Browsing by Subject "HEALTHY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-12 of 12
  • Talja, Ija; Kubo, Anna-Liisa; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Vaha-Makila, Mari; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Utt, Meeme; Uibo, Raivo (2014)
  • Hanif, Tanzeela; Dhaygude, Kishor; Kankainen, Matti; Renkonen, Jutta; Mattila, Pirkko; Ojala, Teija; Joenvaara, Sakari; Mäkelä, Mika; Pelkonen, Anna; Kauppi, Paula; Haahtela, Tari; Renkonen, Risto; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna (2019)
  • Murros, Kari E.; Huynh, Anh Vy; Takala, Timo M.; Saris, Per E. J. (2021)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent movement disorder known and predominantly affects the elderly. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease wherein alpha-synuclein, a neuronal protein, aggregates to form toxic structures in nerve cells. The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. Intestinal dysfunction and changes in the gut microbiota, common symptoms of PD, are evidently linked to the pathogenesis of PD. Although a multitude of studies have investigated microbial etiologies of PD, the microbial role in disease progression remains unclear. Here, we show that Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio may play a potential role in the development of PD. Conventional and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of feces from twenty PD patients and twenty healthy controls revealed that all PD patients harbored Desulfovibrio bacteria in their gut microbiota and these bacteria were present at higher levels in PD patients than in healthy controls. Additionally, the concentration of Desulfovibrio species correlated with the severity of PD. Desulfovibrio bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide and lipopolysaccharide, and several strains synthesize magnetite, all of which likely induce the oligomerization and aggregation of alpha-synuclein protein. The substances originating from Desulfovibrio bacteria likely take part in pathogenesis of PD. These findings may open new avenues for the treatment of PD and the identification of people at risk for developing PD.
  • Graca, Joao; Roque, Lisa; Guedes, David; Campos, Lucia; Truninger, Monica; Godinho, Cristina; Vinnari, Markus (2022)
    Purpose Recent reviews and reports have highlighted the need for integrated, context-specific efforts to enable sustainable food transitions. This study aimed to identify pathways to promote healthier and more environmentally friendly food practices in school contexts, with a focus on increased plant-based eating. Design/methodology/approach The study used a systemic approach with data collected from relevant stakeholders in an EU country (Portugal) at diverse levels of influence in the school meals system (i.e. proximal, intermediate, distal; from end-consumers to food providers, market actors, civil society organizations, and policy and decision-makers). Data from individual interviews (N = 33) were subjected to thematic analysis. Findings Meat-centric cultural perceptions of a 'proper meal' can be a socio-emotional barrier for sustainable food transitions in schools. Main pathways identified to unlock these transitions included: (1) Levering orientations toward ethical and environmentally beneficial consumption; (2) Improving and increasing the offer of plant-based meals; and (3) Mobilizing local communities and society. Originality/value The current findings suggest that promoting healthier and more environmentally friendly food practices in schools requires systemic, integrated approaches which focus on food consumption, food provision, and the broader political and sociocultural environment.
  • Mantziari, Anastasia; Rautava, Samuli (2021)
    Aside from nutritional components, human milk is rich in microorganisms. Through breastfeeding these microorganisms are introduced to the infant gut where they may transiently or persistently colonize it. Therefore, the human milk microbiota may be an important factor which shapes the infant gut microbiota further influencing infant health and disease. In the current review we aim to give a brief updated insight into the putative origin of the human milk microbiota, its constituents and the possible factors that shape it. Understanding the factors that determine the human milk microbiota composition and function will aid developing optimal postnatal feeding and intervention strategies to reduce the risk of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Virtanen, Irina; Kalleinen, Nea; Urrila, Anna S.; Polo-Kantola, Päivi (2018)
    Objectives: In sleep laboratory studies, the new environment is generally considered to disturb sleep during the first night. However, older women have rarely been studied. Although menopause and hormone therapy affect sleep, their impact on the first-night effect is virtually unknown. Participants: Four groups of women with no sleep laboratory experience: young on hormonal contraceptives (n = 11, 23.1 [0.5] years), perimenopausal (n = 15, 48.0 (0.4] years), postmenopausal without hormone therapy (HT; off-HT, n = 22, 63.4 [0.8] years) and postmenopausal with HT (n = 16, 63.1 [0.9] years). Procedure: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Polysomnography was performed over two consecutive nights and the first-night effect and group differences were evaluated. Questionnaire-based insomnia and sleepiness scores were correlated to sleep variables and their between-night changes. Results: Although sleep in young women was deeper and less fragmented than in the other groups, first-night effect was similar in all study groups. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and S1 and S2 sleep increased, and wake after sleep onset, awakenings per hour of sleep, S2 and REM latencies, and percentage of SWS decreased from the first to the second night. Perimenopausal women had more insomnia complaints than other women. Insomnia complaints were associated with more disturbed sleep but not with the first-night effect. Conclusions: A first night in a sleep laboratory elicits a marked interference of sleep architecture in women of all ages, with a carryover effect of lighter sleep on the second study night. Menopausal state, HT use, or insomnia complaints do not modify this effect.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Kajantie, Eero; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Viljakainen, Heli; Andersson, Sture; Mäkitie, Outi (2019)
