Browsing by Subject "HDL"

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  • Breast Canc Assoc Consortium; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Khankari, Nikhil K.; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Zheng, Wei; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli (2020)
    Background: Conventional epidemiologic studies have evaluated associations between circulating lipid levels and breast cancer risk, but results have been inconsistent. As Mendelian randomization analyses may provide evidence for causal inference, we sought to evaluate potentially unbiased associations between breast cancer risk and four genetically predicted lipid traits. Methods: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 164 discrete variants associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and total cholesterol. We used 162 of these unique variants to construct weighted genetic scores (wGSs) for a total of 101 424 breast cancer cases and 80 253 controls of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between per standard deviation increase in genetically predicted lipid traits and breast cancer risk. Additional Mendelian randomization analysis approaches and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess pleiotropy and instrument validity. Results: Corresponding to approximately 15 mg/dL, one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted HDL-C was associated with a 12% increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16). Findings were consistent after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors and were robust in several sensitivity analyses. Associations with genetically predicted triglycerides and total cholesterol were inconsistent, and no association for genetically predicted LDL-C was observed. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence that circulating HDL-C may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas LDL-C may not be related to breast cancer risk.
  • Karjalainen, Minna K.; Holmes, Michael V.; Wang, Qin; Anufrieva, Olga; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kristiansson, Kati; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes (2020)
    Background and aims: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) infusions represent a potential novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although circulating apoA-I concentrations inversely associate with risk of CAD, the evidence base of this representing a causal relationship is lacking. The aim was to assess the causal role of apoA-I using human genetics. Methods: We identified a variant (rs12225230) in APOA1 locus that associated with circulating apoA-I concentrations (p <5 x 10(-8)) in 20,370 Finnish participants, and meta-analyzed our data with a previous GWAS of apoA-I. We obtained genetic estimates of CAD from UK Biobank and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (totaling 122,733 CAD cases) and conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. We compared our genetic findings to observational associations of apoA-I with risk of CAD in 918 incident CAD cases among 11,535 individuals from population-based prospective cohorts. Results: ApoA-I was associated with a lower risk of CAD in observational analyses (HR 0.81; 95%CI: 0.75, 0.88; per 1-SD higher apoA-I), with the association showing a dose-response relationship. Rs12225230 associated with apoA-I concentrations (per-C allele beta 0.076 SD; SE: 0.013; p = 1.5 x 10(-9)) but not with confounders. In Mendelian randomization analyses, apoA-I was not related to risk of CAD (OR 1.13; 95%CI: 0.98,1.30 per 1-SD higher apoA-I), which was different from the observational association. Similar findings were observed using an independent ABCA1 variant in sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: Genetic evidence fails to support a cardioprotective role for apoA-I. This is in line with the cumulative evidence showing that HDL-related phenotypes are unlikely to have a protective role in CAD.
  • Duy Nguyen, Su; Maaninka, Katariina; Lappalainen, Jani; Nurmi, Katariina; Metso, Jari; Oorni, Katariina; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Kovanen, Petri T. (2016)
    Objective Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to possess several atheroprotective functions, including inhibition of inflammation. Protease-secreting activated mast cells reside in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigated the effects of the neutral proteases released by activated mast cells on the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I. Approach and Results Activation of human mast cells triggered the release of granule-associated proteases chymase, tryptase, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A, and granzyme B. Among them, chymase cleaved apoA-I with the greatest efficiency and generated C-terminally truncated apoA-I, which failed to bind with high affinity to human coronary artery endothelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor--activated human coronary artery endothelial cells, the chymase-cleaved apoA-I was unable to suppress nuclear factor-B-dependent upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and to block THP-1 cells from adhering to and transmigrating across the human coronary artery endothelial cells. Chymase-cleaved apoA-I also had an impaired ability to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide-activated GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)- and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-differentiated human macrophage foam cells and to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-activated human neutrophils. Importantly, chymase-cleaved apoA-I showed reduced ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo in mice. Treatment with chymase blocked the ability of the apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F, but not of the protease-resistant D-4F, to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in activated human coronary artery endothelial cells and macrophage foam cells and to prevent reactive oxygen species formation in activated neutrophils. Conclusions The findings identify C-terminal cleavage of apoA-I by human mast cell chymase as a novel mechanism leading to loss of its anti-inflammatory functions. When targeting inflamed protease-rich atherosclerotic lesions with apoA-I, infusions of protease-resistant apoA-I might be the appropriate approach.
