Browsing by Subject "HIPPOCAMPUS"

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  • Stephen, Ruth; Liu, Yawu; Ngandu, Tiia; Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina; Parkkola, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paajanen, Teemu; Hanninen, Tuomo; Strandberg, Timo; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Keinanen Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Vanninen, Ritva; Helisalmi, Seppo; Levalahti, Esko; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina (2017)
    Background: CAIDE Dementia Risk Score is the first validated tool for estimating dementia risk based on a midlife risk profile. Objectives: This observational study investigated longitudinal associations of CAIDE Dementia Risk Score with brain MRI, amyloid burden evaluated with PIB-PET, and detailed cognition measures. Methods: FINGER participants were at-risk elderly without dementia. CAIDE Risk Score was calculated using data from previous national surveys (mean age 52.4 years). In connection to baseline FINGER visit (on average 17.6 years later, mean age 70.1 years), 132 participants underwent MRI scans, and 48 underwent PIB-PET scans. All 1,260 participants were cognitively assessed (Neuropsychological Test Battery, NTB). Neuroimaging assessments included brain cortical thickness and volumes (Freesurfer 5.0.3), visually rated medial temporal atrophy (MTA), white matter lesions (WML), and amyloid accumulation. Results: Higher CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was related to more pronounced deep WML (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.43), lower total gray matter (beta- coefficient -0.29, p = 0.001) and hippocampal volume (beta- coefficient -0.28, p = 0.003), lower cortical thickness (beta-coefficient -0.19, p = 0.042), and poorer cognition (beta-coefficients -0.31 for total NTB score, -0.25 for executive functioning, -0.33 for processing speed, and -0.20 for memory, all p <0.001). Higher CAIDE Dementia Risk Score including APOE genotype was additionally related to more pronounced MTA (OR 1.15,95% CI 1.00-1.30). No associations were found with periventricular WML or amyloid accumulation. Conclusions: The CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was related to indicators of cerebrovascular changes and neurodegeneration on MRI, and cognition. The lack of association with brain amyloid accumulation needs to be verified in studies with larger sample sizes.
  • Leikas, Juuso V.; Kohtala, Samuel; Theilmann, Wiebke; Jalkanen, Aaro J.; Forsberg, Markus M.; Rantamaki, Tomi (2017)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK313) and neurodegenerative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease-modifying effects of novel GSK3 beta inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3 beta within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3 beta signaling in nave rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD. Deep but brief (20-min) isoflurane anesthesia exposure increased the phosphorylation of GSK3 beta at the inhibitory Ser9 residue, and induced phosphorylation of AKT(Thr308) (protein kinase B; negative regulator of GSK3 beta) in the striatum of naive rats and rats with unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. The 6-OHDA protocol produced gradual functional deficiency within the nigrostriatal pathway, reflected as a preference for using the limb ipsilateral to the lesioned striatum at 2 weeks post 6-OHDA. Interestingly, such motor impairment was not observed in animals exposed to four consecutive isoflurane treatments (20-min anesthesia every 48 h; treatments started 7 days after 6-OHDA delivery). However, isoflurane had no effect on striatal or nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopaminergic neurons) protein levels. This brief report provides promising results regarding the therapeutic potential and neurobiological mechanisms of anesthetics in experimental models of PD and guides development of novel disease-modifying therapies.
  • Leminen, Miika M.; Virkkala, Jussi; Saure, Emma; Paajanen, Teemu; Zee, Phyllis C.; Santostasi, Giovanni; Hublin, Christer; Müller, Kiti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Huotilainen, Minna; Paunio, Tiina (2017)
    Introduction: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) slow waves and sleep spindle activity have been shown to be crucial for memory consolidation. Recently, memory consolidation has been causally facilitated in human participants via auditory stimuli phase-locked to SWS slow waves. Aims: Here, we aimed to develop a new acoustic stimulus protocol to facilitate learning and to validate it using different memory tasks. Most importantly, the stimulation setup was automated to be applicable for ambulatory home use. Methods: Fifteen healthy participants slept 3 nights in the laboratory. Learning was tested with 4 memory tasks (word pairs, serial finger tapping, picture recognition, and face-name association). Additional questionnaires addressed subjective sleep quality and overnight changes in mood. During the stimulus night, auditory stimuli were adjusted and targeted by an unsupervised algorithm to be phase-locked to the negative peak of slow waves in SWS. During the control night no sounds were presented. Results: Results showed that the sound stimulation increased both slow wave (p =.002) and sleep spindle activity (p Conclusions: We showed that the memory effect of the SWS-targeted individually triggered single-sound stimulation is specific to verbal associative memory. Moreover, the ambulatory and automated sound stimulus setup was promising and allows for a broad range of potential follow-up studies in the future.
