Browsing by Subject "HEAD-INJURY"

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  • EPO-TBI Investigators; ANZICS Clinical Trials Grp; Knott, Rachel J.; Harris, Anthony; Higgins, Alisa; Pettilä, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    The EPO-TBI multi-national randomized controlled trial found that erythropoietin (EPO), when compared to placebo, did not affect 6-month neurological outcome, but reduced illness severity-adjusted mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), making the cost-effectiveness of EPO in TBI uncertain. The current study uses patient-level data from the EPO-TBI trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of EPO in patients with moderate or severe TBI from the healthcare payers' perspective. We addressed the issue of transferability in multi-national trials by estimating costs and effects for specific geographical regions of the study (Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and Saudi Arabia). Unadjusted mean quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) at 6 months were 0.027 (0.020-0.034; p <0.001) higher in the EPO group, with an adjusted QALY increment of 0.014 (0.000-0.028; p = 0.04). Mean unadjusted costs (95% CI) were $US5668 (-9191 to -2144; p = 0.002) lower in the treatment group; controlling for baseline IMPACT-TBI score and regional heterogeneity reduced this difference to $2377 (-12,446 to 7693; p = 0.64). For a willingness-to-pay threshold of $US50,000 per QALY, 71.8% of replications were considered cost-effective. Therefore, we did not find evidence that EPO was significantly cost-effective in the treatment of moderate or severe TBI at 6-month follow-up.
  • CTR-TBI Participants; Mikolic, Ana; van Klaveren, David; Oude Groeniger, Joost; Polinder, Suzanne; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability, but little is known about sex and gender differences after TBI. We aimed to analyze the association between sex/gender, and the broad range of care pathways, treatment characteristics, and outcomes following mild and moderate/severe TBI. We performed mixed-effects regression analyses in the prospective multi-center Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, stratified for injury severity and age, and adjusted for baseline characteristics. Outcomes were various care pathway and treatment variables, and 6-month measures of functional outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), post-concussion symptoms (PCS), and mental health symptoms. The study included 2862 adults (36% women) with mild (mTBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15), and 1333 adults (26% women) with moderate/severe TBI (GCS score 3-12). Women were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratios [OR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8) following mTBI. Following moderate/severe TBI, women had a shorter median hospital stay (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). Following mTBI, women had poorer outcomes; lower Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE; OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), lower generic and disease-specific HRQoL, and more severe PCS, depression, and anxiety. Among them, women under age 45 and above age 65 years showed worse 6-month outcomes compared with men of the same age. Following moderate/severe TBI, there was no difference in GOSE (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.2), but women reported more severe PCS (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Men and women differ in care pathways and outcomes following TBI. Women generally report worse 6-month outcomes, but the size of differences depend on TBI severity and age. Future studies should examine factors that explain these differences.
