mostly linked to the vertical dimension of the pronounced vowel since this stimulus triggered relatively rapid production of the back-open vowel [a] and back-mid-open vowel [o] while production of the back-close vowel [u] was not influenced by it. The fact that production of the dorsal consonant [k] or coronal consonant [t] were not influenced by these stimuli suggests that the effect was not associated with a relative front-back tongue shape of the articulation in the absence of changes in any vertical articulatory components. These findings provide evidence for an intimate interaction between certain articulatory gestures and grip types, suggesting that an overlapping visuomotor network operates for planning articulatory gestures and grasp actions.
  • Souza, Victor Hugo; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Tugin, Sergei; Koponen, Lari M.; Baffa, Oswaldo; Ilmoniemi, Risto J. (2022)
    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils allow only a slow, mechanical adjustment of the stimulating electric field (E-field) orientation in the cerebral tissue. Fast E-field control is needed to synchronize the stimulation with the ongoing brain activity. Also, empirical models that fully describe the relationship between evoked responses and the stimulus orientation and intensity are still missing. Objective: We aimed to (1) develop a TMS transducer for manipulating the E-field orientation electronically with high accuracy at the neuronally meaningful millisecond-level time scale and (2) devise and validate a physiologically based model describing the orientation selectivity of neuronal excitability. Methods: We designed and manufactured a two-coil TMS transducer. The coil windings were computed with a minimum-energy optimization procedure, and the transducer was controlled with our custommade electronics. The electronic E-field control was verified with a TMS characterizer. The motor evoked potential amplitude and latency of a hand muscle were mapped in 3 degrees steps of the stimulus orientation in 16 healthy subjects for three stimulation intensities. We fitted a logistic model to the motor response amplitude. Results: The two-coil TMS transducer allows one to manipulate the pulse orientation accurately without manual coil movement. The motor response amplitude followed a logistic function of the stimulus orientation; this dependency was strongly affected by the stimulus intensity. Conclusion: The developed electronic control of the E-field orientation allows exploring new stimulation paradigms and probing neuronal mechanisms. The presented model helps to disentangle the neuronal mechanisms of brain function and guide future non-invasive stimulation protocols. (C) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.