  • Vesikansa, Aino; Sakha, Prasanna; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Molchanova, Svetlana; Rivera Baeza, Claudio; Huttunen, Henri J.; Rauvala, Heikki; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E. (2012)
  • Antila, Hanna; Ryazantseva, Maria; Popova, Dina; Sipilä, Pia; Guirado, Ramon; Kohtala, Samuel; Yalcin, Ipek; Lindholm, Jesse; Vesa, Liisa; Sato, Vinicius; Cordeira, Joshua; Autio, Henri; Kislin, Mikhail; Rios, Maribel; Joca, Samia; Casarotto, Plinio; Khiroug, Leonard; Lauri, Sari; Taira, Tomi; Castren, Eero; Rantamäki, Tomi (2017)
    A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta). Moreover, isoflurane affected neuronal plasticity by facilitating long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. We also found that isoflurane increased activity of the parvalbumin interneurons, and facilitated GABAergic transmission in wild type mice but not in transgenic mice with reduced TrkB expression in parvalbumin interneurons. Our findings strengthen the role of TrkB signaling in the antidepressant responses and encourage further evaluation of isoflurane as a rapid-acting antidepressant devoid of the psychotomimetic effects and abuse potential of ketamine.
  • Mennesson, Marie; Rydgren, Emilie; Lipina, Tatiana; Sokolowska, Ewa; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Morello, Francesca; Ivakine, Evgueni; Voikar, Vootele; Risbrough, Victoria; Partanen, Juha; Hovatta, Iiris (2019)
    NETO1 and NETO2 are auxiliary subunits of kainate receptors (KARs). They interact with native KAR subunits to modulate multiple aspects of receptor function. Variation in KAR genes has been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans, and in mice, knockouts of the Grik1 gene have increased, while Grik2 and Grik4 knockouts have reduced anxiety-like behavior. To determine whether the NETO proteins regulate anxiety and fear through modulation of KARs, we undertook a comprehensive behavioral analysis of adult Neto1(-/-) and Neto2(-/-) mice. We observed no differences in anxiety-like behavior. However, in cued fear conditioning, Neto2(-/-), but not Neto1(-/-) mice, showed higher fear expression and delayed extinction compared to wild type mice. We established, by in situ hybridization, that Neto2 was expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons throughout the fear circuit including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative amount of synaptosomal KAR GLUK2/3 subunit was 20.8% lower in the ventral hippocampus and 36.5% lower in the medial prefrontal cortex in Neto2(-/-) compared to the Neto2(+/+) mice. The GLUK5 subunit abundance was reduced 23.8% in the ventral hippocampus and 16.9% in the amygdala. We conclude that Neto2 regulates fear expression and extinction in mice, and that its absence increases conditionability, a phenotype related to post-traumatic stress disorder and propose that this phenotype is mediated by reduced KAR subunit abundance at synapses of fear-associated brain regions.