  • Thelin, Eric Peter; Nelson, David W.; Vehvilainen, Juho; Nystrom, Harriet; Kivisaari, Riku; Siironen, Jari; Svensson, Mikael; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning of the brain is essential for diagnostic screening of intracranial injuries in need of neurosurgical intervention, but may also provide information concerning patient prognosis and enable baseline risk stratification in clinical trials. Novel CT scoring systems have been developed to improve current prognostic models, including the Stockholm and Helsinki CT scores, but so far have not been extensively validated. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the Stockholm and Helsinki CT scores for predicting functional outcome, in comparison with the Rotterdam CT score and Marshall CT classification. The secondary aims were to assess which individual components of the CT scores best predict outcome and what additional prognostic value the CT scoring systems contribute to a clinical prognostic model. Methods and findings TBI patients requiring neuro-intensive care and not included in the initial creation of the Stockholm and Helsinki CT scoring systems were retrospectively included from prospectively collected data at the Karolinska University Hospital (n = 720 from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014) and Helsinki University Hospital (n = 395 from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014), totaling 1,115 patients. The Marshall CT classification and the Rotterdam, Stockholm, and Helsinki CT scores were assessed using the admission CT scans. Known outcome predictors at admission were acquired (age, pupil responsiveness, admission Glasgow Coma Scale, glucose level, and hemoglobin level) and used in univariate, and multivariable, regression models to predict long-term functional outcome (dichotomizations of the Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]). In total, 478 patients (43%) had an unfavorable outcome (GOS 1-3). In the combined cohort, overall prognostic performance was more accurate for the Stockholm CT score (Nagelkerke's pseudo-R-2 range 0.24-0.28) and the Helsinki CT score (0.18-0.22) than for the Rotterdam CT score (0.13-0.15) and Marshall CT classification (0.03-0.05). Moreover, the Stockholm and Helsinki CT scores added the most independent prognostic value in the presence of other known clinical outcome predictors in TBI (6% and 4%, respectively). The aggregate traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) component of the Stockholm CT score was the strongest predictor of unfavorable outcome. The main limitations were the retrospective nature of the study, missing patient information, and the varying follow-up time between the centers. Conclusions The Stockholm and Helsinki CT scores provide more information on the damage sustained, and give a more accurate outcome prediction, than earlier classification systems. The strong independent predictive value of tSAH may reflect an underrated component of TBI pathophysiology. A change to these newer CT scoring systems may be warranted.
  • CENTER-TBI Participants Investigat; Böhm, Julia K.; Maegele, Marc; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Ripatti, Samuli; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Trauma-induced coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with high rates of complications, unfavourable outcomes and mortality. The mechanism of the development of TBI-associated coagulopathy is poorly understood. Methods This analysis, embedded in the prospective, multi-centred, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, aimed to characterise the coagulopathy of TBI. Emphasis was placed on the acute phase following TBI, primary on subgroups of patients with abnormal coagulation profile within 4 h of admission, and the impact of pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. In order to minimise confounding factors, patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) (n = 598) were selected for this analysis. Results Haemostatic disorders were observed in approximately 20% of iTBI patients. In a subgroup analysis, patients with pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy had a twice exacerbated coagulation profile as likely as those without premedication. This was in turn associated with increased rates of mortality and unfavourable outcome post-injury. A multivariate analysis of iTBI patients without pre-injury anticoagulant therapy identified several independent risk factors for coagulopathy which were present at hospital admission. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than or equal to 8, base excess (BE) less than or equal to - 6, hypothermia and hypotension increased risk significantly. Conclusion Consideration of these factors enables early prediction and risk stratification of acute coagulopathy after TBI, thus guiding clinical management.
  • Lillemae, Kadri; Jarvio, Johanna Annika; Silvasti-Lundell, Marja Kaarina; Antinheimo, Jussi Juha-Pekka; Hernesniemi, Juha Antero; Niemi, Tomi Tapio (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the occurrence of postoperative hematoma (POH) after neurosurgery overall and according to procedure type and describe the prevalence of possible confounders. METHODS: Patient data between 2010 and 2012 at the Department of Neurosurgery in Helsinki University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. A data search was performed according to the type of surgery including craniotomies; shunt procedures, spine surgery, and spinal cord stimulator implantation. We analyzed basic preoperative characteristics, as well as data about the initial intervention, perioperative period, revision operation and neurologic recovery (after craniotomy only). RESULTS: The overall incidence of POH requiring reoperation was 0.6% (n = 56/8783) to 0.6% (n = 26/4726) after craniotomy, 0% (n = 0/928) after shunting procedure, 1.1% (n = 30/2870) after spine surgery, and 0% (n = 0/259) after implantation of a spinal cord stimulator. Craniotomy types with higher POH incidence were decompressive craniectomy (7.9%, n = 7/89), cranioplasty (3.6%, n = 4/112), bypass surgery (1.7%, n = 1/60), and epidural hematoma evacuation (1.6%, n = 1/64). After spinal surgery, POH was observed in 1.1% of cervical and 2.1% of thoracolumbar operations, whereas 46.7% were multilevel procedures. 64.3% of patients with POH and 84.6% of patients undergoing craniotomy had postoperative hypertension (systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg or lower if indicated). Poor outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 1-3), whereas death at 6 months after craniotomy was detected in 40.9% and 21.7%. respectively, of patients with POH who underwent craniotomy. CONCLUSIONS: POH after neurosurgery was rare in this series but was associated with poor outcome. Identification of risk factors of bleeding, and avoiding them, if possible, might decrease the incidence of POH.
