Browsing by Subject "HEALTHY-SUBJECTS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-9 of 9
  • Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P.; De Smet, Els; Konings, Maurice; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M.; Plat, Jogchum (2017)
    Information regarding dietary effects on plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations as well as on the origin of oxyphytosterols is scarce. We hypothesized that plant sterols are oxidized in the intestinal lumen, mediated by microbial activity, followed by uptake into the circulation. To address this hypothesis, we carried out, a randomized, double blind, crossover study in 13 healthy subjects, who consumed for 3 weeks control and plant stanol ester enriched margarines (3.0 g/d plant stanols) separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Plasma oxy(phyto)sterols were determined via GC-MS/MS, while microbiota analyses were performed on fecal DNA using a phylogenetic microarray to assess microbial composition and diversity. Plasma plant sterol concentrations did not correlate with plasma oxyphytosterols concentrations at baseline. Plant stanol consumption reduced serum sitosterol and campesterol concentrations (-37% and -38%), respectively (p <0.001), as well as plasma concentrations of 7 beta-OH-campesterol (-24%; p <0.05), 7 beta-OH-sitosterol (-17%; p <0.05) and 7-keto-sitosterol (-13%; p <0.05). Although the intestinal microbiota composition and diversity of the faecal contents were not different between the two periods, we observed significant correlations between several specific bacterial groups and plasma plant sterol, but not with plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations. In conclusion, plant stanol ester consumption reduced serum plant sterol and plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations, while intestinal microbiota composition and diversity were not changed. To definitely answer the effects of microbiota on oxyphytosterol formation, future studies could examine oxyphytosterol concentrations after changing intestinal microbial composition or by measuring intestinal oxyphytosterol formation after providing labelled non-oxidized plant sterols. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Darki, Fahimeh; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Merisaari, Harri; Karlsson, Linnea; Scheinin, Noora M.; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Kantojarvi, Katri; Ammala, Antti-Jussi; Yu, Nancy Yiu-Lin; Matsson, Hans; Nopola-Hemmi, Jaana; Karlsson, Hasse; Paunio, Tiina; Klingberg, Torkel; Leinonen, Eira; Kere, Juha (2017)
    A whole-genome linkage analysis in a Finnish pedigree of eight cases with developmental dyslexia (DD) revealed several regions shared by the affected individuals. Analysis of coding variants from two affected individuals identified rs146011974G >A (Ala1039Thr), a rare variant within the NCAN gene co-segregating with DD in the pedigree. This variant prompted us to consider this gene as a putative candidate for DD. The RNA expression pattern of the NCAN gene in human tissues was highly correlated (R > 0.8) with that of the previously suggested DD susceptibility genes KIAA0319, CTNND2, CNTNAP2 and GRIN2B. We investigated the association of common variation in NCAN to brain structures in two data sets: young adults (Brainchild study, Sweden) and infants (FinnBrain study, Finland). In young adults, we found associations between a common genetic variant in NCAN, rs1064395, and white matter volume in the left and right temporoparietal as well as the left inferior frontal brain regions. In infants, this same variant was found to be associated with cingulate and prefrontal grey matter volumes. Our results suggest NCAN as a new candidate gene for DD and indicate that NCAN variants affect brain structure.
  • Hyytiäinen, Heli K.; Mykkänen, Anna K.; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K.; Stubbs, Narelle C.; McGowan, Catherine M. (2014)
  • Tuominen, Lauri; Miettunen, Jouko; Cannon, Dara M.; Drevets, Wayne C.; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Ichise, Masanori; Jensen, Peter S.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Klaver, Jacqueline M.; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya; Hietala, Jarmo (2017)
    Background: Neuroticism is a major risk factor for affective disorders. This personality trait has been hypothesized to associate with synaptic availability of the serotonin transporter, which critically controls serotonergic tone in the brain. However, earlier studies linking neuroticism and serotonin transporter have failed to produce converging findings. Because sex affects both the serotonergic system and the risk that neuroticism poses to the individual, sex may modify the association between neuroticism and serotonin transporter, but this question has not been investigated by previous studies. Methods: Here, we combined data from 4 different positron emission tomography imaging centers to address whether neuroticism is related to serotonin transporter binding in vivo. The data set included serotonin transporter binding potential values from the thalamus and striatum and personality scores from 91 healthy males and 56 healthy females. We specifically tested if the association between neuroticism and serotonin transporter is different in females and males. Results: We found that neuroticism and thalamic serotonin transporter binding potentials were associated in both males and females, but with opposite directionality. Higher neuroticism associated with higher serotonin transporter binding potential in males (standardized beta 0.292, P = .008), whereas in females, higher neuroticism associated with lower serotonin transporter binding potential (standardized beta -0.288, P = .014). Conclusions: The finding is in agreement with recent studies showing that the serotonergic system is involved in affective disorders differently in males and females and suggests that contribution of thalamic serotonin transporter to the risk of affective disorders depends on sex.
