Browsing by Subject "HEALTHY-ADULTS"

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  • Lindbohm, Joni; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Mars, Nina J.; Pentti, Jaana; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Brunner, Eric J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Tabak, Adam G.; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Background Clinical guidelines suggest preventive interventions such as statin therapy for individuals with a high estimated 10-year risk of major cardiovascular events. For those with a low or intermediate estimated risk, risk-factor screenings are recommended at 5-year intervals; this interval is based on expert opinion rather than on direct research evidence. Using longitudinal data on the progression of cardiovascular disease risk over time, we compared different screening intervals in terms of timely detection of high-risk individuals, cardiovascular events prevented, and health-care costs. Methods We used data from participants in the British Whitehall II study (aged 40-64 years at baseline) who had repeated biomedical screenings at 5-year intervals and linked these data to electronic health records between baseline (Aug 7, 1991, to May 10, 1993) and June 30, 2015. We estimated participants' 10-year risk of a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, cardiac death, and fatal or non-fatal stroke) using the revised Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) calculator. We used multistate Markov modelling to estimate optimum screening intervals on the basis of progression rates from low-risk and intermediate-risk categories to the high-risk category (ie, >= 7.5% 10-year risk of a major cardiovascular event). Our assessment criteria included person-years spent in a high-risk category before detection, the number of major cardiovascular events prevented and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, and screening costs. Findings Of 6964 participants (mean age 50.0 years [ SD 6.0] at baseline) with 152 700 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up 22.0 years [SD 5.0]), 1686 participants progressed to the high-risk category and 617 had a major cardiovascular event. With the 5-year screening intervals, participants spent 7866 (95% CI 7130-8658) person-years unrecognised in the high-risk group. For individuals in the low, intermediate-low, and intermediate-high risk categories, 21 alternative risk category-based screening intervals outperformed the 5-yearly screening protocol. Screening intervals at 7 years, 4 years, and 1 year for those in the low, intermediate-low, and intermediate-high-risk category would reduce the number of person-years spent unrecognised in the high-risk group by 62% (95% CI 57-66; 4894 person-years), reduce the number of major cardiovascular events by 8% (7-9; 49 events), and raise 44 QALYs (40-49) for the study population. Interpretation In terms of timely preventive interventions, the 5-year screening intervals were unnecessarily frequent for low-risk individuals and insufficiently frequent for intermediate-risk individuals. Screening intervals based on risk-category-specific progression rates would perform better in terms of preventing major cardiovascular disease events and improving cost-effectiveness. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Kolmeder, Carolin A.; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Ritari, Jarmo; de Been, Mark; Raes, Jeroen; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Corthals, Garry L.; Palva, Airi; Salonen, Anne; de Vos, Willem M. (2016)
    Recent metagenomic studies have demonstrated that the overall functional potential of the intestinal microbiome is rather conserved between healthy individuals. Here we assessed the biological processes undertaken in-vivo by microbes and the host in the intestinal tract by conducting a metaproteome analysis from a total of 48 faecal samples of 16 healthy adults participating in a placebo-controlled probiotic intervention trial. Half of the subjects received placebo and the other half consumed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for three weeks (10(10) cfu per day). Faecal samples were collected just before and at the end of the consumption phase as well as after a three-week follow-up period, and were processed for microbial composition and metaproteome analysis. A common core of shared microbial protein functions could be identified in all subjects. Furthermore, we observed marked differences in expressed proteins between subjects that resulted in the definition of a stable and personalized microbiome both at the mass-spectrometry-based proteome level and the functional level based on the KEGG pathway analysis. No significant changes in the metaproteome were attributable to the probiotic intervention. A detailed taxonomic assignment of peptides and comparison to phylogenetic microarray data made it possible to evaluate the activity of the main phyla as well as key species, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Several correlations were identified between human and bacterial proteins. Proteins of the human host accounted for approximately 14% of the identified metaproteome and displayed variations both between and within individuals. The individually different human intestinal proteomes point to personalized host-microbiota interactions. Our findings indicate that analysis of the intestinal metaproteome can complement gene-based analysis and contributes to a thorough understanding of the activities of the microbiome and the relevant pathways in health and disease.
  • Itkonen, Suvi T.; Pajula, Elina T.; Dowling, Kirsten G.; Hull, George L. J.; Cashman, Kevin D.; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E. (2018)
    Ultraviolet-irradiated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can be used to biofortify bakery products with vitamin D, but in bread, it was not effective in increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in humans, possibly because of the low digestibility of the yeast matrix. We investigated the effects of vitamin D-2-rich intact yeast cells and their separated fraction, yeast cell walls, which we hypothesized to provide vitamin D-2 in a more bioavailable form, on serum 25(OH)D and its metabolites in growing female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 54) compared to vitamin D-2 and D-3 supplements (8 treatment groups: 300 or 600 IU vitamin D/d, and a control group, 8-week intervention). The D-3 supplement groups had the highest 25(OH)D concentrations, and the vitamin D-2 supplement at the 600-IU dose increased 25(OH)D better than any yeast form (P <.001 for all, analysis of covariance, adjusted for body weight). There were no significant differences between the yeast forms at the same dose (P > .05). Serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (a vitamin D catabolite) concentrations and the trend in the differences between the groups were in line with 25 (OH)D (P <.001 for all). The 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to 25(OH)D ratio between the D-2 supplement and the yeast groups did not differ (P > .05). These findings do not support the hypothesis: the ability of the different ultraviolet-treated vitamin D-2-containing yeast forms to increase 25(OH)D did not differ, and the poor bioavailability of vitamin D-2 in the yeasts compared D-3 or D-2 supplements could not be explained by the increased vitamin D catabolism in the yeast-treated groups. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.