Browsing by Subject "HORMONE"

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  • Jokinen, T. S.; Tiira, K.; Metsähonkala, L.; Seppala, E. H.; Hielm-Bjorkman, A.; Lohi, H.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O. (2015)
    BackgroundLagotto Romagnolo (LR) dogs with benign juvenile epilepsy syndrome often experience spontaneous remission of seizures. The long-term outcome in these dogs currently is unknown. In humans, behavioral and psychiatric comorbidities have been reported in pediatric and adult-onset epilepsies. Hypothesis/ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to investigate possible neurobehavioral comorbidities in LR with a history of benign familial juvenile epilepsy (BFJE) and to assess the occurrence of seizures after the remission of seizures in puppyhood. AnimalsA total of 25 LR with a history of BFJE and 91 control dogs of the same breed. MethodsOwners of the LR dogs in the BFJE and control groups completed an online questionnaire about each dog's activity, impulsivity, and inattention. Principal component analysis (PCA) served to extract behavioral factors from the data. We then compared the scores of these factors between the 2 groups in a retrospective case-control study. We also interviewed all dog owners in the BFJE group by telephone to inquire specifically about possible seizures or other neurological problems after remission of seizures as a puppy. ResultsLagotto Romagnolo dogs with BFJE showed significantly higher scores on the factors Inattention and Excitability/Impulsivity than did the control group (P=.003; P=.021, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 BFJE LR exhibited seizures after remission of epilepsy in puppyhood. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceAlthough the long-term seizure outcome in BFJE LR seems to be good, the dogs exhibit behavioral abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in humans, thus suggesting neurobehavioral comorbidities with epilepsy.
  • Kjaerner-Semb, Erik; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Ayllon, Fernando; Vogelsang, Petra; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rubin, Carl Johan; Veselov, Alexey E.; Nilsen, Tom Ole; McCormick, Stephen D.; Primmer, Craig R.; Wargelius, Anna (2021)
    Most Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) populations follow an anadromous life cycle, spending early life in freshwater, migrating to the sea for feeding, and returning to rivers to spawn. At the end of the last ice age similar to 10,000 years ago, several populations of Atlantic salmon became landlocked. Comparing their genomes to their anadromous counterparts can help identify genetic variation related to either freshwater residency or anadromy. The objective of this study was to identify consistently divergent loci between anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon strains throughout their geographical distribution, with the long-term aim of identifying traits relevant for salmon aquaculture, including fresh and seawater growth, omega-3 metabolism, smoltification, and disease resistance. We used a Pool-seq approach (n = 10-40 individuals per population) to sequence the genomes of twelve anadromous and six landlocked Atlantic salmon populations covering a large part of the Northern Hemisphere and conducted a genomewide association study to identify genomic regions having been under different selection pressure in landlocked and anadromous strains. A total of 28 genomic regions were identified and includedcadm1on Chr 13 andppargc1aon Chr 18. Seven of the regions additionally displayed consistently reduced heterozygosity in fish obtained from landlocked populations, including the genes gpr132, cdca4, and sertad2 on Chr 15. We also found 16 regions, includingigf1on Chr 17, which consistently display reduced heterozygosity in the anadromous populations compared to the freshwater populations, indicating relaxed selection on traits associated with anadromy in landlocked salmon. In conclusion, we have identified 37 regions which may harbor genetic variation relevant for improving fish welfare and quality in the salmon farming industry and for understanding life-history traits in fish.
  • Verhagen, Irene; Laine, Veronika N.; Mateman, A. Christa; Pijl, Agata; de Wit, Ruben; van Lith, Bart; Kamphuis, Willem; Viitaniemi, Heidi M.; Williams, Tony D.; Caro, Samuel P.; Meddle, Simone L.; Gienapp, Phillip; van Oers, Kees; Visser, Marcel E. (2019)
    The timing of breeding is under selection in wild populations as a result of climate change, and understanding the underlying physiological processes mediating this timing provides insight into the potential rate of adaptation. Current knowledge on this variation in physiology is, however, mostly limited to males. We assessed whether individual differences in the timing of breeding in females are reflected in differences in candidate gene expression and, if so, whether these differences occur in the upstream (hypothalamus) or downstream (ovary and liver) parts of the neuroendocrine system. We used 72 female great tits from two generations of lines artificially selected for early and late egg laying, which were housed in climate-controlled aviaries and went through two breeding cycles within 1 year. In the first breeding season we obtained individual egg-laying dates, while in the second breeding season, using the same individuals, we sampled several tissues at three time points based on the timing of the first breeding attempt. For each tissue, mRNA expression levels were measured using qPCR for a set of candidate genes associated with the timing of reproduction and subsequently analysed for differences between generations, time points and individual timing of breeding. We found differences in gene expression between generations in all tissues, with the most pronounced differences in the hypothalamus. Differences between time points, and early- and late-laying females, were found exclusively in the ovary and liver. Altogether, we show that fine-tuning of the seasonal timing of breeding, and thereby the opportunity for adaptation in the neuroendocrine system, is regulated mostly downstream in the neuro-endocrine system.
