Browsing by Subject "HOLOCENE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-15 of 15
  • Helama, Samuli; Arppe, Laura; Timonen, Mauri; Mielikäinen, Kari; Oinonen, Markku (2018)
    Tree-ring stable isotope chronologies provide very high-resolution palaeoclimatic data, and the number of records is increasing rapidly worldwide. To extend the chronologies back in time, before the period covered by the old living trees, the use of subfossil wood samples is required. Typically, the longest continuous subfossil chronologies consist of regionally collected tree-ring materials, rather than tree rings from a single site, and are likely more sensitive to data heterogeneity. Yet, the characteristics of such datasets remain hitherto unexplored. Here we produce a continuous, decadally resolved chronology of C-13/C-12 ratio (delta C-13) from Finnish Lapland over the past 7.5 ka (5500 BCE to 2010 CE) for which there is replication of at least five Pinus sylvestris trees. Less negative delta C-13 values were observed as trees age and for western sites (higher in elevation and further from the cold oceanic air flow). The age -related trends in living tree delta C-13 data were expressed mainly over the first fifty years mimicking the "juvenile effect" whereas the subfossil data showed trend over the trees' lifespan. These findings demonstrated the need to detrend the individual delta C-13 series before averaging them into the mean chronology. The corresponding biases were removed from the isotopic data using the methods frequently applied for tree-ring width and density proxies, the Regional Curve Standardization (RCS) combined with signal-free approach. While the RCS procedures commonly preserve the long-term variations in the resulting chronology, not all types of them did so as demonstrated for chronologies produced using separate RCS models for the delta C-13 series with relatively high and low isotopic level (offset from the grand mean). It was shown that these delta C-13 levels (i.e. the relative isotopic enrichment) result both from the low-frequency climate signal and biogeographical aspects (the site longitude/altitudes). The non-climatic biases were removed from the delta C-13 series by using separate RCS models for the subsets (western and eastern) of isotopic series. Similar to previous investigations using annually resolved delta C-13 data from Lapland, our chronology had strong negative correlations to variations in cloud cover. Here, a bootstrapping experiment was used to verify this dendroclimatic association. The resulting palaeo-cloud reconstruction portrayed decadal to multi-millennial variations with centennial anomalies coinciding with the mid and late Holocene events of climate transitions, highlighting the value of subfossil isotope chronologies from tree rings in synthesising climate dynamics from several proxy sources over the present interglacial.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz; Rantala, Marttiina; Nevalainen, Liisa (2020)
    Independent Arctic records of temperature and precipitation from the same proxy archives are rare. Nevertheless, they are important for providing detailed information on long-term climate changes and temperature-precipitation relationships in the context of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Here, we used chironomid and cladoceran fossil assemblages to reconstruct summer air-temperature and water-level changes, during the past 400 years, in a small lake located in Finnish Lapland. Temperatures remained persistently cold over the Little Ice Age (LIA), but increased in the 20th century. After a cooler phase in the 1970s, the climate rapidly warmed to the record-high temperatures of the most recent decades. The lake-level reconstruction suggested persistently wet conditions for the LIA, followed by a dry period between similar to 1910 and 1970 CE, when the lake apparently became almost dry. Since the 1980s, the lake level has returned to a similar position as during the IAA. The temperature development was consistent with earlier records, but a significant local feature was found in the lake-level reconstruction the LIA appears to have been continuously wet, without the generally depicted dry phase during the 18th and 19th centuries. Therefore, the results suggest local precipitation patterns and enforce the concept of spatially divergent LIA conditions.
