Browsing by Subject "HIP FRACTURE"

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  • Jarvinen, Teppo; Michaelsson, Karl; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Collins, Gary S.; Perry, Thomas L.; Mintzes, Barbara; Musini, Vijaya; Erviti, Juan; Gorricho, Javier; Wright, James M.; Sievanen, Harri (2015)
  • Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Sund, Reijo; Heinanen, Mikko; Venesmaa, Petri; Kroger, Heikki (2014)
  • Mikkola, T. M.; von Bonsdorff, M. B.; Osmond, C.; Salonen, M. K.; Kajantie, E.; Cooper, C.; Valimaki, M. J.; Eriksson, J. G. (2017)
    We examined the associations between childhood growth and bone properties among women at early old age. Early growth in height predicted greater bone area and higher bone mineral mass. However, information on growth did not improve prediction of bone properties beyond that predicted by body size at early old age. We examined the associations between body size at birth and childhood growth with bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early old age. A subgroup of women (n = 178, mean 60.4 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-1944, participated in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the lumbar spine and hip. Height and weight at 0, 2, 7, and 11 years, obtained from health care records, were reconstructed into conditional variables representing growth velocity independent of earlier growth. Weight was adjusted for corresponding height. Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders. Birth length and growth in height before 7 years of age were positively associated with femoral neck area (p <0.05) and growth in height at all age periods studied with spine bone area (p <0.01). Growth in height before the age of 7 years was associated with BMC in the femoral neck (p <0.01) and birth length and growth in height before the age of 7 years were associated with BMC in the spine (p <0.05). After entering adult height into the models, nearly all associations disappeared. Weight gain during childhood was not associated with bone area or BMC, and aBMD was not associated with early growth. Optimal growth in height in girls is important for obtaining larger skeleton and consequently higher bone mass. However, when predicting bone mineral mass among elderly women, information on early growth does not improve prediction beyond that predicted by current height and weight.
  • Söderlund, Tim P.; Kuorikoski, Joonas M (2017)
    Background and purpose: Post-operative follow-up after internal fixation of fractures is a common practice. The goal of this study was to evaluate the necessity of a routine follow-up visit after internal fixation of a proximal femoral fracture. Our hypothesis is that these follow-up visits do not result in a change in the treatment plan, but add an extra cost to the health care system and lead to the purposeless utilisation of limited resources. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 428 consecutive patients (431 fractures) with a scheduled outpatient clinic visit after internal fixation of proximal femoral fractures in a single hospital during years 2012-2013. We noted any changes in the patients' treatment plans based on the first follow-up visits, including scheduled visits up to ten weeks after internal fixation. Results: None of the patients showed signs of infection, implant failure or loss of reduction requiring reoperation at the scheduled follow-up visit. In only one (0.23%) visit a change in treatment plan was made as a result of the scheduled follow-up visit (decision to remove the distal screws from the long intramedullary nail to obtain dynamic compression). Scheduled visits did not occur for the following reasons, death (11.8%), visit to emergency department prior scheduled visit (3.2%), and not known (3.9%). Conclusions: The first scheduled visit within ten weeks after internal fixation of a proximal femoral fracture leads to no changes in treatment. We recommend considering the need of these follow-up visits. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • GBD 2019 Fracture Collaborators; Wu, Ai-Min; Bisignano, Catherine; James, Spencer L.; Meretoja, Tuomo J. (2021)
    Background Bone fractures are a global public health issue; however, to date, no comprehensive study of their incidence and burden has been done. We aimed to measure the global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) of fractures from 1990 to 2019. Methods Using the framework of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we compared numbers and age-standardised rates of global incidence, prevalence, and YLDs of fractures across the 21 GBD regions and 204 countries and territories, by age, sex, and year, from 1990 to 2019. We report estimates with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Findings Globally, in 2019, there were 178 million (95% UI 162-196) new fractures (an increase of 33.4% [30.1-37.0] since 1990), 455 million (428-484) prevalent cases of acute or long-term symptoms of a fracture (an increase of 70.1% [67.5-72.5] since 1990), and 25.8 million (17.8-35.8) YLDs (an increase of 65.3% [62.4-68.0] since 1990). The age-standardised rates of fractures in 2019 were 2296.2 incident cases (2091.1-2529.5) per 100 000 population (a decrease of 9.6% [8.1-11.1] since 1990), 5614.3 prevalent cases (5286.1-5977.5) per 100 000 population (a decrease of 6.7% [5.7-7.6] since 1990), and 319.0 YLDs (220.1-442.5) per 100 000 population (a decrease of 8.4% [7.2-9.5] since 1990). Lower leg fractures of the patella, tibia or fibula, or ankle were the most common and burdensome fracture in 2019, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 419.9 cases (345.8-512.0) per 100 000 population and an age-standardised rate of YLDs of 190.4 (125.0-276.9) per 100 000 population. In 2019, age-specific rates of fracture incidence were highest in the oldest age groups, with, for instance, 15 381.5 incident cases (11 245.3-20 651.9) per 100 000 population in those aged 95 years and older. Interpretation The global age-standardised rates of incidence, prevalence, and YLDs for fractures decreased slightly from 1990 to 2019, but the absolute counts increased substantially. Older people have a particularly high risk of fractures, and more widespread injury-prevention efforts and access to screening and treatment of osteoporosis for older individuals should help to reduce the overall burden. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Lahteenmaki, Ritva; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Partinen, Markku; Raiha, Ismo; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa (2014)