  • Varshney, Mukesh Kumar; Yu, Nancy Yiu-Lin; Katayama, Shintaro; Li, Xin; Liu, Tianyao; Wu, Wan-Fu; Tohonen, Virpi; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha; Fan, Xiaotang; Inzunza, Jose; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Nalvarte, Ivan (2020)
    Background: Male estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) knockout (BERKO) mice display anxiety and aggression linked to, among others, altered serotonergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala and dorsal raphe, impaired cortical radial glia migration, and reduced GABAergic signaling. The effects on primary motor cortex (M1 cortex) and locomotor activity as a consequence of ER beta loss have not been investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether locomotor activity is altered as a consequence of the changes in the M1 cortex. Methods: The locomotor activity of male wild-type (WT) and BERKO mice was evaluated using the open-field and rotarod tests. Molecular changes in the M1 cortex were analyzed by RNA sequencing, electron microscopy, electrophysiology, and immunohistological techniques. In addition, we established oligodendrocyte (OL) cultures from WT and BERKO mouse embryonic stem cells to evaluate OL function. Results: Locomotor profiling revealed that BERKO mice were more active than WT mice but had impaired motor coordination. Analysis of the M1 cortex pointed out differences in synapse function and myelination. There was a reduction in GABAergic signaling resulting in imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission as well as a defective OL differentiation accompanied by myelin defects. The effects of ER beta loss on OL differentiation were confirmed in vitro. Conclusion: ER beta is an important regulator of GABAergic interneurons and OL differentiation, which impacts on adult M1 cortex function and may be linked to increased locomotor activity and decreased motor coordination in BERKO mice.
  • Lesnikova, Angelina; Casarotto, Plinio; Moliner, Rafael; Fred, Senem Merve; Biojone, Caroline; Castren, Eero (2021)
    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) have an important physiological role in the retention of learning by restricting cognitive flexibility. Their deposition peaks after developmental periods of intensive learning, usually in late childhood, and they help in long-term preservation of newly acquired skills and information. Modulation of PNN function by various techniques enhances plasticity and regulates the retention of memories, which may be beneficial when memory persistence entails negative symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we investigated the role of PTP sigma [receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase S, a phosphatase that is activated by binding of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) from PNNs] in retention of memories using Novel Object Recognition and Fear Conditioning models. We observed that mice haploinsufficient for PTPRS gene (PTP sigma(+/-)), although having improved short-term object recognition memory, display impaired long-term memory in both Novel Object Recognition and Fear Conditioning paradigm, as compared to WT littermates. However, PTP sigma(+/-) mice did not show any differences in behavioral tests that do not heavily rely on cognitive flexibility, such as Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Marble Burying, and Forced Swimming Test. Since PTP sigma has been shown to interact with and dephosphorylate TRKB, we investigated activation of this receptor and its downstream pathways in limbic areas known to be associated with memory. We found that phosphorylation of TRKB and PLC gamma are increased in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdaloid complex of PTP sigma(+/-) mice, but other TRKB-mediated signaling pathways are not affected. Our data suggest that PTP sigma downregulation promotes TRKB phosphorylation in different brain areas, improves short-term memory performance but disrupts long-term memory retention in the tested animal models. Inhibition of PTP sigma or disruption of PNN-PTP sigma-TRKB complex might be a potential target for disorders where negative modulation of the acquired memories can be beneficial.
  • Chouliaras, Leonidas; Pishva, Ehsan; Haapakoski, Rita; Zsoldos, Eniko; Mahmood, Abda; Filippini, Nicola; Burrage, Joe; Mill, Jonathan; Kivimäki, Mika; Lunnon, Katie; Ebmeier, Klaus P. (2018)
    Aim: The present study investigated the link between peripheral DNA methylation (DNAm), cognitive impairment and brain aging. Methods: We tested the association between blood genome-wide DNAm profiles using the Illumina 450K arrays, cognitive dysfunction and brain MRI measures in selected participants of the Whitehall II imaging sub-study. Results: Eight differentially methylated regions were associated with cognitive impairment. Accelerated aging based on the Hannum epigenetic clock was associated with mean diffusivity and global fractional anisotropy. We also identified modules of co-methylated loci associated with white matter hyperintensities. These co-methylation modules were enriched among pathways relevant to beta-amyloid processing and glutamatergic signaling. Conclusion: Our data support the notion that blood DNAm changes may have utility as a biomarker for cognitive dysfunction and brain aging.
