Browsing by Subject "HEALTH-CARE"

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  • Järvinen, Teppo N. L.; Sihvonen, Raine; Englund, Martin (2014)
  • Trabulo, Carolina; Lopes, Joana; Dias, David da Silva; Gramaca, Joao; Fernandes, Isabel; Gameiro, Rita; Pina, Idilia; Mäkitie, Antti; Ottery, Faith; Ravasco, Paula (2022)
    BackgroundNutritional status in patients with cancer has a determining role in the evolution of the disease and tolerance to treatments. Severity of undernutrition impacts morbidity and mortality in cancer patients and can limit patient response to the optimal therapies if nutritional issues are not appropriately addressed and managed. Despite the importance of malnutrition for the clinical evolution of oncology patients, there is not yet a universally accepted standard method for evaluating malnutrition in such patients. The aim of this study was to stratify the nutritional status of inpatients at an Oncology Department. MethodsThis is an observational study with 561 cancer patients, assessed at admission to a Medical Oncology Department from November 2016 to February 2020. All patients were considered eligible. Non-compliant and/or comatose patients were excluded. Nutritional status was assessed using the PG-SGA, BMI classified with the WHO criteria, and calculation of the percentage of weight loss in the previous 3-6 months. ResultsA total of 561 patients (303 F: 258 M; mean age 65 +/- 13 years) were included. One-third of the patients, n=191/561 (34%), lost 6% of their weight in the month prior to admission and 297/561 (53%) patients lost 10.2% of weight in the previous 6 months. Mean BMI was 24.1 +/- 5.8 kg/m(2); N = 280/561 (50%) patients had regular BMI according to the WHO criteria. N = 331/561 (59%) patients reported eating less in the month prior to admission. N = 303/561 (54%) had moderate/severe deficits of muscle and adipose compartments. The PG-SGA identified 499/561 (89%) patients as moderately/severely malnourished, of which 466/561 (83%) patients scored >= 9 points, meeting criteria for a critical need for nutritional support. Fifteen percent of patients scored >4 points, indicating a need for directed therapy for symptom control and only 1% scored
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna (2018)
    Background We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Methods Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Results Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (> 9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Conclusion Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk.
  • Ylönen, Minna; Viljamaa, Jaakko; Isoaho, Hannu; Junttila, Kristiina; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suhonen, Riitta (2019)
    Background: Previous research has revealed nurses' knowledge gaps in venous leg ulcer (VLU) nursing care, and continuing education is needed. The closer nurses' perceived knowledge is to their evidence-based theoretical knowledge, the better possibilities they have to conduct evidence-based VLU nursing care. Objectives: To assess the congruence between nurses' perceived and theoretical knowledge about VLU nursing care before and after an internet-based education about VLU nursing care (eVLU). Design: Quasi-experimental study with intervention and comparison groups and pre- and post-measurements. Setting: Home health care in two Finnish municipalities. Participants: Nurses (n = 946) working in home health care were invited to participate. In the intervention group, 239 nurses and 229 nurses in the comparison group met the inclusion criteria, and they were all recruited to the study. Method: Nurses were divided into intervention and comparison groups with lottery between the municipalities. Nurses in both groups took care of patients with VLU according to their organizations' instructions. In addition to this, nurses in the intervention group received a 6-week eVLU while those in the comparison group did not. Data were collected with a questionnaire about perceived and theoretical knowledge before education, at six weeks, and at 10 weeks. The percentages of congruence were calculated at every measurement point, and the McNemar test was used to detect statistical significance of changes between measurements. Results: The increase of congruence was more often statistically significant in the intervention group than in the comparison group. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the congruence between perceived and theoretical knowledge will be higher among nurses receiving eVLU. Because of the low participation and drop-outs, the results should be interpreted with caution.
