Browsing by Subject "HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-12 of 12
  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkila, Roope; Meskanen, Katarina; Raij, Tuukka T.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2016)
    Increased self-focus is a core factor in the psychopathology of depression. Cortical midline structures (CMS) are implicated in the neurobiology of self, depression and antidepressant treatment response. Mirtazapine, an antidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine release, enhances processing of positive and attenuates processing of negative emotional information in healthy volunteers after a single dose. These early changes, which are opposite to the negative information bias in depression, may be important for the therapeutic effect of mirtazapine. It nevertheless remains unresolved whether/how mirtazapine specifically influences processing of self-referential emotional information. Half of the healthy volunteers (n=15/30) received a single dose of mirtazapine, in an open-label design, two hours before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the other half was scanned as a control group without medication. During fMRI the participants categorized positive and negative self-referential adjectives. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mirtazapine further decreased responses to positive self-referential processing in the posterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. These decreased responses of the CMS suggest that mirtazapine may rapidly improve the ability of the CMS to down-regulate self-referential processing. In depressed patients, this could lead to decreased self-focus and rumination, contributing to the antidepressant effect.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkila, Roope; Meskanen, Katarina; Raij, Tuukka T.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (SAGE SCIENCE PRESS (UK), 2016)
    Increased self-focus is a core factor in the psychopathology of depression. Cortical midline structures (CMS) are implicated in the neurobiology of self, depression and antidepressant treatment response. Mirtazapine, an antidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine release, enhances processing of positive and attenuates processing of negative emotional information in healthy volunteers after a single dose. These early changes, which are opposite to the negative information bias in depression, may be important for the therapeutic effect of mirtazapine. It nevertheless remains unresolved whether/how mirtazapine specifically influences processing of self-referential emotional information. Half of the healthy volunteers (n=15/30) received a single dose of mirtazapine, in an open-label design, two hours before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the other half was scanned as a control group without medication. During fMRI the participants categorized positive and negative self-referential adjectives. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mirtazapine further decreased responses to positive self-referential processing in the posterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. These decreased responses of the CMS suggest that mirtazapine may rapidly improve the ability of the CMS to down-regulate self-referential processing. In depressed patients, this could lead to decreased self-focus and rumination, contributing to the antidepressant effect.
  • Pirneskoski, Jussi; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Jeskanen, Petri; Linnamurto, Lari; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni Onni Olavi (2013)
  • Lilius, T.; Kangas, E.; Niemi, M.; Rauhala, P.; Kalso, E. (2018)
    Background: Ketamine attenuates morphine tolerance by antagonising N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, a pharmacokinetic interaction between morphine and ketamine has also been suggested. The interaction between oxycodone and ketamine is unclear. We studied the effects of ketamine and norketamine on the attenuation of morphine and oxycodone tolerance focusing on both the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. Methods: Morphine 9.6 mg day(-1) or oxycodone 3.6 mg day(-1) was delivered to SpragueeDawley rats by subcutaneous pumps. Once tolerance had developed, the rats received subcutaneous injections of ketamine or norketamine. Tail-flick, hot-plate, and rotarod tests were performed. Drug concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatographyetandem mass spectrometry. Results: Anti-nociceptive tolerance to morphine and oxycodone developed similarly by Day 6. Acute ketamine 10 mg kg(-1) and norketamine 30 mg kg(-1) attenuated morphine tolerance for 120 and 150 min, respectively, whereas in oxycodonetolerant rats the effect lasted only 60 min. Both ketamine and norketamine increased the brain and serum concentrations of morphine, and inhibited its metabolism to morphine-3-glucuronide, whereas oxycodone concentrations were not changed. Morphine, but not oxycodone, pretreatment increased the brain and serum concentrations of ketamine and norketamine. Ketamine, but not norketamine, significantly impaired the motor coordination. Conclusions: Ketamine and norketamine attenuated morphine tolerance more effectively than oxycodone tolerance. Ketamine and norketamine increased morphine, but not oxycodone brain concentrations, which may partly explain this difference. Norketamine is effective in attenuating morphine tolerance with minor effects on motor coordination. These results warrant pharmacokinetic studies in patients who are co-treated with ketamine and opioids.
