Browsing by Subject "HONG-KONG"

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  • Arar, Sharif; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Masad, Mohanad H.; Maragkidou, Androniki; Wraith, Darren; Hussein, Tareq (2019)
    In this study, we performed elemental analysis for floor dust samples collected in Jordanian microenvironments (dwellings and educational building). We performed intercorrelation and cluster analysis between the elemental, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and microorganism concentrations. In general, the educational building workshops had the highest elemental contamination. The age of the dwelling and its occupancy played a role on the elemental contamination level: older and more occupied dwellings had greater contamination. The elemental contamination at a dwelling entrance was observed to be higher than in the living room. We found exceptionally high concentrations for Fe and Mn in the educational workshop and additionally, Hg, Cr, and Pb concentrations exceeded the limits set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. According to the cluster analysis, we found three major groups based on location and contamination. According to the enrichment factor (EF) assessment, Al, Co, Mn, Ti, and Ba had EF <2 (i.e., minimal enrichment) whereas P, S, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Hg, and Cu had EF > 40 (i.e., extremely enriched). In contrast, Ca and P were geogenically enriched. Furthermore, significant Spearman correlations indicated nine subgroups of elemental contamination combined with PAHs and microbes.
  • Yan, Chao; Tham, Yee Jun; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Dai, Jianing; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao (2019)
    Nitrate radical (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) play crucial roles in the nocturnal atmosphere. To quantify their impacts, we deployed a thermal-dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS), to measure their concentration, as well as ClNO2 at a coastal background site in the southern of China during the late autumn of 2012. Moderate levels of NO3, N2O5 and high concentration of ClNO2 were observed during the study period, indicating active NOx-O-3 chemistry in the region. Distinct features of NO3, N2O5 and ClNO2 mixing ratios were observed in different airmasses. Further analysis revealed that the N2O5 heterogeneous reaction was the dominant loss of N2O5 and NO3, which showed higher loss rate compared to that in other coastal sites. Especially, the N2O5 loss rates could reach up to 0.0139 s(-1) when airmasses went across the sea. The fast heterogeneous loss of N2O5 led to rapid NOx loss which could be comparable to the daytime process through NO2 oxidization by OH, and on the other hand, to rapid nitrate aerosol formation. In summary, our results revealed that the N2O5 hydrolysis could play significant roles in regulating the air quality by reducing NOx but forming nitrate aerosols. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Tikkanen, Lotta; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne (2017)
    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how national board administrators, more precisely, officials at the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) have perceived the primary influencing factors, or "regulators", of the national core curriculum reform and the success of the implementation. The alignment between the identified regulators was also explored. Design/methodology/approach - Altogether, 23 FNBE officials participated in this mixed methods study. Findings - The results showed that the officials perceived the core curriculum reform as a systemic entity: the reform was implemented using a top-down and bottom-up strategy, and several regulators were identified at different levels of the education system. The officials also viewed the implementation as successful, and identified more promoting than hindering factors in it. However, they emphasised regulators at the administrative level, whereas regulators at the district or national levels were less often identified. They also highlighted the importance of orchestrating collaboration in comparison with the other regulators. Practical implications - The results imply that in addition to considering separate determinants of reform success, it is important to pay attention to sufficient alignment between the regulators at different levels of the education system in order to better understand and promote the implementation of a large-scale reform. Originality/value - This study provides new knowledge on national board administrators' perspectives on what regulates the implementation of a large-scale curriculum reform.
  • Yang, Yuan; Wang, Yonghong; Yao, Dan; Zhao, Shuman; Yang, Shuanghong; Ji, Dongsheng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yinghong; Liu, Zirui; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Renjian; Wang, Yuesi (2020)
    To what extent anthropogenic emissions could influence volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations and related atmospheric reactivity is still poorly understood. China's 70th National Day holidays, during which anthropogenic emissions were significantly reduced to ensure good air quality on Anniversary Day, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these processes. Atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC), OH reactivity, secondary transformation, O-3 formation and VOCs-PM2.5 sensitivity are evaluated based on parameterization methods and simultaneous measurements of VOCs, O-3, NOx, CO, SO2, PM2.5, JO(1)D, JNO(2), JNO(3) carried out at a suburban site between Beijing and Tianjin before, during, and after the National Day holiday 2019. During the National Day holidays, the AOC, OH reactivity, O-3 formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAP) were 1.6 x 10(7) molecules cm(-3) s(-1), 41.8 s(-1), 299.2 mg cm(-3) and 1471.8 mg cm(-3), respectively, which were 42%, 29%, 47% and 42% lower than pre-National Day values and -12%, 42%, 36% and 42% lower than post-National Day values, respectively. Reactions involving OH radicals dominated the AOC during the day, but OH radicals and O-3 reactions at night. Alkanes (the degree of unsaturation = 0, (D, Equation (1)) accounted for the largest contributions to the total VOCs concentration, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs; D
  • Väisänen, Sanna; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina (2018)
    The study aims to gain a better understanding of the function of proactive strategies in buffering study burnout among student teachers at the early stage of their studies. There is some evidence that the use of active social coping strategies during studies is related to reduced burnout levels among early career teachers. Less is known about the association between the proactive strategies and burnout among student teachers. Altogether, 244 Finnish student teachers completed the survey. The data were analysed by using SEM. The results suggested that the proactive strategies adopted by student teachers seem to prevent study-related burnout, especially in terms of exhaustion in studies and inadequacy in studying, but not directly the perceived cynicism towards studies. The results imply that learning how to use proactive strategies is functional in coping with study-related stressors, by reducing the risk of student teachers' burnout.
  • Ståhlberg, Jenny; Tuominen, Heta; Pulkka, Antti-Tuomas; Niemivirta, Markku (2021)
    In this study, we examined what kind of perfectionistic profiles (i.e., different patterns of perfectionistic strivings and concerns) can be identified among general upper‐secondary school students, how stable those profiles are over the school year, and how they are connected with students' motivation (i.e., achievement goal orientations). Four distinct profiles were identified. Students with high strivings and low concerns had their focus mainly on mastery, while students with an opposite profile emphasized performance‐avoidance and work‐avoidance orientations. Students with high strivings and concerns favored both performance‐ and mastery‐related goals, whereas students characterized by low strivings and low concerns did not display a dominant tendency toward any orientation. Perfectionistic profiles were relatively stable over time, with the majority of students reporting similar tendencies across the measurements, and with no extreme changes observed. Some indications of more students displaying less adaptive perfectionistic tendencies by the end of the school year were nevertheless found. Our findings demonstrate not only stability in perfectionistic tendencies, but also their motivational relevance in the academic context where students' goals and performance concerns play an important role.