  • Toivo, Terhi; Dimitrow, Maarit; Puustinen, Juha; Savela, Eeva; Pelkonen, Katariina; Kiuru, Valtteri; Suominen, Tuula; Kinnunen, Sirkka; Uunimäki, Mira; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Leikola, Saija; Airaksinen, Marja (2018)
    Background: The magnitude of safety risks related to medications of the older adults has been evidenced by numerous studies, but less is known of how to manage and prevent these risks in different health care settings. The aim of this study was to coordinate resources for prospective medication risk management of home care clients >= 65 years in primary care and to develop a study design for demonstrating effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: Health care units involved in the study are from primary care in Lohja, Southern Finland: home care (191 consented clients), the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. System based risk management theory and action research method was applied to construct the collaborative procedure utilizing each profession's existing resources in medication risk management of older home care clients. An inventory of clinical measures in usual clinical practice and systematic review of rigorous study designs was utilized in effectiveness study design. Discussion: The new coordinated medication management model (CoMM) has the following 5 stages: 1) practical nurses are trained to identify clinically significant drug-related problems (DRPs) during home visits and report those to the clinical pharmacist. Clinical pharmacist prepares the cases for 2) an interprofessional triage meeting (50-70 cases/meeting of 2 h) where decisions are made on further action, e.g., more detailed medication reviews, 3) community pharmacists conduct necessary medication reviews and each patients' physician makes final decisions on medication changes needed. The final stages concern 4) implementation and 5) follow-up of medication changes. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. The developed procedure is feasible for screening and reviewing medications of a high number of older home care clients to identify clients with severe DRPs and provide interventions to solve them utilizing existing primary care resources.
  • Cuckle, Howard; Heinonen, Seppo; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Stefanovic, Vedran (2022)
    Introduction A financial analysis is carried out to assess costs and benefits of providing cell-free DNA screening in Finland, using different strategies. Materials and methods Three cell-free DNA screening strategies are considered: Primary, all women; Secondary, those with positive Combined test; and Contingent, the 10-30% with the highest Combined test risks. Three costs are estimated: additional cost for 10,000 pregnancies compared with the Combined test; 'marginal' cost of avoiding a Down syndrome birth which occurs in a pregnancy that would have been false-negative using the Combined test; and marginal cost of preventing the iatrogenic loss of a non-Down syndrome birth which occurs in a pregnancy that would have been false-positive. Results Primary cell-free DNA will require additional funds of euro250,000. The marginal cost per Down syndrome birth avoided is considerably less than the lifetime medical and indirect cost; the marginal cost per unaffected iatrogenic fetal loss prevented is higher than one benefit measure but lower than another. If the ultrasound component of the Combined test is retained, as would be in Finland, the additional funds required rise to euro992,000. Secondary cell-free DNA is cost-saving as is a Contingent strategy with 10% selected but whilst when 20-30% costs rise they are much less than for the Primary strategy and are cost-beneficial. Conclusions When considering the place of cell-free DNA screening it is important to make explicit the additional and marginal costs of different screening strategies and the associated benefits. Under most assumptions the balance is favorable for Contingent screening.
  • Lumme, Sonja; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Arffman, Martti; Karvonen, Sakari; Keskimaki, Ilmo (2020)
    Objectives To study the interplay between several indicators of social disadvantage and hospitalisations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSC) in 2011-2013. To evaluate whether the accumulation of preceding social disadvantage in one point of time or prolongation of social disadvantage had an effect on hospitalisations due to ACSCs. Four common indicators of disadvantage are examined: living alone, low level of education, poverty and unemployment. Design A population-based register study. Setting Nationwide individual-level register data on hospitalisations due to ACSCs for the years 2011-2013 and preceding data on social and socioeconomic factors for the years 2006-2010. Participants Finnish residents aged 45 or older on 1 January 2011. Outcome measure Hospitalisations due to ACSCs in 2011-2013. The effect of accumulation of preceding disadvantage in one point of time and its prolongation on ACSCs was studied using modified Poisson regression. Results People with preceding cumulative social disadvantage were more likely to be hospitalised due to ACSCs. The most hazardous combination was simultaneously living alone, low level of education and poverty among the middle-aged individuals (aged 45-64 years) and the elderly (over 64 years). Risk ratio (RR) of being hospitalised due to ACSC was 3.16 (95% CI 3.03-3.29) among middle-aged men and 3.54 (3.36-3.73) among middle-aged women compared with individuals without any of these risk factors when controlling for age and residential area. For the elderly, the RR was 1.61 (1.57-1.66) among men and 1.69 (1.64-1.74) among women. Conclusions To improve social equity in healthcare, it is important to recognise not only patients with cumulative disadvantage but also-as this study shows-patients with particular combinations of disadvantage who may be more susceptible. The identification of these vulnerable patient groups is also necessary to reduce the use of more expensive treatment in specialised healthcare.