  • Raj, Rahul; Luostarinen, Teemu; Pursiainen, Eetu; Posti, Jussi P.; Takala, Riikka S. K.; Bendel, Stepani; Konttila, Teijo; Korja, Miikka (2019)
    Our aim was to create simple and largely scalable machine learning-based algorithms that could predict mortality in a real-time fashion during intensive care after traumatic brain injury. We performed an observational multicenter study including adult TBI patients that were monitored for intracranial pressure (ICP) for at least 24 h in three ICUs. We used machine learning-based logistic regression modeling to create two algorithms (based on ICP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP] and Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS]) to predict 30-day mortality. We used a stratified crossvalidation technique for internal validation. Of 472 included patients, 92 patients (19%) died within 30 days. Following cross-validation, the ICP-MAP-CPP algorithm's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) increased from 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.74) on day 1 to 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.87) on day 5. The ICP-MAP-CPP-GCS algorithm's AUC increased from 0.72 (95% CI 0.64-0.78) on day 1 to 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.90) on day 5. Algorithm misclassification was seen among patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. In conclusion, we present a new concept of dynamic prognostication for patients with TBI treated in the ICU. Our simple algorithms, based on only three and four main variables, discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with accuracies up to 81% and 84%. These open-sourced simple algorithms can likely be further developed, also in low and middleincome countries.
  • Rahmanian, Abdolkarim; Seifzadeh, Babak; Razmkon, Ali; Petramfar, Peyman; Kivelev, Juri; Alibai, Ehsan-Ali; Hernesniemi, Juha (2014)
    Background: Malignant cerebral infarction is a well-recognized disease, comprising 10-15% of all cases with cerebral infarction and causing herniation and death in 80% of cases. In this study, we compare the effects of decompressive craniectomy versus conventional medical treatment on mortality rate and functional and neurological outcome in patients with malignant MCA infarction. Methods: We performed a prospective case-control study on 60 patients younger than 80years of age suffering malignant MCA cerebral infarction. The case group underwent decompressive craniectomy in addition to routine aggressive medical care; while the control group received routine medical treatment. Patient outcome was assessed using Glasgow outcome scale and modified Rankin scale within three months of follow-up. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.0 software using Chi Square, One-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: There were 27 male and 33 female patients with a mean age of 60.6 years (SD = 12.3). Glasgow outcome scale score averaged 2.93 in the surgical versus 1.53 in the medical group; this difference was significant (p = 0.001). Outcome in modified Rankin scale was also significantly lower in the surgical (3.27) versus medical (5.27) group (p <0.001). Surgery could decrease the mortality rate about 47%. Conclusion: In this study, decompressive craniectomy could decrease mortality rate, and improve neurological and functional outcome, and decrease long-term disability in patients with malignant MCA infarction.
  • CENTER TBI Study Pa; Mikolic, Ana; Polinder, Suzanne; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van Klaveren, David; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    The majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are categorized as mild, according to a baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15. Prognostic models that were developed to predict functional outcome and persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) after mild TBI have rarely been externally validated. We aimed to externally validate models predicting 3-12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) or PPCS in adults with mild TBI. We analyzed data from the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) project, which included 2862 adults with mild TBI, with 6-month GOSE available for 2374 and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) results available for 1605 participants. Model performance was evaluated based on calibration (graphically and characterized by slope and intercept) and discrimination (C-index). We validated five published models for 6-month GOSE and three for 6-month PPCS scores. The models used different cutoffs for outcome and some included symptoms measured 2 weeks post-injury. Discriminative ability varied substantially (C-index between 0.58 and 0.79). The models developed in the Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) trial for prediction of GOSE
  • Marinkovic, Ivan; Isokuortti, Harri; Huovinen, Antti; Trpeska Marinkovic, Daniela; Mäki, Kaisa; Nybo, Taina Tuulikki; Korvenoja, Antti; Raj, Rahul; Vataja, Risto; Melkas, Susanna (2020)
    Abstract: Background: We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients and investigated psychiatric comorbidity in relation to subjective symptoms and return to work (RTW). Methods: We recruited 103 MTBI patients (mean age 40.8 years, SD 3.1) prospectively from University Hospital. The patients were followed up for one year. The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptom Questionnaire (RPQ) and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) were administered one month after MTBI. Three months after MTBI, any psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Results: Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (25.2%). The most common disorders were previous/current depression. At three months, there was no dierence between patients with psychiatric disorders versus those without them in RTW (95.7% vs. 87.3%, p = 0.260) or at least in part-time work (100% vs. 94.4%, p = 0.245). In Kaplan–Meier analysis, the median time to RTW was 10 days for both groups. The median RPQ score was 13.0 (Interquartile range (IQR) 6.5–19.0) in patients with a psychiatric disorder compared to 8.5 (IQR 2.3–14.0) in those without one (p = 0.021); respectively, the median GOSE was 7.0 (IQR 7.0–8.0) compared to 8.0 (IQR 7.0–8.0, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Approximately every fourth patient with MTBI had a psychiatric disorder. These patients reported more symptoms, and their functional outcome measured with GOSE at one month after MTBI was worse. However, presence of any psychiatric disorder did not aect RTW. Early contact and adequate follow-up are important when supporting the patient’s return to work.
  • Lindfors, Matias; Lindblad, Caroline; Nelson, David W.; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul; Thelin, Eric P. (2019)
    Background The prognosis of penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) is poor yet highly variable. Current computerized tomography (CT) severity scores are commonly not used for pTBI prognostication but may provide important clinical information in these cohorts. Methods All consecutive pTBI patients from two large neurotrauma databases (Helsinki 1999-2015, Stockholm 2005-2014) were included. Outcome measures were 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale 1-3). Admission head CT scans were assessed according to the following: Marshall CT classification, Rotterdam CT score, Stockholm CT score, and Helsinki CT score. The discrimination (area under the receiver operating curve, AUC) and explanatory variance (pseudo-R-2) of the CT scores were assessed individually and in addition to a base model including age, motor response, and pupil responsiveness. Results Altogether, 75 patients were included. Overall 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome were 45% and 61% for all patients, and 31% and 51% for actively treated patients. The CT scores' AUCs and pseudo-R(2)s varied between 0.77-0.90 and 0.35-0.60 for mortality prediction and between 0.85-0.89 and 0.50-0.57 for unfavorable outcome prediction. The base model showed excellent performance for mortality (AUC 0.94, pseudo-R-2 0.71) and unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.89, pseudo-R-2 0.53) prediction. None of the CT scores increased the base model's AUC (p > 0.05) yet increased its pseudo-R-2 (0.09-0.15) for unfavorable outcome prediction. Conclusion Existing head CT scores demonstrate good-to-excellent performance in 6-month outcome prediction in pTBI patients. However, they do not add independent information to known outcome predictors, indicating that a unique score capturing the intracranial severity in pTBI may be warranted.
