Browsing by Subject "HEPATITIS-E VIRUS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Bassiri, Hamid; Bousfiha, Ahmed A.; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Hagin, David; Lau, Yu L.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Moreira, Ileana; Pinto, Jorge A.; de Moraes-Pinto, M. Isabel; Rawat, Amit; Reda, Shereen M.; Lugo Reyes, Saul Oswaldo; Seppanen, Mikko; Tang, Mimi L. K. (2017)
    In today's global economy and affordable vacation travel, it is increasingly important that visitors to another country and their physician be familiar with emerging infections, infections unique to a specific geographic region, and risks related to the process of travel. This is never more important than for patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD). A recent review addressing common causes of fever in travelers provides important information for the general population Thwaites and Day (N Engl J Med 376:548-560, 2017). This review covers critical infectious and management concerns specifically related to travel for patients with PIDD. This review will discuss the context of the changing landscape of infections, highlight specific infections of concern, and profile distinct infection phenotypes in patients who are immune compromised. The organization of this review will address the environment driving emerging infections and several concerns unique to patients with PIDD. The first section addresses general considerations, the second section profiles specific infections organized according to mechanism of transmission, and the third section focuses on unique phenotypes and unique susceptibilities in patients with PIDDs. This review does not address most parasitic diseases. Reference tables provide easily accessible information on a broader range of infections than is described in the text.
  • Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; London, Laura; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Kantala, Tuija; Laamanen, Ilona; Bistrom, Mia; Maunula, Leena; Gadd, Tuija (2020)
    The northern European wild boar population has increased during the last decade. Highest wild boar numbers in Finland have been reported in the southeastern part near the Russian border. Wild boars may be infected with several human and animal pathogens. In this study, we investigated the presence of important foodborne pathogens in wild boars hunted in 2016 in Finland using serology, PCR and culturing. Seroprevalence of Salmonella (38%) and Yersinia (56%) infections was high in wild boars. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella were found in 18%, 9% and 9% of the wild boars, respectively. Trichinella antibodies were detected in 1% of the animals. We recorded no differences in the seroprevalence between males and females. However, Yersinia and T. gondii antibodies were detected significantly more often in adults than in young individuals. Listeria monocytogenes (48%) and stx-positive Escherichia coli (33%) determinants were frequently detected in the visceral organs (spleen and kidneys) by PCR. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 and L. monocytogenes 2a and 4b were identified by culturing from the PCR-positive samples. Brucella suis biovar 2 was isolated from visceral organs. No African swine fever, classical swine fever or Aujeszky's disease were detected in the wild boars. Our study shows that wild boars are important reservoirs of foodborne pathogens.
  • Summa, M.; Henttonen, H.; Maunula, L. (2018)
    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009-2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow-necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real-time reverse transcription PCR. HuNoVs were detected in 31 (27%) faecal samples of wild birds, in two (2%) faecal samples of rats and in no samples of mice. Most (25) of the positive bird samples and both rat samples contained genogroup II, and six positive bird samples contained genogroup I HuNoV. The avian species shedding faeces containing HuNoVs were identified as gulls and crows using DNA barcoding. Our results show that wildlife, birds and rats in particular, is capable of spreading HuNoVs in the environment.
  • Ahola, Tero; Karlin, David G. (2015)
    Background: Members of the alphavirus supergroup include human pathogens such as chikungunya virus, hepatitis E virus and rubella virus. They encode a capping enzyme with methyltransferase-guanylyltransferase (MTase-GTase) activity, which is an attractive drug target owing to its unique mechanism. However, its experimental study has proven very difficult. Results: We examined over 50 genera of viruses by sequence analyses. Earlier studies showed that the MTase-GTase contains a "Core" region conserved in sequence. We show that it is followed by a long extension, which we termed "Iceberg" region, whose secondary structure, but not sequence, is strikingly conserved throughout the alphavirus supergroup. Sequence analyses strongly suggest that the minimal capping domain corresponds to the Core and Iceberg regions combined, which is supported by earlier experimental data. The Iceberg region contains all known membrane association sites that contribute to the assembly of viral replication factories. We predict that it may also contain an overlooked, widely conserved membrane-binding amphipathic helix. Unexpectedly, we detected a sequence homolog of the alphavirus MTase-GTase in taxa related to nodaviruses and to chronic bee paralysis virus. The presence of a capping enzyme in nodaviruses is biologically consistent, since they have capped genomes but replicate in the cytoplasm, where no cellular capping enzyme is present. The putative MTase-GTase domain of nodaviruses also contains membrane-binding sites that may drive the assembly of viral replication factories, revealing an unsuspected parallel with the alphavirus supergroup. Conclusions: Our work will guide the functional analysis of the alphaviral MTase-GTase and the production of domains for structure determination. The identification of a homologous domain in a simple model system, nodaviruses, which replicate in numerous eukaryotic cell systems (yeast, flies, worms, mammals, and plants), can further help crack the function and structure of the enzyme.
  • Siponen, Anne-Marika; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Koort, Joanna; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Vapalahti, Olli; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Jokelainen, Pikka (2019)
    Practising veterinary medicine has an inherent risk of exposure to zoonotic agents, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We screened sera of veterinarians authorized to work in Finland for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, and evaluated potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity from extensive questionnaire data with almost 1,300 quantitative variables. We used a causal diagram approach to address the complexity of the life cycle of the parasite and its numerous possible transmission routes, and built a multivariable binomial logistic regression model to identify risk factors that are particularly relevant for veterinarians. The samples and questionnaire data were collected in 2009. Altogether, 294 veterinarians, almost 15% of the Finnish veterinary profession, were included in the study. The median age was 39 years, and the majority, 86%, were women. Altogether, 43 (14.6%; 95% confidence interval: 10.9-19.0) of the 294 veterinarians tested seropositive for T. gondii. According to the final model, veterinarians who were at least 40 years old had 2.4 times higher odds to be seropositive than younger veterinarians; veterinarians who lived in the countryside had 4.0 times higher odds to be seropositive than veterinarians who lived in towns; female veterinarians who tasted beef during cooking had 2.6 times higher odds to be seropositive than male veterinarians who did not taste beef during cooking; and veterinarians who did not do small animal practice had 2.3 times higher odds to be seropositive than those who did. The results illustrate the numerous transmission routes of T. gondii.