  • van der Lee, Sven J.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Pool, Rene; Shipley, Martin J.; Teumer, Alexander; Chouraki, Vincent; van Lent, Debora Melo; Tynkkynen, Juho; Fischer, Krista; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Haller, Toomas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Verhoeven, Aswin; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Leeuw, Francisca A.; Wagner, Holger; van Dongen, Jenny; Hertel, Johannes; Budde, Kathrin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Weinhold, Leonie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Pietzner, Maik; Perola, Markus; Wagner, Michael; Friedrich, Nele; Slagboom, P. Eline; Scheltens, Philip; Yang, Qiong; Gertzen, Robert E.; Egert, Sarah; Li, Shuo; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Peeters, Carel F. W.; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Seshadri, Sudha; Metspalu, Andres; Kivimäki, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Demirkan, Ayse; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M. (2018)
    Introduction: Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. Methods: We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined. Results: We discovered and replicated 15 metabolites associated with cognition including subfractions of high-density lipoprotein, docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, glutamine, and glycoprotein acetyls. These associations were independent of classical risk factors including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Six of the cognition-associated metabolites were related to the risk of dementia and lifestyle factors. Discussion: Circulating metabolites were consistently associated with cognition, dementia, and lifestyle factors, opening new avenues for prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
  • Meri, Seppo; Haapasalo, Karita (2020)
    Complement-mediated inflammation or dysregulation in lipid metabolism are associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. These include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), dense deposit disease (DDD), atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In all these diseases, formation of characteristic lipid-rich deposits is evident. Here, we will discuss molecular mechanisms whereby dysfunction of complement, and especially of its key regulator factor H, could be involved in lipid accumulation and related inflammation. The genetic associations to factor H polymorphisms, the role of factor H in the resolution of inflammation in lipid-rich deposits, modification of macrophage functions, and complement-mediated clearance of apoptotic and damaged cells indicate that the function of factor H is crucial in limiting inflammation in these diseases.
  • Voutilainen, Markku; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Tossavainen, Päivi; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkänen, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2018)
    Background and aims: Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents. Methods: A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions. Results: Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. (C) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Beaslas, Olivier; Metso, Jari; Nissila, Eija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Kaiharju, Essi; Batchu, Krishna Chaithanya; Kaipiainen, Leena; Mäyränpää, Mikko; Yan, Daoguang; Gylling, Helena; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2013)
  • Robciuc, Marius R.; Tahvanainen, Esa; Jauhiainen, Matti; Ehnholm, Christian (2010)
  • Syed, Shahan; Nissilä, Eija; Ruhanen, Hanna; Fudo, Satoshi; Gaytan, Meztlli O.; Sihvo, Sanna P.; Lorey, Martina B.; Metso, Jari; Oorni, Katariina; King, Samantha J.; Oommen, Oommen P.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Meri, Seppo; Käkelä, Reijo; Haapasalo, Karita (2021)
    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a group of different subpopulations of sialylated particles that have an essential role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. Importantly, changes in the protein and lipid composition of HDLsmay lead to the formation of particles with reduced atheroprotective properties. Here, we show that Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin (PLY) and neuraminidase A (NanA) impair HDL function by causing chemical and structural modifications of HDLs. The proteomic, lipidomic, cellular, and biochemical analysis revealed that PLY and NanA induce significant changes in sialic acid, protein, and lipid compositions of HDL. The modified HDL particles have reduced cholesterol acceptor potential from activated macrophages, elevated levels of malondialdehyde adducts, and show significantly increased complement activating capacity. These results suggest that accumulation of these modified HDL particles in the arterial intima may present a trigger for complement activation, inflammatory response, and thereby promote atherogenic disease progression.