  • Somersalo, Axel; Paloneva, Juha; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lonnroos, Eija; Heinanen, Mikko; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2015)
    Background and purpose - Increased mortality after hip fracture is well documented. The mortality after hospitalization for upper extremity fracture is unknown, even though these are common injuries. Here we determined mortality after hospitalization for upper extremity fracture in patients aged >= 16 years. Patients and methods - We collected data about the diagnosis code (ICD10), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 7 additional characteristics of 5,985 patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. During the study, 929 women and 753 men sustained an upper extremity fracture. The patients were followed up until the end of 2012. Mortality rates were calculated using data on the population at risk. Results - By the end of follow-up (mean duration 6 years), 179 women (19%) and 105 men (14%) had died. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all patients was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.7). The SMR was higher for men (2.1, CI: 1.7-2.5) than for women (1.3, CI: 1.1-1.5) (p <0.001). The SMR decreased with advancing age, and the mortality rate was highest for men with humerus fractures. Interpretation - In men, the risk of death related to proximal humerus fracture was even higher than that reported previously for hip fracture. Compared to the general population, the SMR was double for humerus fracture patients, whereas wrist fracture had no effect on mortality.
  • Järvinen, T. L. N.; Michaelsson, K.; Aspenberg, P.; Sievanen, H. (2015)
    Current prevention strategies for low-trauma fractures amongst older persons depend on the notions that fractures are mainly caused by osteoporosis (pathophysiology), that patients at high risk can be identified (screening) and that the risk is amenable to bone-targeted pharmacotherapy (treatment). However, all these three notions can be disputed. PathophysiologyMost fracture patients have fallen, but actually do not have osteoporosis. A high likelihood of falling, in turn, is attributable to an ageing-related decline in physical functioning and general frailty. ScreeningCurrently available fracture risk prediction strategies including bone densitometry and multifactorial prediction tools are unable to identify a large proportion of patients who will sustain a fracture, whereas many of those with a high fracture risk score will not sustain a fracture. TreatmentThe evidence for the viability of bone-targeted pharmacotherapy in preventing hip fracture and other clinical fragility fractures is mainly limited to women aged 65-80years with osteoporosis, whereas the proof of hip fracture-preventing efficacy in women over 80years of age and in men at all ages is meagre or absent. Further, the antihip fracture efficacy shown in clinical trials is absent in real-life studies. Many drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis have also been associated with increased risks of serious adverse events. There are also considerable uncertainties related to the efficacy of drug therapy in preventing clinical vertebral fractures, whereas the efficacy for preventing other fractures (relative risk reductions of 20-25%) remains moderate, particularly in terms of the low absolute risk reduction in fractures with this treatment.
  • Ollila, A.; Vikatmaa, Leena; Virolainen, J.; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Leppaniemi, A.; Albäck, Anders; Salmenperä, Markku; Pettilä, Ville (2017)
    Background and Aims: Perioperative myocardial infarction is an underdiagnosed complication causing morbidity, mortality, and considerable costs. However, evidence of preventive and therapeutic options is scarce. We investigated the incidence and outcome of perioperative myocardial infarction in non-cardiac surgery patients in order to define a target population for future interventional trials. Material and Methods: We conducted a prospective single-center study on non-cardiac surgery patients aged 50years or older. High-sensitivity troponin T and electrocardiograph were obtained five times perioperatively. Perioperative myocardial infarction diagnosis required a significant troponin T release and an ischemic sign or symptom. Perioperative risk calculator was used for risk assessment. Results: Of 385 patients with systematic ischemia screening, 27 patients (7.0%) had perioperative myocardial infarction. The incidence was highest in vascular surgery19 of 172 patients (11.0%). The 90-day mortality was 29.6% in patients with perioperative myocardial infarction and 5.6% in non-perioperative myocardial infarction patients (p Conclusion: Perioperative myocardial infarction is a common complication associated with a 90-day mortality of 30%. The ability of the perioperative risk calculator to predict perioperative myocardial infarction was fair supporting its routine use.