    Context: The relationship of maternal and infant 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] with infant growth is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to explore whether 25(OH)D in pregnancy, umbilical cord blood (UCB), or in infancy was associated with infant growth. Design: This study involved 798 healthy infants and their mothers in Finland. We assessed 25(OH)D during pregnancy, from UCB at birth, and from the infant at the age of 12 months. Main Outcome Measures: Infant length, weight, length-adjusted weight, and head circumference at 6 and 12 months and midupper-arm circumference at 12 months. Results: Of the mothers and infants, 96% and 99% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D >= 50 nmol/L], respectively. Mothers with pregnancy 25(OH)D >125 nmol/L had the shortest, lightest (in weight), and thinnest (in length-adjusted weight) infants at 6 months (P for all <0.05). For each 10 nmol/L higher UCB 25(OH)D, the infants were 0.03 SD score (SDS) shorter at 6 months (95% CI -0.05 to -0.01), adjusted for birth size, infant 25(OH)D, and parental height. Higher UCB 25(OH)D associated with smaller head circumference at 6 and 12 months (P for all 125 nmol/L had the thinnest infants at 12 months (P = 0.021). For each 10 nmol/L higher infant 25(OH)D, the infants were 0.03 SDS lighter (-0.05 to -0.01) and 0.03 SDS thinner (-0.05 to 0.00) at 12 months. Conclusions: Our results suggest that high pregnancy, cord blood, and infant vitamin D concentration may have disadvantageous effects on infant growth.
  • Watson, Victoria E.; Jacob, Megan E.; Bruno-Bárcena, José M.; Amirsultan, Sophia; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Píqueras, Victoria O.; Frias, Rafael; Gookin, Jody L. (2019)
    Typical enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) carries the highest hazard of death in children with diarrhea and atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was recently identified as significantly associated with diarrheal mortality in kittens. In both children and kittens there is a significant association between aEPEC burden and diarrheal disease, however the infection can be found in individuals with and without diarrhea. It remains unclear to what extent, under what conditions, or by what mechanisms aEPEC serves as a primary pathogen in individuals with diarrhea. It seems likely that a combination of host and bacterial factors enable aEPEC to cause disease in some individuals and not in others. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aEPEC on intestinal function and diarrhea in kittens following experimentally-induced carriage and the influence of a disrupted intestinal microbiota on disease susceptibility. Results of this study identify aEPEC as a potential pathogen in kittens. In the absence of disruption to the intestinal microbiota, kittens are resistant to clinical signs of aEPEC carriage but demonstrate significant occult changes in intestinal absorption and permeability. Antibiotic-induced disruption of the intestinal microbiota prior to infection increases subsequent intestinal water loss as determined by % fecal wet weight. Enrichment of the intestinal microbiota with a commensal member of the feline mucosa-associated microbiota, Enterococcus hirae, ameliorated the effects of aEPEC experimental infection on intestinal function and water loss. These observations begin to unravel the mechanisms by which aEPEC infection may be able to exploit susceptible hosts.
  • Urtamo, Annele; Jyväkorpi, Satu K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2020)
    Background The studies on the association of various midlife risk factors with reaching 90 years or more are scarce. We studied this association in a socioeconomically homogenous cohort of businessmen. Methods The study consists of men (n = 970) from the Helsinki Businessmen Study cohort (born 1919-1928). Five major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (smoking, BMI, blood pressure, serum lipids, fasting glucose), consumption of alcohol and coffee, self-rated health and self-rated fitness, were assessed in 1974, at an average age of 50 years. The number of major risk factors was tested as a risk burden. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and the RAND-36 (SF-36) Physical and Mental health summary scores were calculated from surveys in year 2000, at age of 73 years. Mortality dates were retrieved through 31 March 2018 from the Population Information System of Finland. Results 244 men survived to the age of 90 representing 25.2% of the study cohort. The survivors had less risk factor burden in midlife, and less morbidity and higher physical health summary score in 2000. Of those with five major risk factors only 7% survived up to 90 years, whereas 51% of those without any risk factors reached that age. Single risk factors reducing odds of reaching 90 years were smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.67), glucose (0.66, 0.49-0.88), BMI (0.63, 0.46-0.86), and cholesterol (0.71, 0.53-0.96). Conclusion Lack of five major CVD risk factors in midlife strongly increased odds of reaching 90 years of age and also predicted factors related to successful ageing in late life.
