Browsing by Subject "HISTIDINE KINASES"

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  • Multamäki, Elina; Nanekar, Rahul; Morozov, Dmitry; Lievonen, Topias; Golonka, David; Wahlgren, Weixiao Yuan; Stucki-Buchli, Brigitte; Rossi, Jari; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Möglich, Andreas; Takala, Heikki (2021)
    Bacterial phytochrome photoreceptors usually belong to two-component signaling systems which transmit environmental stimuli to a response regulator through a histidine kinase domain. Phytochromes switch between red light-absorbing and far-red light-absorbing states. Despite exhibiting extensive structural responses during this transition, the model bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans (DrBphP) lacks detectable kinase activity. Here, we resolve this long-standing conundrum by comparatively analyzing the interactions and output activities of DrBphP and a bacteriophytochrome from Agrobacterium fabrum (Agp1). Whereas Agp1 acts as a conventional histidine kinase, we identify DrBphP as a light-sensitive phosphatase. While Agp1 binds its cognate response regulator only transiently, DrBphP does so strongly, which is rationalized at the structural level. Our data pinpoint two key residues affecting the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities, which immediately bears on photoreception and two-component signaling. The opposing output activities in two highly similar bacteriophytochromes suggest the use of light-controllable histidine kinases and phosphatases for optogenetics. The bacteriophytochrome DrBphP from Deinococcus radiodurans shows high sequence homology to the histidine kinase Agp1 from Agrobacterium fabrum but lacks kinase activity. Here, the authors structurally and biochemically analyse DrBphP and Agp1, showing that DrBphP is a light-activatable phosphatase.
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav; Turoverov, Konstantin K. (2017)
    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) designed from PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim repeats) and GAF (cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenylate cyclase/FhlA transcriptional activator) domains of bacterial phytochromes covalently bind biliverdin (BV) chromophore via one or two Cys residues. We studied BV interaction with a series of NIR FP variants derived from the recently reported BphP1-FP protein. The latter was engineered from a bacterial phytochrome RpBphP1, and has two reactive Cys residues (Cys15 in the PAS domain and Cys256 in the GAF domain), whereas its mutants contain single Cys residues either in the PAS domain or in the GAF domain, or no Cys residues. We characterized BphP1-FP and its mutants biochemically and spectroscopically in the absence and in the presence of denaturant. We found that all BphP1-FP variants are monomers. We revealed that spectral properties of the BphP1-FP variants containing either Cys15 or Cys256, or both, are determined by the covalently bound BV chromophore only. Consequently, this suggests an involvement of the inter-monomeric allosteric effects in the BV interaction with monomers in dimeric NIR FPs, such as iRFPs. Likely, insertion of the Cys15 residue, in addition to the Cys256 residue, in dimeric NIR FPs influences BV binding by promoting the BV chromophore covalent cross-linking to both PAS and GAF domains.
  • Multamäki, Elina; de Fuentes, Andres Garcia; Sieryi, Oleksii; Bykov, Alexander; Gerken, Uwe; Ranzani, Americo Tavares; Koehler, Juergen; Meglinski, Igor; Moeglich, Andreas; Takala, Heikki (2022)
    In optogenetics, as in nature, sensory photoreceptors serve to control cellular processes by light. Bacteriophytochrome (BphP) photoreceptors sense red and farred light via a biliverdin chromophore and, in response, cycle between the spectroscopically, structurally, and functionally distinct Pr and Pfr states. BphPs commonly belong to two-component systems that control the phosphorylation of cognate response regulators and downstream gene expression through histidine kinase modules. We recently demonstrated that the paradigm BphP from Deinococcus radiodurans exclusively acts as a phosphatase but that its photosensory module can control the histidine kinase activity of homologous receptors. Here, we apply this insight to reprogram two widely used setups for bacterial gene expression from blue-light to red-light control. The resultant pREDusk and pREDawn systems allow gene expression to be regulated down and up, respectively, uniformly under red light by 100-fold or more. Both setups are realized as portable, single plasmids that encode all necessary components including the biliverdin-producing machinery. The triggering by red light affords high spatial resolution down to the single-cell level. As pREDusk and pREDawn respond sensitively to red light, they support multiplexing with optogenetic systems sensitive to other light colors. Owing to the superior tissue penetration of red light, the pREDawn system can be triggered at therapeutically safe light intensities through material layers, replicating the optical properties of the skin and skull. Given these advantages, pREDusk and pREDawn enable red-light-regulated expression for diverse use cases in bacteria.
  • Takala, Heikki; Edlund, Petra; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Westenhoff, Sebastian (2020)
    Phytochromes are ubiquitous photosensor proteins, which control the growth, reproduction and movement in plants, fungi and bacteria. Phytochromes switch between two photophysical states depending on the light conditions. In analogy to molecular machines, light absorption induces a series of structural changes that are transduced from the bilin chromophore, through the protein, and to the output domains. Recent progress towards understanding this structural mechanism of signal transduction has been manifold. We describe this progress with a focus on bacteriophytochromes. We describe the mechanism along three structural tiers, which are the chromophore-binding pocket, the photosensory module, and the output domains. We discuss possible interconnections between the tiers and conclude by presenting future directions and open questions. We hope that this review may serve as a compendium to guide future structural and spectroscopic studies designed to understand structural signaling in phytochromes.