Browsing by Subject "HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE"

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  • Benetos, Athanase; Petrovic, Mirko; Strandberg, Timo (2019)
    The prevalence of arterial hypertension, particularly systolic hypertension, is constantly rising worldwide. This is mainly the clinical expression of arterial stiffening as a result of the population's aging. Chronic elevation in blood pressure represents a major risk factor not only for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but also for cognitive decline and loss of autonomy later in life. Clinical evidence obtained in community-dwelling older people with few comorbidities and preserved autonomy supports the beneficial effects of lowering blood pressure in older hypertensive subjects even after the age of 80 years. However, observational studies in frail older individuals treated for hypertension have shown higher morbidity and mortality rates compared with those with lower blood pressure levels. Clearly, in very old subjects, the therapeutic strategy of one size fits all cannot be applied because of the enormous functional heterogeneity in these individuals. Geriatric medicine proposes taking into account the function/ frailty/ autonomy status of older people. In the present review, we propose to adapt the antihypertensive treatment using an easy-to-apply visual numeric scale allowing the identification of 3 different patient profiles according to the functional status and autonomy for activities of daily living. For the preserved function profile, strategies should be those proposed for younger old adults. For the loss of function/ preserved activities of daily living' profile, a more detailed geriatric assessment is needed to define the benefit/ risk balance as well as requirements for the tailoring of the various therapeutic strategies. Lastly, for the loss of function and altered activities of daily living' profile, therapeutic strategies should be thoroughly reassessed, including deprescribing (when considered appropriate). In the near future, controlled trials are necessary for the most frail older subjects (ie, in those systematically excluded from previous clinical trials) to gain stronger evidence regarding the benefits of the various therapeutic strategies.
  • Rehm, Juergen; Anderson, Peter; Prieto, Jose Angel Arbesu; Armstrong, Iain; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bachmann, Michael; Bastus, Nuria Bastida; Brotons, Carlos; Burton, Robyn; Cardoso, Manuel; Colom, Joan; Duprez, Daniel; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni; Kraus, Ludwig; Kreutz, Reinhold; Liira, Helena; Manthey, Jakob; Moller, Lars; Okruhlica, Lubomir; Roerecke, Michael; Scafato, Emanuele; Schulte, Bernd; Segura-Garcia, Lidia; Shield, Kevin David; Sierra, Cristina; Vyshinskiy, Konstantin; Wojnarand, Marcin; Zarco, Jose (2017)
    Background: Hazardous and harmful alcohol use and high blood pressure are central risk factors related to premature non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality worldwide. A reduction in the prevalence of both risk factors has been suggested as a route to reach the global NCD targets. This study aims to highlight that screening and interventions for hypertension and hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary healthcare can contribute substantially to achieving the NCD targets. Methods: A consensus conference based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical guidelines, experimental studies, and statisticalmodelling which had been presented and discussed in five preparatory meetings, was undertaken. Specifically, we modelled changes in blood pressure distributions and potential lives saved for the five largest European countries if screening and appropriate intervention rates in primary healthcare settings were increased. Recommendations to handle alcohol-induced hypertension in primary healthcare settings were derived at the conference, and their degree of evidence was graded. Results: Screening and appropriate interventions for hazardous alcohol use and use disorders could lower blood pressure levels, but there is a lack in implementing these measures in European primary healthcare. Recommendations included (1) an increase in screening for hypertension (evidence grade: high), (2) an increase in screening and brief advice on hazardous and harmful drinking for people with newly detected hypertension by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals (evidence grade: high), (3) the conduct of clinical management of less severe alcohol use disorders for incident people with hypertension in primary healthcare (evidence grade: moderate), and (4) screening for alcohol use in hypertension that is not well controlled (evidence grade: moderate). The first three measures were estimated to result in a decreased hypertension prevalence and hundreds of saved lives annually in the examined countries. Conclusions: The implementation of the outlined recommendations could contribute to reducing the burden associated with hypertension and hazardous and harmful alcohol use and thus to achievement of the NCD targets. Implementation should be conducted in controlled settings with evaluation, including, but not limited to, economic evaluation.
  • Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kouvonen, Anne; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Sjosten, Noora; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2011)