  • Nicolle, Marie; Debret, Maxime; Massei, Nicolas; Colin, Christophe; deVernal, Anne; Divine, Dmitri; Werner, Jojannes P.; Hormes, Anne; Korhola, Atte Antero; Linderholm, Hans W. (2018)
    To put recent climate change in perspective, it is necessary to extend the instrumental climate records with proxy data from paleoclimate archives. Arctic climate variability for the last 2 millennia has been investigated using statistical and signal analyses from three regionally averaged records from the North Atlantic, Siberia and Alaska based on many types of proxy data archived in the Arctic 2k database v1.1.1. In the North Atlantic and Alaska, the major climatic trend is characterized by long-term cooling interrupted by recent warming that started at the beginning of the 19th century. This cooling is visible in the Siberian region at two sites, warming at the others. The cooling of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was identified from the individual series, but it is characterized by wide-range spatial and temporal expression of climate variability, in contrary to the Medieval Climate Anomaly. The LIA started at the earliest by around AD 1200 and ended at the latest in the middle of the 20th century. The widespread temporal coverage of the LIA did not show regional consistency or particular spatial distribution and did not show a relationship with archive or proxy type either. A focus on the last 2 centuries shows a recent warming characterized by a well-marked warming trend parallel with increasing greenhouse gas emissions. It also shows a multidecadal variability likely due to natural processes acting on the internal climate system on a regional scale. A similar to 16-30-year cycle is found in Alaska and seems to be linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, whereas similar to 20-30- and similar to 50-90-year periodicities characterize the North Atlantic climate variability, likely in relation with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These regional features are probably linked to the sea ice cover fluctuations through ice-temperature positive feedback.
  • Zhang, Hui; Valiranta, Minna; Piilo, Sanna; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Aquino-Lopez, Marco A.; Roland, Thomas P.; Salminen-Paatero, Susanna; Paatero, Jussi; Lohila, Annalea; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2020)
    Northern boreal peatlands are important ecosystems in modulating global biogeochemical cycles, yet their biological communities and related carbon dynamics are highly sensitive to changes in climate. Despite this, the strength and recent direction of these feedbacks are still unclear. The response of boreal peatlands to climate warming has received relatively little attention compared with other northern peatland types, despite forming a large northern hemisphere-wide ecosystem. Here, we studied the response of two ombrotrophic boreal peatlands to climate variability over the last c. 200 years for which local meteorological data are available. We used remains from plants and testate amoebae to study historical changes in peatland biological communities. These data were supplemented by peat property (bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content), C-14, Pb-210 and Cs-137 analyses and were used to infer changes in peatland hydrology and carbon dynamics. In total, six peat cores, three per study site, were studied that represent different microhabitats: low hummock (LH), high lawn and low lawn. The data show a consistent drying trend over recent centuries, represented mainly as a change from wet habitat Sphagnum spp. to dry habitat S. fuscum. Summer temperature and precipitation appeared to be important drivers shaping peatland community and surface moisture conditions. Data from the driest microhabitat studied, LH, revealed a clear and strong negative linear correlation (R-2 = .5031; p <.001) between carbon accumulation rate and peat surface moisture conditions: under dry conditions, less carbon was accumulated. This suggests that at the dry end of the moisture gradient, availability of water regulates carbon accumulation. It can be further linked to the decreased abundance of mixotrophic testate amoebae under drier conditions (R-2 = .4207; p <.001). Our study implies that if effective precipitation decreases in the future, the carbon uptake capacity of boreal bogs may be threatened.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz (2019)
    Understanding local patterns and large-scale processes in past climate necessitates a detailed network of temperature reconstructions. In this study, a merged temperature inference model using fossil chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) datasets from Finland and Poland was constructed to fill the lack of an applicable training set for East European sites. The developed weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) inference model showed favorable performance statistics, suggesting that the model can be useful for downcore reconstructions. The combined calibration model includes 212 sites, 142 taxa, and a temperature gradient of 11.3-20.1 degrees C. The 2-component WA-PLS model has a cross-validated coefficient of determination of 0.88 and a root mean squared prediction error of 0.88 degrees C. We tested the new East European temperature transfer function in chironomid stratigraphies from a Finnish high-resolution short-core sediment record and a Polish paleolake (Zabieniec) covering the past similar to 20 000 yr. In the Finnish site, the chironomid-inferred temperatures correlated closely with the observed instrumental temperatures, showing improved accuracy compared to estimates by the original Finnish calibration model. In addition, the long-core reconstruction from the Polish site showed logical results in its general trends compared to existing knowledge on the past regional climate trends; however, it had distinct differences when compared with hemispheric climate oscillations. Hence, based on these findings, the new temperature model will enable more detailed examination of long-term temperature variability in Eastern Europe, and consequently, reliable identification of local and regional climate variability of the past.
