Browsing by Subject "HAY-FEVER"

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  • Frei, Remo; Ferstl, Ruth; Roduit, Caroline; Ziegler, Mario; Schiavi, Elisa; Barcik, Weronika; Rodriguez-Perez, Noelia; Wirz, Oliver F.; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Pugin, Benoit; Nehrbass, Dirk; Jutel, Marek; Smolinska, Sylwia; Konieczna, Patrycja; Bieli, Christian; Loeliger, Susanne; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goeran; Riedler, Josef; Depner, Martin; Schaub, Bianca; Genuneit, Jon; Renz, Harald; Pekkanen, Juha; Karvonen, Anne M.; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; van Hage, Marianne; Doekes, Gert; Akdis, Mubeccel; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Akdis, Cezmi A.; von Mutius, Erika; O'Mahony, Liam; Lauener, Roger P.; Prevention Allergy Risk Factors Se; Protection Against Allergy Study R (2018)
    Background: Childhood exposure to a farm environment has been shown to protect against the development of inflammatory diseases, such as allergy, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Objective: We sought to investigate whether both exposure to microbes and exposure to structures of nonmicrobial origin, such as the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), might play a significant role. Methods: Exposure to Neu5Gc was evaluated by quantifying anti-Neu5Gc antibody levels in sera of children enrolled in 2 farm studies: the Prevention of Allergy Risk factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle (PARSIFAL) study (n = 299) and the Protection Against Allergy Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) birth cohort (cord blood [n = 836], 1 year [n = 734], 4.5 years [n = 700], and 6 years [n = 728]), and we associated them with asthma and wheeze. The effect of Neu5Gc was examined in murine airway inflammation and colitis models, and the role of Neu5Gc in regulating immune activation was assessed based on helper T-cell and regulatory T-cell activation in mice. Results: In children anti-Neu5Gc IgG levels correlated positively with living on a farm and increased peripheral blood forkhead box protein 3 expression and correlated inversely with wheezing and asthma in nonatopic subjects. Exposure to Neu5Gc in mice resulted in reduced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung. Furthermore, Neu5Gc administration to mice reduced the severity of a colitis model. Mechanistically, we found that Neu5Gc exposure reduced IL-17(+) T-cell numbers and supported differentiation of regulatory T cells. Conclusions: In addition to microbial exposure, increased exposure to non microbial-derived Neu5Gc might contribute to the protective effects associated with the farm environment.
  • Kujansuu, Eila; Kujansuu, Leena; Paassilta, Marita; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaarala, Outi (2019)
    Background The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a decreased microbial load contributes to an increased risk of allergies. In the Finnish municipality of Nokia, sewage water was accidentally mixed with drinking water for 2 days. We studied the association between exposure and the emergence of allergies in children. Methods Children aged 2-5 years living in the accident area and an age-matched cohort from the control municipality were recruited. Based on the questionnaires, we identified 139 children exposed to the contaminated water and selected age- and sex-matched controls for them (mean age 16.59 months at the time of the accident). Allergic symptoms and diseases were recorded by ISAAC questionnaires and skin prick tests (SPTs) performed 2 and 5 years after the accident. Results SPT positivity at 5 years of follow-up was decreased in the children exposed to the sewage water below 1 year of age (OR 0.311, 95% CI 0.118-0.820; P = 0.019), particularly in children who did not develop gastroenteritis at exposure. In contrast, the children over 1 year of age at the exposure tended more likely to be SPT-positive at 5 years of follow-up (OR 1.997, 95% CI 0.963-4.143; P = 0.070). Conclusions Sewage water exposure during the first year of life, but not later, decreased the risk of IgE sensitization emphasizing the importance of age as a modulator. The modulation of IgE sensitization by the presence of clinical gastroenteritis at the exposure suggests that the nature of microbial load may have importance or alternatively shared host defense mechanisms protect from infection and atopic sensitization.
  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Lyly, Annina; Hanif, Tanzeela; Dhaygude, Kishor; Kankainen, Matti; Renkonen, Risto; Donner, Kati; Mattila, Pirkko; Jartti, Tuomas; Bousquet, Jean; Kauppi, Paula; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna (2020)
    Genome wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several airway disease-associated risk loci. Their role in the onset of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) or chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), however, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this review is to evaluate the airway relevance of loci and genes identified in GWAS studies. GWASs were searched from databases, and a list of loci associating significantly (p <10(-8)) with asthma, AR and CRS was created. This yielded a total of 267 significantly asthma/AR-associated loci from 31 GWASs. No significant CRS -associated loci were found in this search. A total of 170 protein coding genes were connected to these loci. Of these, 76/170 (44%) showed bronchial epithelial protein expression in stained microscopic figures of Human Protein Atlas (HPA), and 61/170 (36%) had a literature report of having airway epithelial function. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analyses were performed, and 19 functional protein categories were found as significantly (p <0.05) enriched among these genes. These were related to cytokine production, cell activation and adaptive immune response, and all were strongly connected in network analysis. We also identified 15 protein pathways that were significantly (p <0.05) enriched in these genes, related to T-helper cell differentiation, virus infection, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and asthma. A third of GWAS-level risk loci genes of asthma or AR seemed to have airway epithelial functions according to our database and literature searches. In addition, many of the risk loci genes were immunity related. Some risk loci genes also related to metabolism, neuro-musculoskeletal or other functions. Functions overlapped and formed a strong network in our pathway analyses and are worth future studies of biomarker and therapeutics.
  • Shan, Yifan; Wu, Weidong; Fan, Wei; Haahtela, Tari; Zhang, Guicheng (2019)
    People spend a lot of time indoors and the indoor microbiome is a major part of the environment that we are exposed to. However, awareness of the exposure to the indoor microbiome and its health effects remains poor. Outdoor environment (soil and air), indoor sources (ventilation, dampness and building materials), human occupants, and pets compose the indoor microbial community. It has been estimated that up to 500-1000 different species can be present in house dust. House dust is a major source and reservoir of indoor microbiome, which influences human microbiome and determines health and disease. Herein, we review the origins and the components of the fungal and bacterial communities in house dust and their possible effect on human health, in particular on allergic disorders, intestinal microbiome, and immune responses. We expect to lay a solid foundation for the further study on the mechanisms of how the house dust microbes interact with the host microbiome and the human immune system.
  • Hemida, Manal B. M.; Salin, Siru; Vuori, Kristiina A.; Moore, Robin; Anturaniemi, Johanna; Rosendahl, Sarah; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna (2021)
    Background The increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs necessitates research in its disease etiology. Objectives To explore the association between puppyhood dietary exposures and prevalence of owner-reported allergy/atopy skin signs (AASS) after the age of 1 year. Animals Four thousand and twenty-two dogs were eligible, 1158 cases, and 2864 controls. Methods This cross-sectional hypothesis-driven observational study was extracted from the DogRisk food frequency questionnaire. Forty-six food items and the ratio of 4 major diet types were tested for their association with AASS incidence later in life. Potential puppyhood dietary risk factors for AASS incidence were specified using binary multivariable logistic regression. The model was adjusted for age and sex. Results Eating raw tripe (odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals OR, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.16-0.79; P = .01), raw organ meats (OR, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.08-0.67; P = .007), human meal leftovers, and fish oil supplements as well as eating more that 20% of the diet as raw and/or