Browsing by Subject "HOMOGENIZATION"

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  • Reichenau, Tim G.; Korres, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Marius; Graf, Alexander; Welp, Gerhard; Meyer, Nele; Stadler, Anja; Brogi, Cosimo; Schneider, Karl (2020)
    The development and validation of hydroecological land-surface models to simulate agricultural areas require extensive data on weather, soil properties, agricultural management, and vegetation states and fluxes. However, these comprehensive data are rarely available since measurement, quality control, documentation, and compilation of the different data types are costly in terms of time and money. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset, which was collected at four agricultural sites within the Rur catchment in western Germany in the framework of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32 (TR32) "Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Systems: Monitoring, Modeling and Data Assimilation". Vegetation-related data comprise fresh and dry biomass (green and brown, predominantly per organ), plant height, green and brown leaf area index, phenological development state, nitrogen and carbon content (overall > 17 000 entries), and masses of harvest residues and regrowth of vegetation after harvest or before planting of the main crop (> 250 entries). Vegetation data including LAI were collected in frequencies of 1 to 3 weeks in the years 2015 until 2017, mostly during overflights of the Sentinel 1 and Radarsat 2 satellites. In addition, fluxes of carbon, energy, and water (> 180 000 half-hourly records) measured using the eddy covariance technique are included. Three flux time series have simultaneous data from two different heights. Data on agricultural management include sowing and harvest dates as well as information on cultivation, fertilization, and agrochemicals (27 management periods). The dataset also includes gap-filled weather data (> 200 000 hourly records) and soil parameters (particle size distributions, carbon and nitrogen content; > 800 records). These data can also be useful for development and validation of remote-sensing products. The dataset is hosted at the TR32 database (, last access: 29 September 2020) and has the DOI (Reichenau et al., 2020).
  • Koivusaari, Katariina; Syrjälä, Essi; Niinistö, Sari; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Ahonen, Suvi; Åkerlund, Mari; Korhonen, Tuuli E.; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Peltonen, Jaakko; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Knip, Mikael; Alatossava, Tapani; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M (2020)
    Several prospective studies have shown an association between cows’ milk consumption and the risk of islet autoimmunity and/or type 1 diabetes. We wanted to study whether processing of milk plays a role. A population-based birth cohort of 6081 children with HLA-DQB1-conferred risk to type 1 diabetes was followed until the age of 15 years. We included 5545 children in the analyses. Food records were completed at the ages of 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 years, and diabetes-associated autoantibodies were measured at 3–12-month intervals. For milk products in the food composition database, we used conventional and processing-based classifications. We analysed the data using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data. By the age of 6 years, islet autoimmunity developed in 246 children. Consumption of all cows’ milk products together (energy-adjusted hazard ratio 1·06; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·003), non-fermented milk products (1·06; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·10; P = 0·011) and fermented milk products (1·35; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·67; P = 0·005) was associated with an increased risk of islet autoimmunity. The early milk consumption was not associated with the risk beyond 6 years. We observed no clear differences based on milk homogenisation and heat treatment. Our results are consistent with the previous studies, which indicate that high milk consumption may cause islet autoimmunity in children at increased genetic risk. The study did not identify any specific type of milk processing that would clearly stand out as a sole risk factor apart from other milk products.
