Browsing by Subject "HIGH-PRESSURE"

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  • Huotari, S.; Sahle, Ch J.; Henriquet, Ch; Al-Zein, A.; Martel, K.; Simonelli, L.; Verbeni, R.; Gonzalez, H.; Lagier, M. -C.; Ponchut, C.; Sala, M. Moretti; Krisch, M.; Monaco, G. (2017)
    An end-station for X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at beamline ID20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described. This end-station is dedicated to the study of shallow core electronic excitations using non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. The spectrometer has 72 spherically bent analyzer crystals arranged in six modular groups of 12 analyzer crystals each for a combined maximum flexibility and large solid angle of detection. Each of the six analyzer modules houses one pixelated area detector allowing for X-ray Raman scattering based imaging and efficient separation of the desired signal from the sample and spurious scattering from the often used complicated sample environments. This new end-station provides an unprecedented instrument for X-ray Raman scattering, which is a spectroscopic tool of great interest for the study of low-energy X-ray absorption spectra in materials under insitu conditions, such as inoperando batteries and fuel cells, insitu catalytic reactions, and extreme pressure and temperature conditions.
  • Heikkinen, T.; Pavlov, J.; Ceponis, T.; Gaubas, E.; Zajac, M.; Tuomisto, F. (2020)
    We have applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the formation of Ga vacancy related defects in Mg and Mn doped bulk GaN crystals grown by the ammonothermal method. We show that Mn doping has little or no effect on the formation of Ga vacancies, while Mg doping strongly suppresses their formation, in spite of both dopants leading to highly resistive material. We suggest the differences are primarily due to the hydrogen-dopant interactions. Further investigations are called for to draw a detailed picture of the atomic scale phe-nomena in the synthesis of ammonothermal GaN.
  • Radnaeva, Larisa D.; Popov, Dmitry V.; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Khanaev, Igor V.; Bazarsadueva, Selmeg V.; Kakela, Reijo (2017)
    Lake Baikal is a unique freshwater environment with maximum depths over 1600 m. The high water pressure at the lakebed strengthens the solidifying effect of low water temperature on animal tissue lipids, and thus the effective temperatures in the depths of the lake equal subzero temperatures in shallow waters. Cottoidei species has colonized the different water layers of the lake, and developed different ecology and physiology reflected in their tissue biochemistry. We studied by gas chromatography the composition of fatty acids (FAs), largely responsible for tissue lipid physical properties, in the white muscle tissue of 13 species of the Cottoidei fish; five benthic abyssal, six benthic eurybathic and two benthopelagic species. The FA profiles reflected habitat depth. The muscles of the deepest living species contained little polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and were instead rich in monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), which may be due to occasional weak food web links to the PUFA-rich primary producers of the photic water layer, high MUFA supply from their benthic diet, and conversion of saturated FAs (SFAs) to MUFAs in the tissues of the fish. Despite the MUFA percentage among the abyssal species reached even 50% (by weight) of total FAs, the PUFA percentage still remained above 20% in every species. The muscle MUFA/SFA ratio correlated negatively with the PUFA content of the fish muscle, suggesting viscosity control integrating the fluidity contributions from the dietary PUFAs and potentially endogenous MUFAs.
  • Sahle, Christoph J.; Kujawski, Simon; Remhof, Arndt; Yan, Yigang; Stadie, Nicholas P.; Al-Zein, Ali; Tolan, Metin; Huotari, Simo; Krisch, Michael; Sternemann, Christian (2016)
    We present an in situ study of the thermal decomposition of Mg(BH4)(2) in a hydrogen atmosphere of up to 4 bar and up to 500 degrees C using X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at the boron K-edge and the magnesium L2,3-edges. The combination of the fingerprinting analysis of both edges yields detailed quantitative information on the reaction products during decomposition, an issue of crucial importance in determining whether Mg(BH4)(2) can be used as a next-generation hydrogen storage material. This work reveals the formation of reaction intermediate(s) at 300 degrees C, accompanied by a significant hydrogen release without the occurrence of stable boron compounds such as amorphous boron or MgB12H12. At temperatures between 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C, further hydrogen release proceeds via the formation of higher boranes and crystalline MgH2. Above 400 degrees C, decomposition into the constituting elements takes place. Therefore, at moderate temperatures, Mg(BH4)(2) is shown to be a promising high-density hydrogen storage material with great potential for reversible energy storage applications.
  • Rani, Ekta; Singh, Harishchandra; Alatarvas, Tuomas; Kharbach, Mourad; Cao, Wei; Sarpi, Brice; Zhu, Lin; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei; Fabritius, Timo; Huttula, Marko (2022)
    Despite the common challenge of investigating non-metallic inclusions within ultra-high-strength-steel (UHSS) at sub-micrometer scale via conventional methods, probing nitride inclusions at elevated temperatures is vital for guiding steel’ performance. Herein, an in-situ spectro-microscopic determination using advanced Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is employed to explore the local structure and electronic properties of selective h-boron nitride (h-BN) containing inclusions (A1 and A2) embedded within steel matrix. While the variation in the relative intensity of π∗/σ∗ excitonic peaks at spatially different locations refers to the polarization and or thickness effects. Several minute features observed in the 192–195 eV energy range show oxygen (O) substituted nitrogen (N) defects (ON,2N,3N), which are more dominant in A2 inclusion. The observed dominance further explains the relatively high intense π∗ peak in A2 due to increased localization. Weak shoulder on the left side of π∗ peak in both room and high-temperature XAS spectra is ascribed to the interaction between h-BN and the local environment, such as Ca-based inclusion or steel matrix. Defects are commonly found in h-BN, and precise identification of the same is vital as they affect the overall physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Moreover, significant changes in high-temperature B K-edge XAS spectra, such as relative intensity of π∗/σ∗ excitonic peaks at the same location and reduced intensity of defects, suggest the adjusting nature of BN inclusion, complicating their precise prediction and control towards clean steel production.