Browsing by Subject "HISTONE H3"

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  • Wirthmueller, Lennart; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Sklenar, Jan; Fabro, Georgina; Kim, Dae Sung; Lintermann, Ruth; Jaspers, Pinja; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; MacLean, Daniel; Menke, Frank L. H.; Banfield, Mark J.; Jones, Jonathan D. G. (2018)
    The oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew disease on Arabidopsis. To colonize its host, Hpa translocates effector proteins that suppress plant immunity into infected host cells. Here, we investigate the relevance of the interaction between one of these effectors, HaRxL106, and Arabidopsis RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1). We use pathogen infection assays as well as molecular and biochemical analyses to test the hypothesis that HaRxL106 manipulates RCD1 to attenuate transcriptional activation of defense genes. We report that HaRxL106 suppresses transcriptional activation of salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense genes and alters plant growth responses to light. HaRxL106-mediated suppression of immunity is abolished in RCD1 loss-of-function mutants. We report that RCD1-type proteins are phosphorylated, and we identified Mut9-like kinases (MLKs), which function as phosphoregulatory nodes at the level of photoreceptors, as RCD1-interacting proteins. An mlk1,3,4 triple mutant exhibits stronger SA-induced defense marker gene expression compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that MLKs also affect transcriptional regulation of SA signaling. Based on the combined evidence, we hypothesize that nuclear RCD1/MLK complexes act as signaling nodes that integrate information from environmental cues and pathogen sensors, and that the Arabidopsis downy mildew pathogen targets RCD1 to prevent activation of plant immunity.
  • George, Joel Johnson; Oittinen, Mikko; Martin-Diaz, Laura; Zapilko, Veronika; Iqbal, Sharif; Rintakangas, Terhi; Martins, Fabio Tadeu Arrojo; Niskanen, Henri; Katajisto, Pekka; Kaikkonen, Minna U.; Viiri, Keijo (2021)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microfold cells (M cells) are immunosurveillance epithelial cells located in the Peyer's patches (PPs) in the intestine and are responsible for monitoring and transcytosis of antigens, microorganisms, and pathogens. Mature M cells use the receptor glycoprotein 2 (GP2) to aid in transcytosis. Recent studies have shown transcription factors, Spi-B and SRY-Box Transcription Factor 8 (Sox8). are necessary for M-cell differentiation, but not sufficient. An exhaustive set of factors sufficient for differentiation and development of a mature GP2+ M cell remains elusive. Our aim was to understand the role of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) as an epigenetic regulator of M-cell development. Estrogen-related-receptor gamma (Esrrg), identified as a PRC2-regulated gene, was studied in depth, in addition to its relationship with Spi-B and Sox8. METHODS: Comparative chromatin immunoprecipitation and global run-on sequencing analysis of mouse intestinal organoids were performed in stem condition, enterocyte conditions, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand-induced M-cell condition. Esrrg, which was identified as one of the PRC2-regulated transcription factors, was studied in wild-type mice and knocked out in intestinal organoids using guide RNA's. Sox8 null mice were used to study Esrrg and its relation to Sox8. RESULTS: chromatin immunoprecipitation and global run-on sequencing analysis showed 12 novel PRC2 regulated transcription factors, PRC2-regulated Esrrg is a novel M-cell-specific transcription factor acting on a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-induced nuclear factor-kappa B pathway, upstream of Sox8, and necessary but not sufficient for a mature M-cell marker of Gp2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: PRC2 regulates a significant set of genes in M cells including Esrrg, which is critical for M-cell development and differentiation. Loss of Esrrg led to an immature M-cell phenotype lacking in Sox8 and Gp2 expression. Transcript profiling: the data have been deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE157629).