  • Greenleaf, Allan; Kurylev, Yaroslav; Lassas, Matti; Uhlmann, Gunther (2008)
  • Pilotto, Francesca; Kuehn, Ingolf; Adrian, Rita; Alber, Renate; Alignier, Audrey; Andrews, Christopher; Baeck, Jaana; Barbaro, Luc; Beaumont, Deborah; Beenaerts, Natalie; Benham, Sue; Boukal, David S.; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Camatti, Elisa; Canullo, Roberto; Cardoso, Patricia G.; Ens, Bruno J.; Everaert, Gert; Evtimova, Vesela; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Gomez Garcia, Daniel; Grandin, Ulf; Gutowski, Jerzy M.; Hadar, Liat; Halada, Lubos; Halassy, Melinda; Hummel, Herman; Huttunen, Kaisa-Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jensen, Thomas C.; Kalivoda, Henrik; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Kroencke, Ingrid; Leinonen, Reima; Martinho, Filipe; Meesenburg, Henning; Meyer, Julia; Minerbi, Stefano; Monteith, Don; Nikolov, Boris P.; Oro, Daniel; Ozolins, Davis; Padedda, Bachisio M.; Pallett, Denise; Pansera, Marco; Pardal, Miguel Angelo; Petriccione, Bruno; Pipan, Tanja; Poeyry, Juha; Schaefer, Stefanie M.; Schaub, Marcus; Schneider, Susanne C.; Skuja, Agnija; Soetaert, Karline; Springe, Gunta; Stanchev, Radoslav; Stockan, Jenni A.; Stoll, Stefan; Sundqvist, Lisa; Thimonier, Anne; Van Hoey, Gert; Van Ryckegem, Gunther; Visser, Marcel E.; Vorhauser, Samuel; Haase, Peter (2020)
    Local biodiversity trends over time are likely to be decoupled from global trends, as local processes may compensate or counteract global change. We analyze 161 long-term biological time series (15-91 years) collected across Europe, using a comprehensive dataset comprising similar to 6,200 marine, freshwater and terrestrial taxa. We test whether (i) local long-term biodiversity trends are consistent among biogeoregions, realms and taxonomic groups, and (ii) changes in biodiversity correlate with regional climate and local conditions. Our results reveal that local trends of abundance, richness and diversity differ among biogeoregions, realms and taxonomic groups, demonstrating that biodiversity changes at local scale are often complex and cannot be easily generalized. However, we find increases in richness and abundance with increasing temperature and naturalness as well as a clear spatial pattern in changes in community composition (i.e. temporal taxonomic turnover) in most biogeoregions of Northern and Eastern Europe. The global biodiversity decline might conceal complex local and group-specific trends. Here the authors report a quantitative synthesis of longterm biodiversity trends across Europe, showing how, despite overall increase in biodiversity metric and stability in abundance, trends differ between regions, ecosystem types, and taxa.
  • Milardi, Marco; Gavioli, Anna; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Soininen, Janne (2019)
    We investigated the relationships between exotic freshwater fish invasions, environmental factors and ecofunctional diversity (i.e. the combination of ecological traits in communities) in streams. We used data from 335 stream sites, belonging to 105 watersheds and 3 basins in Italy, to test whether the exotic species invasion was dominated by species with generalist traits and whether the environment-ecofunctional trait relationships of exotic and native species would differ from each other. We also tested the hypothesis that ecofunctional uniqueness patterns between exotic and native species would be substantially different. We found that generalist traits were widespread in nearly all areas where exotic species occurred, but not all generalist traits were equally abundant in exotic communities. Only temperature tolerant, low oxygen tolerant and eurytopic traits were typically more dominant in exotic communities than native ones, suggesting that not all generalist traits are equally important in the invasion process and that more complex mechanisms of trait selection could take place. Environment-ecofunctional trait relationships of exotic and native species partly differed both in direction and magnitude, suggesting that invasion dynamics could decouple the linkage between environment and biotic communities, but also that this decoupling might decrease at later invasion stages (i.e. > 30 years after major invasions). Finally, site and trait ecofunctional uniqueness differed between exotic and native species. Exotic species ecofunctional diversity hotspots were located in human-disturbed areas, suggesting that human disturbance might play a strong role in invasion patterns. We advocate for a wider use of ecofunctional approaches in conservation studies in the future, as they could be a key to understand complex ecological processes such as exotic invasions.