  • Szabo, Zoltan; Buczko, Krisztina; Haliuc, Aritina; Pal, Ilona; Korponai, Janos L.; Begy, Robert-Csaba; Veres, Daniel; Luoto, Tomi P.; Zsigmond, Andreea R.; Magyari, Eniko K. (2020)
    A multiproxy approach including chironomid, diatom, pollen and geochemical analyses was applied on short gravitational cores retrieved from an alpine lake (Lacul Balea) in the Southern Carpathians (Romania) to unveil how this lake responded to natural and anthropogenic forcing over the past 500 years.On the basis of chironomid and diatom assemblage changes, and supported by sediment chemical data and historical information, we distinguished two main phases in lake evolution. Before 1926 the lake was dominated by chironomids belonging to Micropsectra insignilobus-type and benthic diatoms suggesting well-oxygenated oligotrophic environment with only small-scale disturbance. We considered this state as the lake's safe operational space. After 1926 significant changes occurred: Tanytarsus lugens-type and T. mendax-type chironomids took over dominance and collector filterers increased until 1970 pointing to an increase in available nutrients. The diatom community showed the most pronounced change between 1950 and 1992 when planktonic diatoms increased. The highest trophic level was reconstructed between 1970 and 1992, while the indicator species of increasing nutrient availability, Asterionella formosa spread from 1982 and decreased rapidly at 1992. Statistical analyses evidenced that the main driver of the diatom community change was atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) fertilization that drastically moved the community towards planktonic diatom dominance from 1950. The transformation of the chironomid community was primarily driven by summer mean temperature increase that also changed the dominant feeding guild from collector gatherers to collector falterers. Our results overall suggest that the speed of ecosystem reorganisation showed an unprecedented increase over the last 100 years; biological systems in many cases underwent threshold type changes, while several system components displayed non-hysteretic change between alternating community composition. We conclude that Lake Balea is outside of its safe operating space today. The main trigger of changes since 1926 was climate change and human impact acting synergically. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Korpela, Ilkka; Haapanen, R.; Korrensalo, A.; Tuittila, E-S; Vesala, T. (2020)
    Boreal bogs are important stores and sinks of atmospheric carbon whose surfaces are characterised by vegetation microforms. Efficient methods for monitoring their vegetation are needed because changes in vegetation composition lead to alteration in their function such as carbon gas exchange with the atmosphere. We investigated how airborne image and waveform-recording LiDAR data can be used for 3D mapping of microforms in an open bog which is a mosaic of pools, hummocks with a few stunted pines, hollows, intermediate surfaces and mud-bottom hollows. The proposed method operates on the bog surface, which is reconstructed using LiDAR. The vegetation was classified at 20 cm resolution. We hypothesised that LiDAR data describe surface topography, moisture and the presence and depth of field-layer vegetation and surface roughness; while multiple images capture the colours and texture of the vegetation, which are influenced by directional reflectance effects. We conclude that geometric LiDAR features are efficient predictors of microforms. LiDAR intensity and echo width were specific to moisture and surface roughness, respectively. Directional reflectance constituted 4-34 % of the variance in images and its form was linked to the presence of the field layer. Microform-specific directional reflectance patterns were deemed to be of marginal value in enhancing the classification, and RGB image features were inferior to LiDAR variables. Sensor fusion is an attractive option for fine-scale mapping of these habitats. We discuss the task and propose options for improving the methodology.