  • Janssen, Lieneke Katharina; Horstmann, Annette (2022)
    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior. A wealth of studies suggests obesity-related alterations in the central dopamine system. The most direct evidence for such differences in humans comes from molecular neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The aim of the current review is to give a comprehensive overview of molecular neuroimaging studies that investigated the relation between BMI or weight status and any dopamine target in the striatal and midbrain regions of the human brain. A structured literature search was performed and a summary of the extracted findings are presented for each of the four available domains: (1) D2/D3 receptors, (2) dopamine release, (3) dopamine synthesis, and (4) dopamine transporters. Recent proposals of a nonlinear relationship between severity of obesity and dopamine imbalances are described while integrating findings within and across domains, after which limitations of the review are discussed. We conclude that despite many observed associations between obesity and substrates of the dopamine system in humans, it is unlikely that obesity can be traced back to a single dopaminergic cause or consequence. For effective personalized prevention and treatment of obesity, it will be crucial to identify possible dopamine (and non-dopamine) profiles and their functional characteristics.
  • Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Antonucci, Linda A.; Fazio, Leonardo; Rampino, Antonio; Quarto, Tiziana; Gelao, Barbara; Porcelli, Annamaria; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Masellis, Rita; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro (2014)
  • Hartmann, Hendrik; Pauli, Larissa K.; Janssen, Lieneke K.; Huhn, Sebastian; Ceglarek, Uta; Horstmann, Annette (2020)
    Obesity is associated with alterations in dopaminergic transmission and cognitive function. Rodent studies suggest that diets rich in saturated fat and refined sugars (HFS), as opposed to diets diets low in saturated fat and refined sugars (LFS), change the dopamine system independent of excessive body weight. However, the impact of HFS on the human brain has not been investigated. Here, we compared the effect of dietary dopamine depletion on dopamine-dependent cognitive task performance between two groups differing in habitual intake of dietary fat and sugar. Specifically, we used a double-blind within-subject cross-over design to compare the effect of acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion on a reinforcement learning and a working memory task, in two groups that are on opposite ends of the spectrum of self-reported HFS intake (low vs high intake: LFS vs HFS group). We tested 31 healthy young women matched for body mass index (mostly normal weight to overweight) and IQ. Depletion of peripheral precursors of dopamine reduced the working memory specific performance on the operation span task in the LFS, but not in the HFS group (P = 0.016). Learning from positive- and negative-reinforcement (probabilistic selection task) was increased in both diet groups after dopamine depletion (P = 0.049). As a secondary exploratory research question, we measured peripheral dopamine precursor availability (pDAP) at baseline as an estimate for central dopamine levels. The HFS group had a significantly higher pDAP at baseline compared to the LFS group (P = 0.025). Our data provide the first evidence indicating that the intake of HFS is associated with changes in dopamine precursor availability, which is suggestive of changes in central dopamine levels in humans. The observed associations are present in a sample of normal to overweight participants (ie, in the absence of obesity), suggesting that the consumption of a HFS might already be associated with altered behaviours. Alternatively, the effects of HFS diet and obesity might be independent.