  • Raj, Rahul; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka; Mikkonen, Era D.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Siironen, Jari (2017)
    Background Previous epidemiological studies suggest that working-aged persons with a history of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have an increased risk for developing neurodegenerative disease (NDD) while persons with a history of mild TBI do not. In this comprehensive nationwide study in Finland, we assessed the risk of NDD and history of moderate-to-severe TBI in the working-age population. Methods and findings We performed a population-based follow-up study using the Finnish Care Register for Health Care to identify all persons between the ages of 18 and 65 years hospitalized during 1987-2014 due to TBI who did not have a baseline NDD diagnosis. We compared the risk of hospitalization with NDD between persons hospitalized due to moderate-to-severe TBI (intracranial lesions) and persons hospitalized due to mild TBI (no intracranial lesions). Follow-up NDD diagnoses were recorded from 1 year following the TBI to the end of 2014. NDD diagnoses included dementia, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We used a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and socioeconomic group, to assess the association between TBI and NDD. In total, 19,936 and 20,703 persons with a history of moderate-to-severe TBI and mild TBI, respectively, were included. The overall time at risk was 453,079 person-years (median 10 years per person). In total, 3.5% (N = 696) persons in the moderate-to-severe TBI group developed NDD compared to 1.6% (N = 326) in the mild TBI group. After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe TBI was associated with an increased risk for NDD, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.8 (95% CI 1.6-2.1) compared to mild TBI. Of the NDD subtypes, only moderate-to-severe TBI was associated with an increased risk for dementia (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2). Yet, this large-scale epidemiological study does not prove that there is a causal relationship between moderate-to-severe TBI and NDD. Further, the Care Register for Health Care includes only hospitalized persons; thus, patients diagnosed with NDD in the outpatient setting may have been missed. Additional limitations include the potential for miscoding and unmeasured confounds. Conclusions In working-aged persons, a history of moderate-to-severe TBI is associated with an increased risk for future dementia but not for Parkinson disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • Lindfors, Matias; Vehviläinen, Juho; Siironen, Jari; Kivisaari, Riku; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Raj, Rahul (2018)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, it remains undetermined whether long-term outcomes after TBI have improved over the past two decades. We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive TBI patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical ICU during 1999-2015. Primary outcomes of interest were 6-month all-cause mortality (available for all patients) and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS, available from 2005 onwards). GOS was dichotomized to favourable and unfavourable functional outcome. Temporal changes in outcome were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, GCS motor score, pupillary light responsiveness, Marshall CT classification and major extracranial injury. Altogether, 3193 patients were included. During the study period, patient age and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score increased, while the overall TBI severity did not change. Overall unadjusted 6-month mortality was 25% and overall unadjusted unfavourable outcome (2005-2015) was 44%. There was no reduction in the adjusted odds of 6-month mortality (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.96-1.00), but the adjusted odds of favourable functional outcome significantly increased (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04-1.11). Subgroup analysis showed outcome improvements only in specific subgroups (conservatively treated patients, moderate-to-severe TBI patients, middle-aged patients). During the past two decades, mortality after significant TBI has remained largely unchanged, but the odds of favourable functional outcome have increased significantly in specific subgroups, implying an improvement in quality of care. These developments have been paralleled by notable changes in patient characteristics, emphasizing the importance of continuous epidemiological monitoring.