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Baffigo-Torre, Virginia; Estela Sacieta-Carbajo, Luisa; Olivari-Heredia, Jacqueline; Falcon-Lizaraso, Yolanda; Huber Mallma-Torres, Juan; Elera-Florez, Humberto; Hernesniemi, Juha (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Economic, cultural, and geographical reasons usually limit the access to specialized health centers in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Peruvian health system indicators still highlight significant unmet clinical need for neurosurgical patients. Our project is to develop the first highly specialized neurosurgical center in the EsSalud hospital of Trujillo, with the goal to improve the treatment of neurosurgical diseases in that region, thus optimizing their outcomes while decreasing expensive and risky patients transfer to the neurosurgical departments in the capital district. METHODS: After an initial center evaluation, 2 neurosurgeons and 2 nurses from the Helsinki University Central Hospital provided the microneurosurgical training for the local team. Moreover, our team worked closely with the local staff to develop standardized protocols for surgical procedures and postoperative management. RESULTS: From February to May 2016, 59 surgeries were performed in the new Neurosurgical Center, including cerebrovascular and skull-base cases that were never performed before in Trujillo. Moreover, the first "Cerebral Bypass and Vascular Microsurgery Live Course" was held in Trujillo in May 2016. After we left, the local team continued to work following the same protocols we introduced, and built up together. CONCLUSIONS: An effective and adequate operative skill transfer to the local staff may be accomplished in a reasonable amount of time, thus guaranteeing a longlasting improvement of neurosurgical care, while minimizing expenditures on personnel and capital. We believe that this is possible following a general microsurgical philosophy that can be simplified as follows: "simple, clean, fast, and preserving normal anatomy."
  • Wikstrom, Miia; Anttila, Heidi; Savinainen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (2020)
    BackgroundThe unemployed have lower work ability and poorer health than the employed. This situation deteriorates when unemployment continues. The long-term unemployed often have co-morbidities and face many other challenges. This increases the need for a multidimensional assessment of work ability and functioning in different service settings. In this study, we describe the development and analyse the content validity of the Abilitator, a self-report questionnaire on work ability and functioning for those in a weak labour market position.MethodsThe Abilitator was developed in 2014-2017. Its construct was assessed by members of academic expert panels (n=30), practical expert panels of professionals (n=700) and target group clients (n=28). The structure and the content of the questionnaire was co-developed in 29 workshops and adjusted twice based on the expert panels' feedback. The Abilitator was also implemented among target group clients (n=3360) in different services and projects. During its development the Abilitator was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The content validation process followed the guidelines recommended by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) panel.ResultsThe construct of the Abilitator combines the multidimensional and biopsychosocial models of work ability and functioning. It also includes aspects of social inclusion and employability. It evaluates social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, and the ability to cope with everyday life. The content of these concepts was validated by the academic and practical expert panels. The Abilitator's 79 ICF codes covered 57% of the Generic, 77% of the Brief Vocational Rehabilitation, and 8% of the Minimal Environmental ICF Core Sets. When compared with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), the direct equivalences of the ICF codes were 36 and 44%, respectively.ConclusionThe Abilitator sufficiently comprehensively covers the relevant aspects to enable the assessment of the overall work ability and functioning of the population in a weak labour market position.
  • Lehto, Mika; Mustonen, Katri; Raina, Marko; Kauppila, Timo (2021)
    To determine the extent to which it is possible to provide continuity of primary care for those who visit Emergency Departments (EDs) we studied how recorded diagnoses in primary care differ, depending on whether the patient is met in an ED or a primary care office-hours practice. In the present, 12-year follow-up study a report generator of the Electronic Health Record-system provided monthly figures for the number of different recorded diagnoses using the International Classification of Diagnoses (10(th)edition, ICD-10) and the total number of ED doctors and office-hour visits to General Practitioners (GPs). The 20 most common diagnoses covered 48.1% of the visits with recorded diagnoses to the office hour GPs and 45.9% of the visits to the doctors of the ED. Of these 20 diagnoses, 10 were common in both systems. These 10 diagnoses constituted about 30% of the diagnoses given by ED doctors. Furthermore, five out of the six most common diagnoses were the same in the ED and office-hours practices. The doctors in EDs and office-hour GPs treat quite similar patient material. This may provide organisational ways to reorganise the work of primary care and to guarantee continuity of care for those who may benefit from it.