  • Salo, Raimo A.; Belevich, Ilya; Manninen, Eppu; Jokitalo, Eija; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra (2018)
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reveals microstructural features of grey and white matter non-invasively. The contrast produced by DTI, however, is not fully understood and requires further validation. We used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) to acquire tissue metrics, i.e., anisotropy and orientation, using three-dimensional Fourier transform-based (3D-FT) analysis, to correlate with fractional anisotropy and orientation in DTI. SBEM produces high-resolution 3D data at the mesoscopic scale with good contrast of cellular membranes. We analysed selected samples from cingulum, corpus callosum, and perilesional cortex of sham-operated and traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. Principal orientations produced by DTI and 3D-FT in all samples were in good agreement. Anisotropy values showed similar patterns of change in corresponding DTI and 3D-FT parameters in sham-operated and TBI rats. While DTI and 3D-FT anisotropy values were similar in grey matter, 3D-FT anisotropy values were consistently lower than fractional anisotropy values from DTI in white matter. We also evaluated the effect of resolution in 3D-FT analysis. Despite small angular differences in grey matter samples, lower resolution datasets provided reliable results, allowing for analysis of larger fields of view. Overall, 3D SBEM allows for more sophisticated validation studies of diffusion imaging contrast from a tissue microstructural perspective.
  • Forsgård, Johanna A.; Metsähonkala, Liisa; Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Junnila, Jouni J. T.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Jokinen, Tarja S. (2019)
    Background: Stress, sleep deprivation, and infectious diseases are important seizure-precipitating factors in human epilepsy patients. However, these factors have not been thoroughly studied in epileptic dogs. Objective: Seizure-precipitating factors are common in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and the occurrence of these factors associate with the dogs' signalment, personality, and epilepsy-related factors. Animals: Fifty dogs with diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy from the hospital populations of University Veterinary Teaching Hospital of University of Helsinki and Referral Animal Hospital Aisti. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, owners were interviewed about their dogs' possible seizure-precipitating factors according to a predefined questionnaire. The dogs were identified and selected by searching the medical records of the participating animal hospitals. Results: The prevalence of seizure-precipitating factors in the study population was 74% (37/50). The most frequently reported factors included stress-related situations, sleep deprivation, weather, and hormonal factors. In dogs with focal onset seizures, the number of precipitating factors was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.4) times higher compared to dogs with generalized seizures. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Seizure-precipitating factors are common in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, and the nature of these factors is consistent with those of human patients. Aside from antiepileptic medication, acknowledging and avoiding seizure-precipitating factors could help veterinarians achieve better treatment outcomes.
  • Veit, Christina; Janczak, Andrew M.; Ranheim, Birgit; Vas, Judit; Valros, Anna; Sandercock, Dale A.; Piepponen, Petteri; Dulgheriu, Daniela; Nordgreen, Janicke (2021)
    Poor health is a risk factor for damaging behaviors, but the mechanisms behind this link are unknown. Injection of pigs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be used to model aspects of poor health. Recent studies have shown that LPS-injected pigs perform more tail- and ear-directed behavior compared to saline-injected pigs and suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in these behaviors. The aims of this study were to test the effect of LPS on the social behavior of pigs and the neurotransmitters and modulators in their brains and to test the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the effects of LPS. Fifty-two female pigs (11-12 weeks) were allocated to four treatments comprising two injections: saline-saline (SS), saline-LPS (SL), ketoprofen-saline (KS), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). Activity was scan-sampled every 5 min for 6 h after the last injection in the pen. Social behavior was observed continuously in 10 x 15-min bouts between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. 1 day before (baseline) and 1 and 2 days after the injection. Saliva was analyzed for cortisol and plasma for tryptophan and kynurenine. The frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and brain stem were sampled 72 h after the injection and analyzed for cytokines and monoamines. LPS activated the HPA axis and decreased the activity within 6 h after the injection. Ketoprofen lowered the effect of LPS on cortisol release and attenuated the behavioral signs of sickness in challenged pigs. SL pigs manipulated the ears of their pen mates significantly longer than SS pigs 2 days after the injection. LPS had no observed effect on IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. At 72 h after the injection, plasma tryptophan was depleted in SL pigs, and tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations in the frontal cortex and brain stem of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Serotonin concentrations in the hypothalamus and noradrenaline concentrations in the hippocampus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in KL pigs. In conclusion, LPS influenced the different neurotransmitters and modulators in the brain that are hypothesized to play an important role in the regulation of mood and behavior.