  • CENTER-TBI Collaborators; Gravesteijn, Benjamin Yael; Sewalt, Charlie Aletta; Nieboer, Daan; Lingsma, Hester Floor; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Background: We aimed to study the associations between pre- and in-hospital tracheal intubation and outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and whether the association varied according to injury severity. Methods: Data from the international prospective pan-European cohort study, Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research for TBI (CENTER-TBI), were used (n=4509). For prehospital intubation, we excluded selfpresenters. For in-hospital intubation, patients whose tracheas were intubated on-scene were excluded. The association between intubation and outcome was analysed with ordinal regression with adjustment for the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI variables and extracranial injury. We assessed whether the effect of intubation varied by injury severity by testing the added value of an interaction term with likelihood ratio tests. Results: In the prehospital analysis, 890/3736 (24%) patients had their tracheas intubated at scene. In the in-hospital analysis, 460/2930 (16%) patients had their tracheas intubated in the emergency department. There was no adjusted overall effect on functional outcome of prehospital intubation (odds ratio=1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.28; P=0.96), and the adjusted overall effect of in-hospital intubation was not significant (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.13; P=0.28). However, prehospital intubation was associated with better functional outcome in patients with higher thorax and abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale scores (P=0.009 and P=0.02, respectively), whereas inhospital intubation was associated with better outcome in patients with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P=0.01): inhospital intubation was associated with better functional outcome in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 10 or lower. Conclusion: The benefits and harms of tracheal intubation should be carefully evaluated in patients with TBI to optimise benefit. This study suggests that extracranial injury should influence the decision in the prehospital setting, and level of consciousness in the in-hospital setting.
  • Raj, Rahul; Bendel, Stepani; Reinikainen, Matti; Hoppu, Sanna; Luoto, Teemu; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Tetri, Sami; Laitio, Ruut; Koivisto, Timo; Rinne, Jaakko; Kivisaari, Riku; Siironen, Jari; Skrifvars, Markus (2016)
    Background: Differences in outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) between neurosurgical centers exist, although the reasons for this are not clear. Thus, our aim was to assess the association between the annual volume of TBI patients and mortality in neurosurgical intensive care units (NICUs). Methods: We collected data on all patients treated in the five Finnish university hospitals to examine all patients with TBI treated in NICUs in Finland from 2009 to 2012. We used a random effect logistic regression model to adjust for important prognostic factors to assess the independent effect of ICU volume on 6-month mortality. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with severe TBI, moderate-to-severe TBI, and those who were undergoing mechanical ventilation or intracranial pressure monitoring. Results: Altogether 2,328 TBI patients were treated during the study period in five NICUs. The annual TBI patient volume ranged from 61 to 206 patients between the NICUs. Univariate analysis, showed no association between the NICUs' annual TBI patient volume and 6-month mortality (p = 0.063). The random effect model showed no independent association between the NICUs' annual TBI patient volume and 6-month mortality (OR = 1.000, 95% CI = 0.996-1.004, p = 0.876). None of the pre-defined subgroup analyses indicated any association between NICU volume and patient mortality (p > 0.05 for all). Discussion and Conclusion: We did not find any association between annual TBI patient volume and 6-month mortality in NICUs. These findings should be interpreted taking into account that we only included NICUs, which by international standards all treated high volumes of TBI patients, and that we were not able to study the effect of NICU volume on neurological outcome.
  • CTR-TBI Investigators Participants; Huijben, Jilske A.; Volovici, Victor; Cnossen, Maryse C.; Haitsma, Iain K.; Stocchetti, Nino; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David K.; Ercole, Ari; Citerio, Giuseppe; Nelson, David; Polinder, Suzanne; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Lingsma, Hester F.; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Raj, Rahul (2018)
