Browsing by Subject "HAPPINESS"

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  • Weiss, Alexander; Baselmans, Bart M. L.; Hofer, Edith; Yang, Jingyun; Okbay, Aysu; Lind, Penelope A.; Miller, Mike B.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Zhao, Wei; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Snieder, Harold; Faul, Jessica D.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Tiemeier, Henning; Mosing, Miriam A.; Pattie, Alison; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C.; Schmidt, Reinhold; De Jager, Philip L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Jokela, Markus; Starr, John M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Johannesson, Magnus; Cesarini, David; Hofman, Albert; Harris, Sarah E.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Schmidt, Helena; Smith, Jacqui; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Bennett, David A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Deary, Ian J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike; Luciano, Michelle (2016)
    Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes
  • Stenlund, Säde; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Suominen, Sakari (2022)
    Background Previous research on health behavior and subjective well-being has mainly focused on interindividual differences or explored certain domains of health behavior. Good health behavior and subjective well-being at baseline can predict each other after a follow-up. In the present cohort study, we explored the outcomes of change for an individual i.e., how changed health behavior is reflected in subsequent subjective well-being and vice versa. Methods Data (n = 10,855) originates from a population-based Health and Social Support (HeSSup) study on working-age Finns in 2003 and 2012. A composite measure of health behavior included physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, and smoking status (range 0-4, worst-best) and a composite measure of subjective well-being (with reversed scoring) included three life assessments, i.e., interest, happiness, and ease in life, and perceived loneliness (range 4-20, best-worst). Different multiple linear regression models were used to study how changes in health behavior predict subjective well-being and the opposite, how changes in subjective well-being predict health behavior. Results A positive change in health behavior from 2003 to 2012 predicted better subjective well-being (i.e., on average 0.31 points lower subjective well-being sum score), whereas a negative change predicted poorer subjective well-being (i.e., 0.37 points higher subjective well-being sum score) (both: p < 0.001) compared to those study subjects who had no change in health behavior. Similarly, when a positive and negative change in subjective well-being was studied, these figures were 0.071 points better and 0.072 points worse (both: p < 0.001) health behavior sum score, respectively. When the magnitude of the effect of change was compared to the range of scale of the outcome the effect of health behavior change appeared stronger than that of subjective well-being. Conclusion Changes in health behavior and subjective well-being have long-term effects on the level of the other, the effect of the first being slightly stronger than vice versa. These mutual long-term benefits can be used as a motivator in health promotion on individual and societal levels.
  • Reyes-García, Victoria; Gallois, Sandrine; Pyhälä, Aili; Diaz-Riviriego, Isabel; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Galbraith, Eric; Miñarro, Sara; Napitupulu, Tezza (2021)
    While cross-cultural research on subjective well-being and its multiple drivers is growing, the study of happiness among Indigenous peoples continues to be under-represented in the literature. In this work, we measure life satisfaction through open-ended questionnaires to explore levels and drivers of subjective well-being among 474 adults in three Indigenous societies across the tropics: the Tsimane’ in Bolivian lowland Amazonia, the Baka in southeastern Cameroon, and the Punan in Indonesian Borneo. We found that life satisfaction levels in the three studied societies are slightly above neutral, suggesting that most people in the sample consider themselves as moderately happy. We also found that respondents provided explanations mostly when their satisfaction with life was negative, as if moderate happiness was the normal state and explanations were only needed when reporting a different life satisfaction level due to some exceptionally good or bad occurrence. Finally, we also found that issues related to health and–to a lesser extent–social life were the more prominent explanations for life satisfaction. Our research not only highlights the importance to understand, appreciate and respect Indigenous peoples’ own perspectives and insights on subjective well-being, but also suggests that the greatest gains in subjective well-being might be achieved by alleviating the factors that tend to make people unhappy.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Hintsanen, Mirka; Savelieva, Kateryna; Hakulinen, Christian; Merjonen, Päivi; Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    Intergenerational transmission of life satisfaction has been empirically established, but less is known about the continuity of satisfaction as being reflected across multiple life domains, unique effects of parental domain-specific satisfaction on offspring overall life satisfaction, and potential gender effects. In this population-based prospective study, the association between the life satisfaction of parents (G1) (2191 mothers and 2156 fathers) and their children (G2) (921 sons and 1277 daughters) was examined. In both generations, satisfaction as a parent, as a spouse, and at work was assessed in about the same developmental stage (mean age for G1 38-42years, and for G2 38-43years at the times when LS was measured). When both parents were considered jointly, only mothers' overall life satisfaction had an independent effect on their adult children's overall life satisfaction, with the effect diminishing over time. However, we also found a robust effect of paternal satisfaction at work on offspring's overall life satisfaction in adulthood. Gender of the offspring did not significantly moderate the strength of the associations between generations. The current findings emphasize the high interdependence of life satisfaction within families long after children have moved out of the parental home.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna; Tang, Xin; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2020)
    Learning through social interaction has been documented widely, however, how introverted people are socially engaged in learning is largely unknown. The aim of this study was, first, to examine the reliability and validity of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Then we aimed to examine the interaction effect of introversion and social engagement on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and school burnout. Based on a sample of 862 ninth grade students in Finland, we found that two-factor model best fitted the social engagement scale (i.e., social engagement and social disengagement). Further, we found that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Our results implied that introverts should be given extra support when they encounter group work in school.
