Browsing by Subject "HEALTH-BENEFITS"

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  • Swann, J. R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Salonen, A.; Sakwinska, O.; Gill, C.; Meynier, A.; Fanca-Berthon, P.; Schelkle, B.; Segata, N.; Shortt, C.; Tuohy, K.; Hasselwander, O. (2020)
    With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.
  • Sillanpaa, Elina; Ollikainen, Miina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xiaoling; Leskinen, Tuija; Kujala, Urho M.; Tormakangas, Timo (2019)
    BackgroundEpigenetic clocks may increase our understanding on human aging and how genetic and environmental factors regulate an individual aging process. One of the most promising clocks is Horvath's DNA methylation (DNAm) age. Age acceleration, i.e., discrepancy between DNAm age and chronological age, tells us whether the person is biologically young or old compared to his/her chronological age. Several environmental and lifestyle factors have been shown to affect life span. We investigated genetic and environmental predictors of DNAm age in young and older monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with a focus on leisure time physical activity.ResultsQuantitative genetic modeling revealed that the relative contribution of non-shared environmental factors was larger among older compared with younger twin pairs [47% (95% CI 35, 63) vs. 26% (95% CI: 19, 35), p
  • Kulmala, Markku; Petaja, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kujansuu, Joni; Ruuskanen, Taina; Ding, Aijun; Nie, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Zhibin; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Lin; Worsnop, Douglas R. (2016)
    Formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles is a global phenomenon that has been observed to take place in even heavily-polluted environments. However, in all environments there appears to be a threshold value of the condensation sink (due to pre-existing aerosol particles) after which the formation rate of 3 nm particles is no longer detected. In China, new particle production has been observed at very high pollution levels (condensation sink about 0.1 s(-1)) in several megacities, including Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing as well as in Pearl River Delta (PRD). Here we summarize the recent findings obtained from these studies and discuss the various implications these findings will have on future research and policy. (C) Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016
  • Päivärinne, Ville; Kautiainen, Hannu; Heinonen, Ari; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2019)
    Purpose Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is known to be associated with positive health benefits, but the role of occupational physical demands remains inconsistent. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between LTPA and work ability in different occupational physical activity (OPA) levels between young adult men. Methods We performed physical activity measurements in work and leisure time with the long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and work ability with the Work Ability Index (WAI) in 921 Finnish employed male volunteer participants. The participants were divided into LTPA tertiles I (<8 MET-h/week), II (8-28 MET-h/week), and III (> 28 MET-h/week) and OPA tertiles I (0 MET-h/week), II (<64 MET-h/week), and III (>= 64 MET-h/week). Results There was a significant relationship between LTPA and WAI in OPA tertiles (adjusted for age, alcohol consumption, working class status, BMI, and employment years). Moreover, each LTPA tertile showed significant linear associations with WAI (P <0.001). Conclusion LTPA is positively associated with work ability among young adult men. More specifically, the relationships between LTPA and WAI were significantly greater in physically demanding jobs than in more passive jobs. Our results indicate the importance of LTPA, particularly with individuals under higher work-related physical strain.
  • Palmberg, Lotta; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rantakokko, Merja (2020)
    Objective: We examined among older women the association of sleep quality, daytime tiredness, and sleep duration with unmet physical activity need, that is, wishing to be more physically active but perceiving no opportunity for it. Method: Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses among women aged 74 to 86 years (Finnish Twin Study on Aging, third wave, n = 302). Results: Thirty-one participants reported unmet physical activity need. Short sleepers had fivefold and long sleepers threefold odds for unmet physical activity need compared with normative sleepers, while for daytime tiredness the odds were double. Presence of daytime tiredness and unmet physical activity coincided with higher prevalence of chronic diseases, depressive symptoms and walking difficulties, which partly explains the observed associations. Poor sleep quality was not associated with unmet physical activity need. Discussion: Older women with nonoptimal sleep characteristics who perceive unmet physical activity need may benefit from solutions that improve their perceived opportunities for physical activity.