    Background: General supportive and preventive measures in the intensive care management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aim to prevent or limit secondary brain injury and optimize recovery. The aim of this survey was to assess and quantify variation in perceptions on intensive care unit (ICU) management of patients with TBI in European neurotrauma centers. Methods: We performed a survey as part of the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. We analyzed 23 questions focused on: 1) circulatory and respiratory management; 2) fever control; 3) use of corticosteroids; 4) nutrition and glucose management; and 5) seizure prophylaxis and treatment. Results: The survey was completed predominantly by intensivists (n = 33, 50%) and neurosurgeons (n = 23, 35%) from 66 centers (97% response rate). The most common cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) target was > 60 mmHg (n = 39, 60%) and/or an individualized target (n = 25, 38%). To support CPP, crystalloid fluid loading (n = 60, 91%) was generally preferred over albumin (n = 15, 23%), and vasopressors (n = 63, 96%) over inotropes (n = 29, 44%). The most commonly reported target of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) was 36-40 mmHg (4.8-5.3 kPa) in case of controlled intracranial pressure (ICP) <20 mmHg (n = 45, 69%) and PaCO2 target of 30-35 mmHg (4-4.7 kPa) in case of raised ICP (n = 40, 62%). Almost all respondents indicated to generally treat fever (n = 65, 98%) with paracetamol (n = 61, 92%) and/or external cooling (n = 49, 74%). Conventional glucose management (n = 43, 66%) was preferred over tight glycemic control (n = 18, 28%). More than half of the respondents indicated to aim for full caloric replacement within 7 days (n = 43, 66%) using enteral nutrition (n = 60, 92%). Indications for and duration of seizure prophylaxis varied, and levetiracetam was mostly reported as the agent of choice for both seizure prophylaxis (n = 32, 49%) and treatment (n = 40, 61%). Conclusions: Practice preferences vary substantially regarding general supportive and preventive measures in TBI patients at ICUs of European neurotrauma centers. These results provide an opportunity for future comparative effectiveness research, since a more evidence-based uniformity in good practices in general ICU management could have a major impact on TBI outcome.
  • Cnossen, Maryse C.; Huijben, Jilske A.; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Volovici, Victor; van Essen, Thomas; Polinder, Suzanne; Nelson, David; Ercole, Ari; Stocchetti, Nino; Citerio, Giuseppe; Peul, Wilco C.; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Lingsma, Hester F.; CENTER-TBI Investigators; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2017)
    Background: No definitive evidence exists on how intracranial hypertension should be treated in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is therefore likely that centers and practitioners individually balance potential benefits and risks of different intracranial pressure (ICP) management strategies, resulting in practice variation. The aim of this study was to examine variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in patients with TBI. Methods: A 29-item survey on ICP monitoring and treatment was developed on the basis of literature and expert opinion, and it was pilot-tested in 16 centers. The questionnaire was sent to 68 neurotrauma centers participating in the Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Results: The survey was completed by 66 centers (97% response rate). Centers were mainly academic hospitals (n = 60, 91%) and designated level I trauma centers (n = 44, 67%). The Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines were used in 49 (74%) centers. Approximately 90% of the participants (n = 58) indicated placing an ICP monitor in patients with severe TBI and computed tomographic abnormalities. There was no consensus on other indications or on peri-insertion precautions. We found wide variation in the use of first-and second-tier treatments for elevated ICP. Approximately half of the centers were classified as using a relatively aggressive approach to ICP monitoring and treatment (n = 32, 48%), whereas the others were considered more conservative (n = 34, 52%). Conclusions: Substantial variation was found regarding monitoring and treatment policies in patients with TBI and intracranial hypertension. The results of this survey indicate a lack of consensus between European neurotrauma centers and provide an opportunity and necessity for comparative effectiveness research.
  • Picetti, Edoardo; Rossi, Sandra; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Ansaloni, Luca; Armonda, Rocco; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Berardino, Maurizio; Biffl, Walter L.; Bouzat, Pierre; Buki, Andras; Ceresoli, Marco; Chesnut, Randall M.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Citerio, Giuseppe; Coccolini, Federico; Coimbra, Raul; Di Saverio, Salomone; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Gupta, Deepak; Helbok, Raimund; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Kluger, Yoram; Leppäniemi, Ari; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Maier, Ronald V.; Minardi, Francesco; Moore, Ernest E.; Myburgh, John A.; Okonkwo, David O.; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Rizoli, Sandro; Rubiano, Andres M.; Sahuquillo, Juan; Sartelli, Massimo; Scalea, Thomas M.; Servadei, Franco; Stahel, Philip F.; Stocchetti, Nino; Taccone, Fabio S.; Tonetti, Tommaso; Velmahos, George; Weber, Dieter; Catena, Fausto (2019)
    The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.