  • Schenk, Frederik; Bennike, Ole; Valiranta, Minna; Avery, Rachael; Björck, Svante; Wohlfarth, Barbara (2020)
    The global climate transition from the Lateglacial to the Early Holocene is dominated by a rapid warming trend driven by an increase in orbital summer insolation over high northern latitudes and related feedbacks. The warming trend was interrupted by several abrupt shifts between colder (stadial) and warmer (interstadial) climate states following instabilities of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in response to rapidly melting ice sheets. The sequence of abrupt shifts between extreme climate states had profound impacts on ecosystems which make it challenging to reliably quantify state variables like July temperatures within a non-analogue climate envelope. For Europe, there is increasing albeit inconclusive evidence for higher stadial summer temperatures than initially thought. Here we present a comprehensive floral compilation of plant macrofossils from lake sediment cores of 15 sites from S-Scandinavia covering the period similar to 15 to 11 ka BP. We find evidence for a continued presence of plant species indicating high July temperatures throughout the last deglaciation. The presence of hemiboreal plants in close vicinity to the southern margin of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet implies a strong thermal summer forcing for the rapid ice sheet melt. Consistent with some recent studies, we do not find evidence for a general stadial summer cooling, which indicates that other reasons than summer temperatures caused drastic setbacks in proxy signals possibly driven by extreme winter cooling and/or shorter warm seasons. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Stivrins, Normunds; Aakala, Tuomas; Ilvonen, Liisa; Pasanen, Leena; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Vasander, Harri; Galka, Mariusz; Disbrey, Helena R.; Liepins, Janis; Holmstrom, Lasse; Seppa, Heikki (2019)
    Fire is a major disturbance agent in the boreal forest, influencing many current and future ecosystem conditions and services. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to improve the accuracy of fire-event reconstructions even though the estimates of the occurrence of past fires may be biased, influencing the reliability of the models employing those data (e.g. C stock, cycle). This study aimed to demonstrate how three types of fire proxies - fire scars from tree rings, sedimentary charcoal and, for the first time in this context, fungal spores of Neurospora - can be integrated to achieve a better understanding of past fire dynamics. By studying charcoal and Neurospora from sediment cores from forest hollows, and the fire scars from tree rings in their surroundings in the southern Fennoscandian and western Russian boreal forest, we produced composite fire-event data sets and fire-event frequencies, and estimated fire return intervals. Our estimates show that the fire return interval varied between 126 and 237 years during the last 11,000 years. The highest fire frequency during the 18th-19th century can be associated with the anthropogenic influence. Importantly, statistical tests revealed a positive relationship between other fire event indicators and Neurospora occurrence allowing us to pinpoint past fire events at times when the sedimentary charcoal was absent, but Neurospora were abundant. We demonstrated how fire proxies with different temporal resolution can be linked, providing potential improvements in the reliability of fire history reconstructions from multiple proxies.
  • Limoges, Audrey; Weckström, Kaarina; Ribeiro, Sofia; Georgiadis, Eleanor; Hansen, Katrine E.; Martinez, Philippe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Giraudeau, Jacques; Crosta, Xavier; Masse, Guillaume (2020)
    Climate warming is rapidly reshaping the Arctic cryosphere and ocean conditions, with consequences for sea ice and pelagic productivity patterns affecting the entire marine food web. To predict how ongoing changes will impact Arctic marine ecosystems, concerted effort from various disciplines is required. Here, we contribute multi-decadal reconstructions of changes in diatom production and sea-ice conditions in relation to Holocene climate and ocean conditions off northwest Greenland. Our multiproxy study includes diatoms, sea-ice biomarkers (IP(25)and HBI III) and geochemical tracers (TOC [total organic carbon], TOC:TN [total nitrogen], delta C-13, delta N-15) from a sediment core record spanning the last c. 9,000 years. Our results suggest that the balance between the outflow of polar water from the Arctic, and input of Atlantic water from the Irminger Current into the West Greenland Current is a key factor in controlling sea-ice conditions, and both diatom phenology and production in northeastern Baffin Bay. Our proxy record notably shows that changes in sea-surface conditions initially forced by Neoglacial cooling were dynamically amplified by the shift in the dominant phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) mode that occurred at c. 3,000 yr BP, and caused drastic changes in community composition and a decline in diatom production at the study site. In the future, with projected dominant-positive AO conditions favored by Arctic warming, increased water column stratification may counteract the positive effect of a longer open-water growth season and negatively impact diatom production.
  • Salonen, J. Sakari; Korpela, Mikko; Williams, John W.; Luoto, Miska (2019)
    We test several quantitative algorithms as palaeoclimate reconstruction tools for North American and European fossil pollen data, using both classical methods and newer machine-learning approaches based on regression tree ensembles and artificial neural networks. We focus on the reconstruction of secondary climate variables (here, January temperature and annual water balance), as their comparatively small ecological influence compared to the primary variable (July temperature) presents special challenges to palaeo-reconstructions. We test the pollen-climate models using a novel and comprehensive cross-validation approach, running a series of h-block cross-validations using h values of 100-1500 km. Our study illustrates major benefits of this variable h-block cross-validation scheme, as the effect of spatial autocorrelation is minimized, while the cross-validations with increasing h values can reveal instabilities in the calibration model and approximate challenges faced in palaeo-reconstructions with poor modern analogues. We achieve well-performing calibration models for both primary and secondary climate variables, with boosted regression trees providing the overall most robust performance, while the palaeoclimate reconstructions from fossil datasets show major independent features for the primary and secondary variables. Our results suggest that with careful variable selection and consideration of ecological processes, robust reconstruction of both primary and secondary climate variables is possible.