  • Wendt, Frank R.; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce (2018)
    The pharmacogene, CYP2D6, is commonly used to infer metabolizer phenotype of many marketed drugs and endogenous toxins in ante- and post-mortem patients but only represents the efficiency of phase 1 metabolism. Downstream metabolic enzymes encoded by UGT2B7, ABCB1, OPRM1, and COMT also have been implicated in variable individual response to drugs due to their activity at different stages of the tramadol ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) process. While commonly studied as single genes using targeted genotyping approaches, a more comprehensive tramadol metabolism profile has not been evaluated. 1000 Genomes Project data for UGT2B7, ABCB1, OPRM1, and COMT were used to characterize full-gene haplotypes and their effect on protein function using in-house excel-based workbooks, PopART, and TreeView. Population genetic summary statistics and intergenic analyses associated these haplotypes with full-gene CYP2D6-inferred metabolizer phenotype. The findings suggest that UGT2B7, ABCB1, OPRM1, and COMT may contribute to predicted metabolizer phenotype as opposed to relying solely on CYP2D6.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr (2017)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on alginate-konjac- xanthan polysaccharide complex (PGX) as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NF is an off-white granular powder composed of three non- starch polysaccharides: konjac glucomannan, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. The information provided on the composition, the specifications, the batch-to-batch variability and the stability of the NF is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. The production process is sufficiently described and does not raise concerns about the safety of the NF. The applicant intends to add the NF to a variety of foods as well as to market the NF in capsules. The recommended maximum daily intake of the NF from fortified foods and food supplements is 15 g. The target population proposed by the applicant is adults from 18 to 64 years of age. Considering the no observed adverse effect level of 1.8 g/kg body weight (bw) per day in a subchronic toxicity study with PGX and the highest mean and 95th percentile anticipated daily intake of NF from fortified foods, the margin of exposure (MoE) is 12 and 6, respectively, whereas the MoE for the NF from food supplements is 9. The Panel concludes that the safety of the novel food, PGX, for the intended uses and use levels as proposed by the applicant, has not been established. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panelon Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on betaine as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information provided on the composition, the specifications, the batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of the NF is sufficient and does not raise concerns about the safety of the NF. The NF is proposed to be used in foods intended to meet additional requirements for intense muscular effort with a maximum intake of 2.5 g/day of betaine for sports people above 10 years of age. Based on the lowest BMDL05, which was derived from a chronic toxicity study in rats in which a dose-related increase in platelet counts was observed, and the anticipated daily intake of the NF in the target population, the Margins of Exposure are 3.6 and 5, which are generally regarded as not sufficient. However, the total exposure to betaine from the diet (about 830 mg/day) is not known to be associated with adverse effects. Moreover, no adverse effects on platelet counts were noted in human intervention studies with exposure levels of 4 g/day of betaine for up to 6 months. A significant increase in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations was noted at intakes of 4 g/day of betaine in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome but not in healthy subjects, nor at intakes of 3 g/day. Thus, considering 4 g/day of betaine as a reference point and applying an uncertainty factor of 10 to account for interindividual variability, an amount of 400 mg/day of betaine in addition to the background exposure is considered as safe. The Panelconsiders that the NF is safe to be used at maximum intake of 400 mg/day in the target population. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Marciani, L.; Garsed, K. C.; Hoad, C. L.; Fields, A.; Fordham, I.; Pritchard, S. E.; Placidi, E.; Murray, K.; Chaddock, G.; Costigan, C.; Lam, C.; Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; De Vos, W. M.; Gowland, P. A.; Spiller, R. C. (2014)
  • Lindholm, Pauliina; Lamusuo, Salla; Taiminen, Tero; Virtanen, Arja; Pertovaara, Antti; Forssell, Heli; Hagelberg, Nora; Jaaskelainen, Satu (2016)
    Background: Mechanisms underlying alleviation of neuropathic pain by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) and right secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) are only partly known. Patients with chronic neuropathic pain often have comorbidities like depression and sleep problems. Through functional connectivity, rTMS of M1 and S2 may activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the target for treating depression with rTMS. Thus, the analgesic effect of rTMS could be mediated indirectly via improvement of psychiatric comorbidities or sleep. We examined whether rTMS has an independent analgesic effect or whether its clinical benefits depend on effects on mood or sleep. We also evaluated if comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders predict the treatment outcome. Methods: Sixteen patients with chronic drug-resistant neuropathic orofacial pain participated in this randomized controlled crossover rTMS study. Patients' psychiatric history was evaluated by a specialist in psychiatry. Intensity and interference of pain, mood, and the quality of sleep and life were evaluated at baseline and after 2 active (primary somatosensory cortex [S1]/M1 and S2) and placebo rTMS treatments. A logistic regression analysis was done to investigate predictors of treatment outcome. Results: The analgesic effect of the right S2 stimulation was not associated with improvement of psychiatric conditions or sleep, whereas S1 /M1 stimulation improved sleep without significant analgesic effect (P=0.013-0.0/16 in sleep scores). Psychiatric and sleep disorders were more common in patients than in the general population (P=0.000-0.001 in sleep scores), but these comorbidities did not predict the rTMS treatment outcome. Conclusion: We conclude that rTMS to the right S2 does not exert its beneficial analgesic effects in chronic neuropathic orofacial pain via indirect improvement of comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders.