Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Palm, Frederick; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Aigner, Annette; Becher, Heiko; Buggle, Florian; Bauer, Matthias F.; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Safer, Anton; Urbanek, Christian; Grau, Armin J. (2016)
    Background and aims: Infectious diseases contribute to stroke risk, and are associated with socioeconomic status (SES). We tested the hypotheses that the aggregate burden of infections increases the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and partly explains the association between low SES and ischemic stroke. Methods: In a case-control study with 470 ischemic stroke patients and 809 age- and sex-matched controls, randomly selected from the population, antibodies against the periodontal microbial agents Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, against Chlamydia pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (IgA and IgG), and CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori (IgG) were assessed. Results: IgA seropositivity to two microbial agents was significantly associated with IS after adjustment for SES (OR 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.08), but not in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.86-2.02). By trend, cumulative IgA seropositivity was associated with stroke due to large vessel disease (LVD) after full adjustment (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.96e3.69). Disadvantageous childhood SES was associated with higher cumulative seropositivity in univariable analyses, however, its strong impact on stroke risk was not influenced by seroepidemiological data in the multivariable model. The strong association between adulthood SES and stroke was rendered nonsignificant when factors of dental care were adjusted for. Conclusions: Infectious burden assessed with five microbial agents did not independently contribute to ischemic stroke consistently, but may contribute to stroke due to LVD. High infectious burden may not explain the association between childhood SES and stroke risk. Lifestyle factors that include dental negligence may contribute to the association between disadvantageous adulthood SES and stroke. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko (2015)
    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30-50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups.
  • Oksanen, Aino Mirjam; Haimila, Katri Eerika; Rautelin, Hilpi Iris Kaarina; Partanen, Jukka Antero (2010)
  • Yu, Dahai; Meng, Xin; de Vos, Willem M.; Wu, Hao; Fang, Xuexun; Maiti, Amit K. (2021)
    Humans, throughout the life cycle, from birth to death, are accompanied by the presence of gut microbes. Environmental factors, lifestyle, age and other factors can affect the balance of intestinal microbiota and their impact on human health. A large amount of data show that dietary, prebiotics, antibiotics can regulate various diseases through gut microbes. In this review, we focus on the role of gut microbes in the development of metabolic, gastrointestinal, neurological, immune diseases and, cancer. We also discuss the interaction between gut microbes and the host with respect to their beneficial and harmful effects, including their metabolites, microbial enzymes, small molecules and inflammatory molecules. More specifically, we evaluate the potential ability of gut microbes to cure diseases through Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT), which is expected to become a new type of clinical strategy for the treatment of various diseases.
  • Kauppi, Juha; Räsänen, Jari; Sihvo, Eero; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Ahotupa, Markku; Salo, Jarmo (2016)
    OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress (OS) is an essential element in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its transformation to adenocarcinoma (EAC). The state of OS in the proximal stomach of patients with BE and EAC is unknown. Isoprostanes are a specific marker of OS not previously used to determine OS from BE/EAC tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: OS was measured in 42 patients with BE (n = 9), EAC (n = 9), or both (n = 24) and 15 control patients. A STAT-8-Isoprostane EIA Kit served to identify 8-Isoprostanes (8-IP), and a Glutathione Assay Kit was used to measure glutathione reduced form(GSH) and glutathione oxidized form. An OxiSelect Oxidative DNA Damage ELISA Kit (8-OHdG) served to measure 8-OH-deoxyguanosine. RESULTS: The 8-IP (P = .039) and 8-OHdG (P = .008) levels were higher, and the GSH level lower (P = .031), in the proximal stomach of the study group than in that of the controls. Helicobacter pylori infection was present in 8% of the study patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the proximal stomach of BE and EAC patients, OS was elevated and antioxidative capacity was reduced. This finding suggests that the gastroesophageal reflux causing BE also induces oxidative stress in the proximal stomach and may contribute to the development of cancer in the proximal stomach and gastric cardia.
  • Henderson, Ben; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Metsälä, Markus; Ventrillard, Irène; Schmidt, Florian M.; Romanini, Daniele; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Briot, Raphaël; Risby, Terence; Marczin, Nandor; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M. (2018)
    Detection and analysis of volatile compounds in exhaled breath represents an attractive tool for monitoring the metabolic status of a patient and disease diagnosis, since it is non-invasive and fast. Numerous studies have already demonstrated the benefit of breath analysis in clinical settings/applications and encouraged multidisciplinary research to reveal new insights regarding the origins, pathways, and pathophysiological roles of breath components. Many breath analysis methods are currently available to help explore these directions, ranging from mass spectrometry to laser-based spectroscopy and sensor arrays. This review presents an update of the current status of optical methods, using near and mid-infrared sources, for clinical breath gas analysis over the last decade and describes recent technological developments and their applications. The review includes: tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, integrated cavity output spectroscopy, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy, and optical frequency comb spectroscopy. A SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) is presented that describes the laser-based techniques within the clinical framework of breath research and their appealing features for clinical use.