Browsing by Subject "HIGH-FAT"

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  • Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomasic, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijarvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta (2016)
    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1l(c.232A>G)) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean +/- SD, 29 +/- 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 +/- 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.
  • Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Lyyski, Annina M.; Paulin, Lars; Khan, Nahid A.; Suomalainen, Anu; Auvinen, Petri; Dufour, Eric; Szibor, Marten; Jacobs, Howard T. (2019)
    The alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis was previously shown to be expressible in mice and to cause no physiological disturbance under unstressed conditions. Because AOX is known to become activated under some metabolic stress conditions, resulting in altered energy balance, we studied its effects in mice subjected to dietary stress. Wild-type mice (Mus musculus, strain C57BL/6JOlaHsd) fed a high-fat or ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet show weight gain with increased fat mass, as well as loss of performance, compared with chow-fed animals. Unexpectedly, AOX-expressing mice fed on these metabolically stressful, fat-rich diets showed almost indistinguishable patterns of weight gain and altered body composition as control animals. Cardiac performance was impaired to a similar extent by ketogenic diet in AOX mice as in nontransgenic littermates. AOX and control animals fed on ketogenic diet both showed wide variance in weight gain. Analysis of the gut microbiome in stool revealed a strong correlation with diet, rather than with genotype. The microbiome of the most and least obese outliers reared on the ketogenic diet showed no consistent trends compared with animals of normal body weight. We conclude that AOX expression in mice does not modify physiological responses to extreme diets.
  • Dermadi, Denis; Valo, Satu; Ollila, Saara; Soliymani, Rabah; Sipari, Nina; Pussila, Marjaana; Sarantaus, Laura; Linden, Jere; Baumann, Marc; Nystrom, Minna (2017)
    Western-style diets (WD) high in fat and scarce in fiber and vitamin D increase risks of colorectal cancer. Here, we performed a long-term diet study in mice to follow tumorigenesis and characterize structural and metabolic changes in colon mucosa associated with WD and predisposition to colorectal cancer. WD increased colon tumor numbers, and mucosa proteomic analysis indicated severe deregulation of intracellular bile acid (BA) homeostasis and activation of cell proliferation. WD also in-creased crypt depth and colon cell proliferation. Despite increased luminal BA, colonocytes from WD-fed mice exhibited decreased expression of the BA transporters FABP6, OST beta, and ASBT and decreased concentrations of secondary BA deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, indicating reduced activity of the nuclear BA receptor FXR. Overall, our results suggest that WD increases cancer risk by FXR inactivation, leading to BA deregulation and increased colon cell proliferation. (C) 2017 AACR.