  • Bajo, R.; Pusil, S.; Lopez, M. E.; Canuet, L.; Pereda, E.; Osipova, D.; Maestu, F.; Pekkonen, E. (2015)
    Scopolamine administration may be considered as a psychopharmacological model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied a group of healthy elderly under scopolamine to test whether it elicits similar changes in brain connectivity as those observed in AD, thereby verifying a possible model of AD impairment. We did it by testing healthy elderly subjects in two experimental conditions: glycopyrrolate (placebo) and scopolamine administration. We then analyzed magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data corresponding to both conditions in resting-state with eyes closed. This analysis was performed in source space by combining a nonlinear frequency band-specific measure of functional connectivity (phase locking value, PLV) with network analysis methods. Under scopolamine, functional connectivity between several brain areas was significantly reduced as compared to placebo, in most frequency bands analyzed. Besides, regarding the two complex network indices studied (clustering and shortest path length), clustering significantly decreased in the alpha band while shortest path length significantly increased also in alpha band both after scopolamine administration. Overall our findings indicate that both PLV and graph analysis are suitable tools to measure brain connectivity changes induced by scopolamine, which causes alterations in brain connectivity apparently similar to those reported in AD.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkilä, Roope; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Raij, Tuukka T.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2018)
    Background: Increased self-focus and negative self-concept play an important role in depression. Antidepressants influence self-referential processing in healthy volunteers, but their function in self-processing of depressed patients remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-two depressed patients were randomly allocated to receive either escitalopram 10 mg or placebo for one week. After one week, neural responses to positive and negative self-referential adjectives and neutral control stimuli were assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. A group of matched healthy volunteers served as a control group. Results: Escitalopram decreased responses of medial fronto-parietal regions to self-referential words relative to non-emotional control stimuli, driven by increased responses to the control condition. Escitalopram also increased responses in the pre-defined region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to positive relative to negative words. Importantly, the changes in neural responses occurred before any effect on depressive symptoms, implying a direct effect of escitalopram. Furthermore, the placebo group had decreased responses of the MPFC and the ACC to positive self-referential processing relative to the matched healthy controls. However, neural responses of the escitalopram group and the healthy unmedicated controls were similar. Limitations: Differences between the groups in self-reported depression symptoms and personality traits may have influenced the results. Conclusion: One-week treatment with escitalopram normalized aberrant self-referential processing in depressed patients, shifting the focus from the self to the external environment and potentiating positive self-referential processing. This may be an important factor in mechanism of action of antidepressants.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Glerean, Enrico; Meskanen, Katarina; Heikkila, Roope; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Raij, Tuukka; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2017)
    The link between neurotransmitter-level effects of antidepressants and their clinical effect remain poorly understood. A single dose of mirtazapine decreases limbic responses to fearful faces in healthy subjects, but it is unknown whether this effect applies to complex emotional situations and dynamic connectivity between brain regions. Thirty healthy volunteers listened to spoken emotional narratives during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In an open-label design, 15 subjects received 15 mg of mirtazapine two hours prior to fMRI while 15 subjects served as a control group. We assessed the effects of mirtazapine on regional neural responses and dynamic functional connectivity associated with valence and arousal. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to unpleasant events in the right fronto-insular cortex, while modulating responses to arousing events in the core limbic regions and the cortical midline structures (CMS). Mirtazapine decreased responses to unpleasant and arousing events in sensorimotor areas and the anterior CMS implicated in self-referential processing and formation of subjective feelings. Mirtazapine increased functional connectivity associated with positive valence in the CMS and limbic regions. Mirtazapine triggers large-scale changes in regional responses and functional connectivity during naturalistic, emotional stimuli. These span limbic, sensorimotor, and midline brain structures, and may be relevant to the clinical effectiveness of mirtazapine.
  • Fihlman, Mari; Hemmila, Tuija; Hagelberg, Nora M.; Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Backman, Janne T.; Laitila, Jouko; Laine, Kari; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Saari, Teijo I. (2016)
    This study aimed to determine possible effects of voriconazole and posaconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of sublingual buprenorphine. We used a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were given a dose of 0.4 mg (0.6 mg during placebo phase) sublingual buprenorphine after a 5-day oral pretreatment with either (i) placebo, (ii) voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily thereafter or (iii) posaconazole 400 mg twice daily. Plasma and urine concentrations of buprenorphine and its primary active metabolite norbuprenorphine were monitored over 18 h and pharmacological effects were measured. Compared to placebo, voriconazole increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-a)) of buprenorphine 1.80-fold (90 % confidence interval 1.45-2.24; P <0.001), its peak concentration (C-max) 1.37-fold (P <0.013) and half-life (t (A1/2) ) 1.37-fold (P <0.001). Posaconazole increased the AUC0(0-a) of buprenorphine 1.25-fold (P <0.001). Most of the plasma norbuprenorphine concentrations were below the limit of quantification (0.05 ng/ml). Voriconazole, unlike posaconazole, increased the urinary excretion of norbuprenorphine 1.58-fold (90 % confidence interval 1.18-2.12; P <0.001) but there was no quantifiable parent buprenorphine in urine. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations correlated with the pharmacological effects, but the effects did not differ significantly between the phases. Voriconazole, and to a minor extent posaconazole, increase plasma exposure to sublingual buprenorphine, probably via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3 A and/or P-glycoprotein. Care should be exercised in the combined use of buprenorphine with triazole antimycotics, particularly with voriconazole, because their interaction can be of clinical importance.