  • Lohela, Terhi; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Gabrysch, Sabine (2012)
  • Rochfort, Andree; Beirne, Sinead; Doran, Gillian; Patton, Patricia; Gensichen, Jochen; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Smith, Susan; Eriksson, Tina; Collins, Claire (2018)
    Background: Patient self-management support is recognised as a key component of chronic care. Education and training for health professionals has been shown in the literature to be associated with better uptake, implementation and effectiveness of self-management programs, however, there is no clear evidence regarding whether this training results in improved health outcomes for patients with chronic conditions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines using the Cochrane Library, PubMEd, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web searches, Hand searches and Bibliographies. Articles published from inception to September 1st, 2013 were included. Systematic reviews, Meta-analysis, Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), Controlled clinical trials, Interrupted time series and Controlled before and after studies, which reported on primary care health professionals' continuing education or evidence-based medicine/education on patient self-management for any chronic condition, were included. A minimum of two reviewers participated independently at each stage of review. Results: From 7533 abstracts found, only two papers provided evidence on the effectiveness of self-management education for primary healthcare professionals in terms of measured outcomes in patients. These two articles show improvement in patient outcomes for chronic back pain and diabetes based on RCTs. The educational interventions with health professionals spanned a range of techniques and modalities but both RCTs included a motivational interviewing component. Conclusions: Before and up to 2 years after the incorporation of patient empowerment for self-management into the WONCA Europe definition of general practice, there was a scarcity of high quality evidence showing improved outcomes for patients as a result of educating health professionals in patient self-management of chronic conditions.
  • Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria Pauliina; Ahas, Rein; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (2018)
    The concept of accessibility- the potential of opportunities for interaction- binds together the key physical components of urban structure: people, transport and social activity locations. Most often these components are dynamic in nature and hence the accessibility landscape changes in space and time based on people's mobilities and the temporality of the transport network and activity locations (e.g. services). Person-based accessibility approaches have been successful in incorporating time and space in the analyses and models. Still, the more broadly applied location-based accessibility modelling approaches have, on the other hand, often been static/atemporal in their nature. Here, we present a conceptual framework of dynamic location-based accessibility modelling that captures the dynamic temporality of all three accessibility components. Furthermore, we empirically test the proposed framework using novel data sources and tools. We demonstrate the impact of temporal aspects in accessibility modelling with two examples: by investigating food accessibility and its spatial equity. Our case study demonstrates how the conventional static location-based accessibility models tend to overestimate the access of people to potential opportunities. The proposed framework is universally applicable beyond the urban context, from local to global scale and on different temporal scales and multimodal transport systems. It also bridges the gap between location-based accessibility and person-based accessibility research.
  • Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo (2016)
    Background and purpose - The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods - From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results - The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation - The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties.
  • Evans, Jay; Grant, Elizabeth; Pessi, Anne Birgitta; Evans, Laura; Voolma, Silja (2021)
    Introduction There is widespread agreement that medical care without compassion cannot be patient-centred, but patients still routinely cite that they feel a lack of compassion in the care environment. There is a dearth of research on how compassion is experienced in a non-hospital setting such as a care home, not just by residents but by staff and other key stakeholders. This scoping review aims to determine the body of existing, published research that explicitly refers to compassion or empathy in the context of care homes. Methods and analysis This scoping review will follow the methodology described by Arksey and O'Malley and the PRISMAextension for scoping reviews guideline to adhere to an established methodological framework. Relevant publications will be searched on the EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EBM Reviews and PsycInfo databases. Peer-reviewed literature focusing on experiences of compassion or empathy in care home settings from the perspective of either staff, residents (or clients), family members or their combined perspectives will be included. We will focus on literature published from 2000 up to 1 November 2021, in English, Spanish, Portuguese Finnish and Estonian. The review process will consist of three stages: a title review to identify articles of interest, this will be followed by an abstract review and finally, a full-text review. These three stages will be conducted by two reviewers. Data will be extracted, collated and charted and a narrative synthesis of the results will be presented. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required for this scoping review. This study supports the first part of a larger programme to understand the importance of technologies in care homes. The scoping review will examine data from publicly available documentation, reports and published papers. Dissemination will be achieved through engagement with stakeholder communities, and publishing results. Our team will include representatives from the different communities involved.
  • Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Chang, James; Friedrich, Jeffrey Barton; Abady, Gdiom Gebreheat; Alahdab, Fares; Alipour, Vahid; Arabloo, Jalal; Asaad, Malke; Banach, Maciej; Bijani, Ali; Borzi, Antonio Maria; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Castle, Chris D.; Cho, Daniel Youngwhan; Chung, Michael T.; Daryani, Ahmad; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Dingels, Zachary; Hoa Thi Do; Fischer, Florian; Fox, Jack T.; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremichael, Berhe; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes; Hay, Simon; Chi Linh Hoang; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Kalhor, Rohollah; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khundkar, Roba; Kisa, Sezer; Kisa, Adnan; Liu, Zichen; Majdan, Marek; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Ali; Manda, Ana-Laura; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Miller, Ted R.; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Bandpei, Mohammad A. Mohseni; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naimzada, Mukhammad David; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Hai Quang Pham; Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga; Rabiee, Navid; Ramezanzadeh, Kiana; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Roever, Leonardo; Safari, Saeed; Samy, Abdallah M.; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Shahabi, Saeed; Smarandache, Catalin-Gabriel; Sylte, Dillon O.; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Bach Xuan Tran; Ullah, Irfan; Vahedi, Parviz; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Theo Vos; Woldeyes, Dawit Habte; Wondmieneh, Adam Belay; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; James, Spencer L. (2020)
    Background As global rates of mortality decrease, rates of non-fatal injury have increased, particularly in low Socio-demographic Index (SDI) nations. We hypothesised this global pattern of non-fatal injury would be demonstrated in regard to bony hand and wrist trauma over the 27-year study period. Methods The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 was used to estimate prevalence, age-standardised incidence and years lived with disability for hand trauma in 195 countries from 1990 to 2017. Individual injuries included hand and wrist fractures, thumb amputations and non-thumb digit amputations. Results The global incidence of hand trauma has only modestly decreased since 1990. In 2017, the age-standardised incidence of hand and wrist fractures was 179 per 100 000 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 146 to 217), whereas the less common injuries of thumb and non-thumb digit amputation were 24 (95% UI 17 to 34) and 56 (95% UI 43 to 74) per 100 000, respectively. Rates of injury vary greatly by region, and improvements have not been equally distributed. The highest burden of hand trauma is currently reported in high SDI countries. However, low-middle and middle SDI countries have increasing rates of hand trauma by as much at 25%. Conclusions Certain regions are noted to have high rates of hand trauma over the study period. Low-middle and middle SDI countries, however, have demonstrated increasing rates of fracture and amputation over the last 27 years. This trend is concerning as access to quality and subspecialised surgical hand care is often limiting in these resource-limited regions.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Ansaloni, Luca; Bartoli, Stefano; Biffl, Walter; Borghi, Felice; Chouillard, Elie; Cui, Yunfeng; Nascimento, Rafael De Oliveira; De Simone, Belinda; Di Saverio, Salomone; Duane, Therese; Eckmann, Christian; Eid, Hani O.; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomes, Felipe Couto; Hecker, Andreas; Hecker, Birgit; Isik, Arda; Itani, Kamal M. F.; Leppäniemi, Ari; Litvin, Andrey; Luppi, Davide; Maier, Ronald; Manzano-Nunez, Ramiro; Marwah, Sanjay; Mazuski, John; Moore, Ernest; Perrone, Gennaro; Rasa, Kemal; Rubio, Ines; Sawyer, Robert; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Catena, Fausto (2020)
    Appropriate measures of infection prevention and management are integral to optimal clinical practice and standards of care. Among surgeons, these measures are often over-looked. However, surgeons are at the forefront in preventing and managing infections. Surgeons are responsible for many of the processes of healthcare that impact the risk for surgical site infections and play a key role in their prevention. Surgeons are also at the forefront in managing patients with infections, who often need prompt source control and appropriate antibiotic therapy, and are directly responsible for their outcome. In this context, the direct leadership of surgeons in infection prevention and management is of utmost importance. In order to disseminate worldwide this message, the editorial has been translated into 9 different languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Russian, and Turkish).