  • Ax, M.; Reito, A.; Koskimaa, M.; Uutela, A.; Paloneva, J. (2019)
    Background and Aims: Traditionally, patients requiring an orthopedic emergency operation were admitted to an inpatient ward to await surgery. This often led to congestion of wards and operation rooms while, for less urgent traumas, the time spent waiting for the operation often became unacceptably long. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flow of patients coded green in a traffic light-based coding process aimed at decreasing the burden on wards and enabling a scheduled emergency operation in Central Finland Hospital. Materials and Methods: Operation urgency was divided into three categories: green (>48 h), yellow (8-48 h), and red (
  • Somersalo, A.; Paloneva, J.; Lönnroos, E.; Heinänen, M.; Koponen, H.; Kiviranta, I. (2018)
    Background and Aims: The death of any young individual is associated with the loss of many potentially fulfilling years of life. It has been suggested that the relative mortality of fracture patients may be higher in younger age groups than in older cohorts. We determined the mortality and causes of death in a cohort of 16- to 30-year-old patients that had been hospitalized for fractures. Material and Methods: We collected data using criteria based on the diagnosis code (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision), surgical procedure code (Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee), and seven additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward at the Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Patients were then followed to ascertain their mortality status until the end of 2012. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated and causes of death were determined by combining our registry data with data provided by Statistics Finland. Results: During the study, 199 women and 525 men aged 16-30 years had sustained fractures. None of these patients died during the primary hospital stay. At the end of follow-up (mean duration 7.4 years), 6 women and 23 men had died. The standardized mortality ratio for all patients was 6.2 (95% Confidence Interval: 4.3-8.9). Suicides and intoxications comprised over half, and motor vehicle accidents and homicides comprised nearly a third of the post-fracture deaths. Conclusion: We found a concerning increase in mortality among young adults that had been hospitalized due to a fracture compared to the general population that had been standardized by age, sex, and calendar-period. Leading causes of death were suicides and intoxications or motor vehicle accidents and homicides, which may be indicative of depressive disorders or impulse control disorders, respectively. Identification of the underlying psychosocial problems may provide an opportunity for preventive interventions.
  • Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Kannus, Pekka; Karinkanta, Saija; Pasanen, Matti; Patil, Radhika; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Sievanen, Harri (2012)
  • Rinne, Pasi P.; Laitinen, Minna K.; Kannus, Pekka; Mattila, Ville M. (2020)
    Background and purpose - Information on the epidemiological trends of pelvic fractures and fracture surgery in the general population is limited. We therefore determined the incidence of pelvic fractures in the Finnish adult population between 1997 and 2014 and assessed the incidence and trends of fracture surgery.Patients and methods - We used data from the Finnish National Discharge Register (NHDR) to calculate the incidence of pelvic fractures and fracture surgery. All patients 18 years of age or older were included in the study. The NHDR covers the whole Finnish population and gives information on health care services and the surgical procedures performed.Results and interpretation - We found that in Finnish adults the overall incidence of hospitalization for a pelvic fracture increased from 34 to 56/100,000 person-years between 1997 and 2014. This increase was most apparent for the low-energy fragility fractures of the elderly female population. The ageing of the population is likely therefore to partly explain this increase. The annual number and incidence of pelvic fracture surgery also rose between 1997 and 2014, from 118 (number) and 3.0 (incidence) in 1997 to 187 and 4.3 in 2014, respectively. The increasing number and incidence of pelvic fractures in the elderly population will increase the need for social and healthcare services. The main focus should be on fracture prevention.
  • Viljakainen, Heli T.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay; Ebrahim, Shah; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Kulkarni, Bharati; Tobias, Jon H. (2015)
    Background Fracture risk is rising in countries undergoing rapid rural to urban migration, but whether this reflects an adverse effect of urbanization on intrinsic bone strength, as reflected by bone mineral density (BMD), is currently unknown. Methods Lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) BMD, and total body fat and lean mass, were obtained from DXA scans performed in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study (54% male, mean age 49 years). Sib-pair comparisons were performed between rural-urban migrants (RUM) and rural non-migrated (RNM) siblings (N = 185 sib-pairs). Results In analyses adjusted for height, gender, age and occupation, rural to urban migration was associated with higher lumbar and hip BMD and greater predicted hip strength; Delta LS BMD 0.030 (0.005, 0.055) g/cm(2), Delta TH BMD 0.044 (0.024; 0.064) g/cm(2), Delta cross-sectional moment of inertia 0.162 (0.036, 0.289) cm(4). These differences were largely attenuated after adjusting for body composition, insulin levels and current lifestyle factors ie. years of smoking, alcohol consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Further analyses suggested that differences in lean mass, and to a lesser extent fat mass, largely explained the BMD differences which we observed. Conclusions Rural to urban migration as an adult is associated with higher BMD and greater predicted hip strength, reflecting associated alterations in body composition. It remains to be seen how differences in BMD between migration groups will translate into fracture risk in becoming years.