  • Lundgren, Sara N.; Madan, Juliette C.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Hoen, Anne G.; Christensen, Brock C. (2019)
    The process of breastfeeding exposes infants to bioactive substances including a diversity of bacteria from breast milk as well as maternal skin. Knowledge of the character of and variation in these microbial communities, as well as the factors that influence them, is limited. We aimed to identify profiles of breastfeeding-associated microbial communities and their association with maternal and infant factors. Bilateral milk samples were collected from women in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study at approximately 6 weeks postpartum without sterilization of the skin in order to capture the infant-relevant exposure. We sequenced the V4-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in 155 human milk samples. We used unsupervised clustering (partitioning around medoids) to identify microbial profiles in milk samples, and multinomial logistic regression to test their relation with maternal and infant variables. Associations between alpha diversity and maternal and infant factors were tested with linear models. Four breastfeeding microbiome types (BMTs) were identified, which differed in alpha diversity and in Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas abundances. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of belonging to BMT1 [OR (95% CI) = 1.13 (1.02, 1.24)] or BMT3 [OR (95% CI) = 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)] compared to BMT2. Independently, increased gestational weight gain was related to reduced odds of membership in BMT1 [OR (95% CI) = 0.66 (0.44, 1.00) per 10 pounds]. Alpha diversity was positively associated with gestational weight gain and negatively associated with postpartum sample collection week. There were no statistically significant associations of breastfeeding microbiota with delivery mode. Our results indicate that the breastfeeding microbiome partitions into four profiles and that its composition and diversity is associated with measures of maternal weight.
  • EFSA Panel Nutr Novel Foods Food A; Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2020)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on vitamin D-2 mushroom powder as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is an ingredient produced from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms that have been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to induce the conversion of provitamin D-2 (ergosterol) to vitamin D-2 (ergocalciferol). The NF contains concentrations of vitamin D provided by vitamin D-2 in the ranges of 1,000-1,300 mu g/g. The information provided on the manufacturing process, composition and specifications of the NF does not raise safety concerns. The applicant intends to add the NF in a variety of foods and beverages, including food for special medical purposes and food supplements. The target population is the general population except for food supplements, for which the target population is individuals above seven months of age. The Panel concludes that the NF, used as an ingredient, is safe for the general population at the proposed condition of use in foods and beverages and that the NF used as a food supplement, is safe for individuals above 1 year. The Panel, however, notes that the UL for infants aged 0-6 months may be exceeded in high consumers of infant formula (IF) and/or follow-on formula (FoF) that may also be high consumers of foods fortified with the NF and for infants aged 7-12 months consuming a daily vitamin D oral supplementation of 10 mu g. However, the Panel considers this scenario unlikely as complementary feeding in high consumers of IF and/or FoF may be limited. Furthermore, the combined consumption of vitamin D via fortified foods and supplements does not specifically concern this NF application. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe under the proposed conditions of use for the proposed target populations. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Hirvensalo, Päivi; Tornio, Aleksi; Launiainen, Terhi; Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Tapaninen, Tuija; Neuvonen, Mikko; Backman, Janne T.; Niemi, Mikko (2020)
    To investigate how variability in multiple pharmacokinetic genes associates with telmisartan exposure, we determined telmisartan single-dose (40 mg) pharmacokinetics and sequenced 379 genes in 188 healthy volunteers. IntronicUGT1Avariants showed the strongest associations with the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero hours to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) and peak plasma concentration (C-max) of telmisartan. These variants were strongly linked with the increased functionUGT1A3*2allele, suggesting that it is the causative allele underlying these associations. In addition, telmisartan plasma concentrations were lower in men than in women. TheUGT1A3*2was associated with a 64% and 63% reduced AUC(0-infinity)of telmisartan inUGT1A3*2heterozygous and homozygous men, respectively (P = 1.21 x 10(-16)and 5.21 x 10(-8)). In women,UGT1A3*2heterozygosity and homozygosity were associated with 57% (P = 1.54 x 10(-11)) and 72% (P = 3.31 x 10(-15)) reduced AUC(0-infinity), respectively. Furthermore, a candidate gene analysis suggested an association ofUGT1A3*3and theSLCO1B3c.767G>C missense variant with telmisartan pharmacokinetics. A genotype score, which reflects the effects of sex and genetic variants on telmisartan AUC(0-infinity), associated with the effect of telmisartan on diastolic blood pressure. These data indicate that sex and UGT1A3 are major determinants and suggest a role for OATP1B3 in telmisartan pharmacokinetics.