  • Laatikainen, Reijo; Salmenkari, Hanne; Sibakov, Timo; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Turpeinen, Anu (2020)
    Unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk consumption are common. In addition to lactose, also other components of milk may be involved. We studied whether the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins would affect gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. In a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover intervention, subjects (n = 41) were given ordinary or hydrolysed high-protein, lactose-free milkshakes (500 mL, 50 g protein) to be consumed daily for ten days. After a washout period of ten days, the other product was consumed for another ten days. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded daily during the study periods, and a validated irritable bowel syndrome-symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) questionnaire was completed at the beginning of the study and at the end of both study periods. Blood and urine samples were analysed for markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability and immune activation. Both the IBS-SSS score (p = 0.001) and total symptom score reported daily (p = 0.002) were significantly reduced when participants consumed the hydrolysed product. Less bloating was reported during both study periods when compared with the baseline (p < 0.01 for both groups). Flatulence (p = 0.01) and heartburn (p = 0.03) decreased when consuming the hydrolysed product but not when drinking the control product. No significant differences in the levels of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6), intestinal permeability (fatty acid binding protein 2, FABP2) or immune activation (1-methylhistamine) were detected between the treatment periods. The results suggest that the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins (mainly casein) reduces subjective symptoms to some extent in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The mechanism remains to be resolved. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Maliniemi, Tuija; Happonen, Konsta; Virtanen, Risto (2019)
    Experimental evidence shows that site fertility is a key modulator underlying plant community changes under climate change. Communities on fertile sites, with species having fast dynamics, have been found to react more strongly to climate change than communities on infertile sites with slow dynamics. However, it is still unclear whether this generally applies to high-latitude plant communities in natural environments at broad spatial scales. We tested a hypothesis that vegetation of fertile sites experiences greater changes over several decades and thus would be more responsive under contemporary climate change compared to infertile sites that are expected to show more resistance. We resurveyed understorey communities (vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens) of four infertile and four fertile forest sites along a latitudinal bioclimatic gradient. Sites had remained outside direct human disturbance. We analyzed the magnitude of temporal community turnover, changes in the abundances of plant morphological groups and strategy classes, and changes in species diversity. In agreement with our hypothesis, temporal turnover of communities was consistently greater on fertile sites compared to infertile sites. However, our results suggest that the larger turnover of fertile communities is not primarily related to the direct effects of climatic warming. Furthermore, community changes in both fertile and infertile sites showed remarkable variation in terms of shares of plant functional groups and strategy classes and measures of species diversity. This further emphasizes the essential role of baseline environmental conditions and nonclimatic drivers underlying vegetation changes. Our results show that site fertility is a key determinant of the overall rate of high-latitude vegetation changes but the composition of plant communities in different ecological contexts is variously impacted by nonclimatic drivers over time.
  • Laaksonen, Tiina; Helminen, Jussi K. J.; Lemetti, Laura; Långbacka, Jesper; del Cerro, Daniel Rico; Hummel, Michael; Filpponen, Ilari; Rantamaki, Antti H.; Kakko, Tia; Kemell, Marianna L.; Wiedmer, Susanne K.; Heikkinen, Sami; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; King, Alistair W. T. (2017)
    Ionic liquids are used to dewater a suspension of birch Kraft pulp cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and as a medium for water-free topochemical modification of the nanocellulose (a process denoted as "WtF-Nano"). Acetylation was applied as a model reaction to investigate the degree of modification and scope of effective ionic liquid structures. Little difference in reactivity was observed when water was removed, after introduction of an ionic liquid or molecular co-solvent. However, the viscoelastic properties of the CNF suspended in two ionic liquids show that the more basic, but non-dissolving ionic liquid, allows for better solvation of the CNF. Vibrio fischeri bacterial tests show that all ionic liquids in this study were harmless. Scanning electron microscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering on regenerated samples show that the acetylated CNF is still in a fibrillar form. 1D and 2D NMR analyses, after direct dissolution in a novel ionic liquid electrolyte solution, indicate that both cellulose and residual xylan on the surface of the nanofibrils reacts to give acetate esters.