  • Hedayati, Nasibeh; Kuusisto, Elina; Gholami, Khalil; Tirri, Kirsi (2017)
    This article examines Iranian secondary students' (N=336) life purposes. Economic and hedonistic life goals were the most valued. Relationships in terms of having a family and children were also appreciated. In the students' views, religiousness was associated with social goals such as helping others in need and volunteering in the community. Gender differences in students' life goals occurred only in aesthetic goals, which applied more to girls than to boys. K-Cluster analysis identified four purpose profiles: self-oriented dabblers, beyond-the-self (BTS) dreamers, self-oriented life goal pursuers and purposeful youth. The dominant profile among the youth was self-oriented life goal pursuer (37%). The study validated Damon's conceptual work on purpose profiles in a previously unstudied cultural context.
  • Puhakka, Riikka (2021)
    It is increasingly recognized that interacting with nature promotes well-being and health for both adults and children. Less is known about the role of nature in people's everyday lives during emerging adulthood which means the shift from adolescence to young adulthood. This study examines university students' participation in outdoor recreation and the perceived well-being effects of nature. The qualitative data consists of thematic writings (N = 47) produced by environmental students at the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 2020. The findings show that most students have negotiated time and other constraints and maintained active participation in outdoor recreation. The findings highlight that nature can have an important role in students' well-being during a life stage loaded with stress factors, and especially in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature provides opportunities not only for physical activity but also for emotional and cognitive renewal, strengthening social relationships, and relieving the negative physiological effects of various stressors. Nature helps students in reflecting on their lives and even gaining a stronger sense of self. Natural settings provide a venue for students' socially shared experiences but also support retreat behaviors by enabling 'being away' and providing freedom from the pressures of student life. To prevent decline in connection with nature, special efforts should be made to support young adults' interaction with nature and gaining well-being benefits. Encouraging outdoor recreation at all life stages is needed to foster a lifelong nature connection and well-being experiences. Management implications: The study highlights the importance of hearing young adults' voices in decision-making and land-use planning to provide diverse opportunities for outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism. The findings stress the value of urban green spaces in supporting students' well-being in their everyday lives. To provide a sense of extent and 'being away' from daily routines and requirements within the city, it is important to preserve slightly managed natural settings that generate opportunities to explore nature and receive multisensory and embodied experiences. Emphasis on multisensory experiences, such as hearing bird song and breathing fresh air, also stresses the importance of taking natural elements into account in all urban planning. Promoting easy access to both urban green spaces and more distant natural settings is important for young adults. Organizing outdoor activities may also help students in familiarizing themselves with green spaces and socializing with peers.
  • Sortheix, Florencia M.; Schwartz, Shalom H. (2017)
    We examined relations of 10 personal values to life satisfaction (LS) and depressive affect (DEP) in representative samples from 32/25 countries (N=121495). We tested hypotheses both for direct relations and cross-level moderation of relations by Cultural Egalitarianism. We based hypotheses on the growth versus self-protection orientation and person-focus versus social-focus motivations that underlie values. As predicted, openness to change values (growth/person) correlated positively with subjective well-being (SWB: higher LS, lower DEP) and conservation values (self-protection/social) correlated negatively with SWB. The combination of underlying motivations also explained more complex direct relations of self-transcendence and self-enhancement values with SWB. We combined an analysis of the environmental context in societies low versus high in Cultural Egalitarianism with the implications of pursuing person-focused versus social-focused values to predict how Cultural Egalitarianism moderates value-SWB relations. As predicted, under low versus high Cultural Egalitarianism, (i) openness to change values related more positively to SWB, (ii) conservation values more negatively, (iii) self-enhancement values less negatively and (iv) self-transcendence values less positively. Culture moderated value-SWB relations more weakly for DEP than for LS. Culture moderated value-LS relations more strongly than the socio-economic context did. This study demonstrates how the cultural context shapes individual-level associations between values and SWB. Copyright (c) 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology
  • Graziotin, Daniel; Fagerholm, Fabian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka (2018)
    The growing literature on affect among software developers mostly reports on the linkage between happiness, software quality, and developer productivity. Understanding happiness and unhappiness in all its components – positive and negative emotions and moods – is an attractive and important endeavor. Scholars in industrial and organizational psychology have suggested that understanding happiness and unhappiness could lead to cost-effective ways of enhancing working conditions, job performance, and to limiting the occurrence of psychological disorders. Our comprehension of the consequences of (un)happiness among developers is still too shallow, being mainly expressed in terms of development productivity and software quality. In this paper, we study what happens when developers are happy and unhappy while developing software. Qualitative data analysis of responses given by 317 questionnaire participants identified 42 consequences of unhappiness and 32 of happiness. We found consequences of happiness and unhappiness that are beneficial and detrimental for developers’ mental well-being, the software development process, and the produced artifacts. Our classification scheme, available as open data enables new happiness research opportunities of cause-effect type, and it can act as a guideline for practitioners for identifying damaging effects of unhappiness and for fostering happiness on the job.