  • Leppanen, Jaakko Johannes; Piilo, Sanna; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hui; Väliranta, Minna (2019)
    Crustacean community structure and dynamics are very well studied in lakes, rivers and oceanic systems but wetlands, where moisture conditions fluctuate, have not received equal attention in research. For example, cladoceran communities in peatland systems in the subarctic region have not been fully investigated. We used paleolimnological and paleoecological methods to study plant and cladoceran assemblages and the community dynamics in two subarctic peatlands, which differ in their hydrological characteristics. At the first site, Iitto, river floods introduce planktonic species to fen pools and the steep topography of the catchment induces rapid but relatively short flooding periods. Fluctuating environmental conditions result in a high amount of cladoceran resting stages in the samples. At the other site, Kaamanen, the cladoceran assemblage goes through clear directional changes, which could be attributed to changes in fen hydrology and ultimately to climatic changes during the past two millennia.
  • Parducci, Laura; Alsos, Inger Greve; Unneberg, Per; Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Han, Lu; Lammers, Youri; Salonen, J. Sakari; Väliranta, Minna M.; Slotte, Tanja; Wohlfarth, Barbara (2019)
    The lake sediments of Hasseldala Port in south-east Sweden provide an archive of local and regional environmental conditions similar to 14.5-9.5 ka BP (thousand years before present) and allow testing DNA sequencing techniques to reconstruct past vegetation changes. We combined shotgun sequencing with plant micro- and macrofossil analyses to investigate sediments dating to the Allerod (14.1-12.7 ka BP), Younger Dryas (12.7-11.7 ka BP), and Preboreal (
  • Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Tonno, Ilmar; Freiberg, Rene; Veski, Siim; Kisand, Veljo (2018)
    Given the increased interest in non-pollen palynomorphs (microscopic objects other than pollen identified from pollen slides) in palaeoecological studies, it is necessary to seek a deeper understanding of the reliability of these results. We combined quantitative information of algal pigments and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) of phylotaxonomical resolution to validate the richness and abundance of fossil algae in the sediment of a small temperate lake. For the first time, fossil and sedaDNA algae data were combined in a composite data-set and used to reconstruct algae turnover rates over the last 14,500 years. This comparison serves as both an example of how fossil algae can be used to answer various research questions and as a method of revealing to what extent we can rely on palaeoecological interpretations based solely on the fossil algae record from pollen slides. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ribeiro, Sofia; Limoges, Audrey; Masse, Guillaume; Johansen, Kasper L.; Colgan, William; Weckstrom, Kaarina; Jackson, Rebecca; Georgiadis, Eleanor; Mikkelsen, Naja; Kuijpers, Antoon; Olsen, Jesper; Olsen, Steffen M.; Nissen, Martin; Andersen, Thorbjorn J.; Strunk, Astrid; Wetterich, Sebastian; Syvaranta, Jari; Henderson, Andrew C. G.; Mackay, Helen; Taipale, Sami; Jeppesen, Erik; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Crosta, Xavier; Giraudeau, Jacques; Wengrat, Simone; Nuttall, Mark; Gronnow, Bjarne; Mosbech, Anders; Davidson, Thomas A. (2021)
    High Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihoods are tightly linked and exposed to climate change, yet assessing their sensitivity requires a long-term perspective. Here, we assess the vulnerability of the North Water polynya, a unique seaice ecosystem that sustains the world's northernmost Inuit communities and several keystone Arctic species. We reconstruct mid-to-late Holocene changes in sea ice, marine primary production, and little auk colony dynamics through multi-proxy analysis of marine and lake sediment cores. Our results suggest a productive ecosystem by 4400-4200 cal yrs b2k coincident with the arrival of the first humans in Greenland. Climate forcing during the late Holocene, leading to periods of polynya instability and marine productivity decline, is strikingly coeval with the human abandonment of Greenland from c. 2200-1200 cal yrs b2k. Our long-term perspective highlights the future decline of the North Water ecosystem, due to climate warming and changing sea-ice conditions, as an important climate change risk. The North Water polynya is a unique but vulnerable ecosystem, home to Indigenous people and Arctic keystone species. New palaeoecological records from Greenland suggest human abandonment c. 2200-1200 cal yrs BP occurred during climate-forced polynya instability, foreshadowing future ecosystem declines.