  • Nurmela, Kirsti; Mattila, Aino; Heikkinen, Virpi; Uitti, Jukka; Ylinen, Aarne; Virtanen, Pekka (2018)
    The study explores whether clinical screening targeted at work disabilities among long-term unemployed people reveals eligible individuals for a disability pension and the importance of depression in granting the disability pensions. A total of 364 participants of the screening project were considered as eligible to apply for disability pension. Among them, 188 were diagnosed as clinically depressed. They were classified into those with earlier depression diagnosis (n = 85), those whose depression had not been diagnosed earlier (n = 103), and those without diagnosed depression (n = 176). The association of this Depression identification pattern' with being granted a disability pension was explored by logistic regression analyses. Compared to those with earlier diagnosis, those whose depression had not been diagnosed earlier were granted disability pension more commonly (72% vs. 54% OR 2.2, p = 0.012). Corresponding figures of the undepressed were 73%, OR 2.3, p = 0.002. The adjustments did not affect the results. Clinical examination of the long-term unemployed people in terms of work disability seems to be worthwhile. In particular, the examination reveals new depression diagnoses, which contribute more to the award of disability pension than depression diagnosed earlier by regular health care. Novel ways to detect depression among the unemployed should be implemented in the health and employment services.
  • Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castrén, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica (2019)
    Introduction Historically, performance within the Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC) setting has been assessed primarily based on response times. While easy to measure and valued by the public, overall, response time targets are a poor predictor of quality of care and clinical outcomes. Over the last two decades however, significant progress has been made towards improving the assessment of PEC performance, largely in the form of the development of PEC-specific quality indicators (QIs). Despite this progress, there has been little to no development of similar systems within the low- to middle-income country setting. As a result, the aim of this study was to identify a set of QIs appropriate for use in the South African PEC setting. Methods A three-round modified online Delphi study design was conducted to identify, refine and review a list of QIs for potential use in the South African PEC setting. Operational definitions, data components and criteria for use were developed for 210 QIs for inclusion into the study. Results In total, 104 QIs reached consensus agreement including, 90 clinical QIs, across 15 subcategories, and 14 non-clinical QIs across two subcategories. Amongst the clinical category, airway management (n = 13 QIs; 14%); out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (n = 13 QIs; 14%); and acute coronary syndromes (n = 11 QIs; 12%) made up the majority. Within the non-clinical category, adverse events made up the significant majority with nine QIs (64%). Conclusion Within the South Africa setting, there are a multitude of QIs that are relevant and appropriate for use in PEC. This was evident in the number, variety and type of QIs reaching consensus agreement in our study. Furthermore, both the methodology employed, and findings of this study may be used to inform the development of PEC specific QIs within other LMIC settings.
  • Brenner, Stephan; Mazalale, Jacob; Wilhelm, Danielle; Nesbitt, Robin C.; Lohela, Terhi J.; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Lohmann, Julia; Muula, Adamson S.; De Allegri, Manuela (2018)
    Background: Results-based financing (RBF) describes health system approaches addressing both service quality and use. Effective coverage is a metric measuring progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Although considered a means towards achieving UHC in settings with weak health financing modalities, the impact of RBF on effective coverage has not been explicitly studied. Methods: Malawi introduced the Results-Based Financing For Maternal and Neonatal Health (RBF4MNH) Initiative in 2013 to improve quality of maternal and newborn health services at emergency obstetric care facilities. Using a quasi-experimental design, we examined the impact of the RBF4MNH on both crude and effective coverage of pregnant women across four districts during the two years following implementation. Results: There was no effect on crude coverage. With a larger proportion of women in intervention areas receiving more effective care over time, the overall net increase in effective coverage was 7.1%-points (p = 0.07). The strongest impact on effective coverage (31.0%-point increase, p = 0.02) occurred only at lower cut-off level (60% of maximum score) of obstetric care effectiveness. Design-specific and wider health system factors likely limited the program's potential to produce stronger effects. Conclusion: The RBF4MNH improved effective coverage of pregnant women and seems to be a promising reform approach towards reaching UHC. Given the short study period, the full potential of the current RBF scheme has likely not yet been reached.