Browsing by Subject "HEPATIC-UPTAKE"

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  • Lehtisalo, Minna; Keskitalo, Jenni E.; Tornio, Aleksi; Lapatto-Reiniluoto, Outi; Deng, Feng; Jaatinen, Taina; Viinamäki, Jenni; Neuvonen, Mikko; Backman, Janne T.; Niemi, Mikko (2020)
    Xanthine oxidase inhibitors febuxostat and allopurinol are commonly used in the treatment of gout. Febuxostat inhibits the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in vitro. Rosuvastatin is a BCRP substrate and genetic variability in BCRP markedly affects rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated possible effects of febuxostat and allopurinol on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In a randomized crossover study with 3 phases, 10 healthy volunteers ingested once daily placebo for 7 days, 300 mg allopurinol for 7 days, or placebo for 3 days, followed by 120 mg febuxostat for 4 days, and a single 10 mg dose of rosuvastatin on day 6. Febuxostat increased the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of rosuvastatin 2.1-fold (90% confidence interval 1.8-2.6; P = 5 x 10(-5)) and 1.9-fold (1.5-2.5; P = 0.001), but had no effect on rosuvastatin half-life or renal clearance. Allopurinol, on the other hand, did not affect rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In vitro, febuxostat inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of rosuvastatin into BCRP-overexpressing membrane vesicles with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.35 mu M, whereas allopurinol showed no inhibition with concentrations up to 200 mu M. Taken together, the results suggest that febuxostat increases rosuvastatin exposure by inhibiting its BCRP-mediated efflux in the small intestine. Febuxostat may, therefore, serve as a useful index inhibitor of BCRP in drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Moreover, concomitant use of febuxostat may increase the exposure to BCRP substrate drugs and, thus, the risk of dose-dependent adverse effects.
  • Kiander, Wilma; Sjostedt, Noora; Manninen, Riikka; Jaakkonen, Liina; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Neuvonen, Mikko; Niemi, Mikko; Auriola, Seppo; Kidron, Heidi (2022)
    Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B1 is important to the hepatic elimination and distribution of many drugs. If OATP1B1 function is decreased, it can increase plasma exposure of e.g. several statins leading to increased risk of muscle toxicity. First, we examined the impact of three naturally occurring rare variants and the frequent SLCO1B1 c.388A > G variant on in vitro transport activity with cellular uptake assay using two substrates: ', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and rosuvastatin. Secondly, LC-MS/MS based quantitative targeted absolute proteomics measured the OATP1B1 protein abundance in crude membrane fractions of HEK293 cells over -expressing these single nucleotide variants. Additionally, we simulated the effect of impaired OATP1B1 function on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics to estimate the need for genotype-guided dosing. R57Q impaired DCF and rosuvastatin transport significantly yet did not change protein expression considerably, while N130D and N151S did not alter activity but increased protein expression. R253Q did not change protein expression but reduced DCF uptake and increased rosuvastatin Km. Based on pharmacokinetic simulations, doses of 30 mg (with 50% OATP1B1 function) and 20 mg (with 0% OATP1B1 function) result in plasma exposure similar to 40 mg dose (with 100% OATP1B1 function). Therefore dose reductions might be considered to avoid increased plasma exposure caused by function-impairing OATP1B1 genetic variants, such as R57Q.