Browsing by Subject "HIPPO PATHWAY"

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  • Hong, Seon Pyo; Yang, Myung Jin; Cho, Hyunsoo; Park, Intae; Bae, Hosung; Choe, Kibaek; Suh, Sang Heon; Adams, Ralf H.; Alitalo, Kari; Lim, Daesik; Koh, Gou Young (2020)
    Emerging evidence suggests that intestinal stromal cells (IntSCs) play essential roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. However, the extent of heterogeneity within the villi stromal compartment and how IntSCs regulate the structure and function of specialized intestinal lymphatic capillary called lacteal remain elusive. Here we show that selective hyperactivation or depletion of YAP/TAZ in PDGFR beta(+) IntSCs leads to lacteal sprouting or regression with junctional disintegration and impaired dietary fat uptake. Indeed, mechanical or osmotic stress regulates IntSC secretion of VEGF-C mediated by YAP/TAZ. Single-cell RNA sequencing delineated novel subtypes of villi fibroblasts that upregulate Vegfc upon YAP/TAZ activation. These populations of fibroblasts were distributed in proximity to lacteal, suggesting that they constitute a peri-lacteal microenvironment. Our findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of IntSCs and reveal that distinct subsets of villi fibroblasts regulate lacteal integrity through YAP/TAZ-induced VEGF-C secretion, providing new insights into the dynamic regulatory mechanisms behind lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling.
  • ten Kate, Chantal A.; de Klein, Annelies; de Graaf, Bianca M.; Doukas, Michail; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; van der Helm, Robert; Brands, Tom; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; van Bever, Yolande; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; Spaander, Manon C. W.; Brosens, Erwin (2022)
    Simple Summary We investigated the increased prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in adults with esophageal atresia. A higher polygenic risk score and disturbances in inflammatory, stress response and oncological pathways upon acid exposure suggest a genetic susceptibility and increased induction of inflammatory processes. Although further research is required to explore this hypothesis, this could be a first-step into selecting patients that are more at risk to develop Barrett's esophagus and/or esophageal carcinoma. Currently, an endoscopic screening and surveillance program is in practice in our institution for patients born with esophageal atresia, to early detect (pre)malignant lesions. Since recurrent endoscopies can be a burden for the patient, selecting patients by for example genetic susceptibility would allow to only include those at risk in future practice. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in adults born with esophageal atresia (EA) is four times higher than in the general population and presents at a younger age (34 vs. 60 years). This is (partly) a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Given the overlap between genes and pathways involved in foregut and BE development, we hypothesized that EA patients have an intrinsic predisposition to develop BE. Transcriptomes of Esophageal biopsies of EA patients with BE (n = 19, EA/BE); EA patients without BE (n = 44, EA-only) and BE patients without EA (n = 10, BE-only) were compared by RNA expression profiling. Subsequently, we simulated a reflux episode by exposing fibroblasts of 3 EA patients and 3 controls to acidic conditions. Transcriptome responses were compared to the differential expressed transcripts in the biopsies. Predisposing single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with BE, were slightly increased in EA/BE versus BE-only patients. RNA expression profiling and pathway enrichment analysis revealed differences in retinoic acid metabolism and downstream signaling pathways and inflammatory, stress response and oncological processes. There was a similar effect on retinoic acid signaling and immune response in EA patients upon acid exposure. These results indicate that epithelial tissue homeostasis in EA patients is more prone to acidic disturbances.
  • Kaukonen, Riina; Mai, Anja; Georgiadou, Maria; Saari, Markku; De Franceschi, Nicola; Betz, Timo; Sihto, Harri; Ventela, Sami; Elo, Laura; Jokitalo, Eija; Westermarck, Jukka; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Joensuu, Heikki; Grenman, Reidar; Ivaska, Johanna (2016)
    Tissue homeostasis is dependent on the controlled localization of specific cell types and the correct composition of the extracellular stroma. While the role of the cancer stroma in tumour progression has been well characterized, the specific contribution of the matrix itself is unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms enabling normal-not cancer-stroma to provide tumour-suppressive signals and act as an antitumorigenic barrier are poorly understood. Here we show that extracellular matrix (ECM) generated by normal fibroblasts (NFs) is softer than the CAF matrix, and its physical and structural features regulate cancer cell proliferation. We find that normal ECM triggers downregulation and nuclear exit of the histone demethylase JMJD1a resulting in the epigenetic growth restriction of carcinoma cells. Interestingly, JMJD1a positively regulates transcription of many target genes, including YAP/ TAZ (WWTR1), and therefore gene expression in a stiffness-dependent manner. Thus, normal stromal restricts cancer cell proliferation through JMJD1a-dependent modulation of gene expression.
  • Marques, Elsa; Peltola, Tomi; Kaski, Samuel; Klefstrom, Juha (2018)
    In metazoans, epithelial architecture provides a context that dynamically modulates most if not all epithelial cell responses to intrinsic and extrinsic signals, including growth or survival signalling and transforming oncogene action. Three-dimensional ( 3D) epithelial culture systems provide tractable models to interrogate the function of human genetic determinants in establishment of context-dependency. We performed an arrayed genetic shRNA screen in mammary epithelial 3D cultures to identify new determinants of epithelial architecture, finding that the key phenotype impacting shRNAs altered not only the data population average but even more noticeably the population distribution. The broad distributions were attributable to sporadic gene silencing actions by shRNA in unselected populations. We employed Maximum Mean Discrepancy concept to capture similar population distribution patterns and demonstrate here the feasibility of the test in identifying an impact of shRNA in populations of 3D structures. Integration of the clustered morphometric data with protein-protein interactions data enabled hypothesis generation of novel biological pathways underlying similar 3D phenotype alterations. The results present a new strategy for 3D phenotype-driven pathway analysis, which is expected to accelerate discovery of context-dependent gene functions in epithelial biology and tumorigenesis.
  • Kurko, Johanna; Debes, Paul V.; House, Andrew H.; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    Despite recent taxonomic diversification in studies linking genotype with phenotype, follow-up studies aimed at understanding the molecular processes of such genotype-phenotype associations remain rare. The age at which an individual reaches sexual maturity is an important fitness trait in many wild species. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating maturation timing processes remain obscure. A recent genome-wide association study in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) identified large-effect age-at-maturity-associated chromosomal regions including genes vgll3, akap11 and six6, which have roles in adipogenesis, spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, respectively. Here, we determine expression patterns of these genes during salmon development and their potential molecular partners and pathways. Using Nanostring transcription profiling technology, we show development- and tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns for vgll3, akap11 and six6. Correlated expression levels of vgll3 and akap11, which have adjacent chromosomal location, suggests they may have shared regulation. Further, vgll3 correlating with arhgap6 and yap1, and akap11 with lats1 and yap1 suggests that Vgll3 and Akap11 take part in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Tissue-specific expression results indicate that vgll3 and akap11 paralogs have sex-dependent expression patterns in gonads. Moreover, six6 correlating with slc38a6 and rtn1, and Hippo signaling genes suggests that Six6 could have a broader role in the HPG neuroendrocrine and cell fate commitment regulation, respectively. We conclude that Vgll3, Akap11 and Six6 may influence Atlantic salmon maturation timing via affecting adipogenesis and gametogenesis by regulating cell fate commitment and the HPG axis. These results may help to unravel general molecular mechanisms behind maturation.