  • Luiro, Kaisu; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Tapanainen, Juha S. (2019)
    Objective: To study the use of hormone therapy (HT), morbidity and reproductive outcomes of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) due to FSH-resistant ovaries (FSHRO). Design: A prospective follow-up study in a university-based tertiary clinic setting. Methods: Twenty-six women with an inactivating A189V FSH receptor mutation were investigated by means of a health questionnaire and clinical examination. Twenty-two returned the health questionnaire and 14 were clinically examined. Main outcome measures in the health questionnaire were reported as HT, morbidity, medication and infertility treatment outcomes. In the clinical study, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were compared to age-matched controls from a national population survey (FINRISK). Average number of controls was 326 per FSHRO subject (range 178-430). Bone mineral density and whole-body composition were analyzed with DXA. Psychological and sexual well-being was assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI21), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Results: HT was initiated late (median 18 years of age) compared with normal puberty and the median time of use was shorter (20-22 years) than the normal fertile period. Osteopenia was detected in 9/14 of the FSHRO women despite HT. No major risk factors for CVD or diabetes were found. Conclusions: HT of 20 years seems to be associated with a similar cardiovascular and metabolic risk factor profile as in the population control group. However, optimal bone health may require an early-onset and longer period of HT, which would better correspond to the natural fertile period.
  • Speroni, Lucia; Voutilainen, Maria; Mikkola, Marja L.; Klager, Skylar A.; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M. (2017)
    An increased breast cancer risk during adulthood has been linked to estrogen exposure during fetal life. However, the impossibility of removing estrogens from the feto-maternal unit has hindered the testing of estrogen's direct effect on mammary gland organogenesis. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ex vivo culture method of the mammary gland where the direct action of estrogens can be tested during embryonic days (E) 14 to 19. Mouse mammary buds dissected at E14 and cultured for 5 days showed that estrogens directly altered fetal mammary gland development. Exposure to 0.1 pM, 10 pM, and 1 nM 17 beta-estradiol (E2) resulted in monotonic inhibition of mammary buds ductal growth. In contrast, Bisphenol-A (BPA) elicited a non-monotonic response. At environmentally relevant doses (1 mu M), BPA significantly increased ductal growth, as previously observed in vivo, while 1 mu M BPA significantly inhibited ductal growth. Ductal branching followed the same pattern. This effect of BPA was blocked by Fulvestrant, a full estrogen antagonist, while the effect of estradiol was not. This method may be used to study the hormonal regulation of mammary gland development, and to test newly synthesized chemicals that are released into the environment without proper assessment of their hormonal action on critical targets like the mammary gland.
  • Korhonen, Kati; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Alfthan, Henrik; Hämäläinen, Esa; Tiitinen, Aila; Mikkola, Tomi; Tapanainen, Juha; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna (2020)
    Purpose Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a locally secreted, quicker responsive pro-inflammatory protein than C-reactive protein (CRP). We evaluated the value of PTX3 in the prediction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a severe complication of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods This two-year prospective follow-up study included 27 women with uncomplicated IVF-cycles (IVF group) and 31 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe early OHSS (OHSS group). PTX3 was analysed from follicular fluid (FF) and serial blood samples with enzyme-linked immunoassay and CRP with particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. The value of PTX3 and CRP in detecting OHSS was examined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and expressed as the area under the curve (AUC). Results The circulating PTX3 level peaked at two days after oocyte pick-up (OPU2), and in the OHSS group the level was 1.9 times higher (P = 0.006) than in the IVF group. However, in ROC curve analysis PTX3 (AUC 0.79, best cut off 1.1 mu g/L) was not superior to CRP (AUC 0.87; best cut off 9.5 mg/L) in predicting early OHSS. In the IVF group, the FF-PTX3 concentration was 15-20 times higher than in the plasma. PTX3 level at OPU2 correlated with the number of punctured follicles (r = 0.56, n = 22, P = 0.006). Triggering with human chorionic gonadotrophin or early pregnancy had no effect on PTX3 level. Conclusion The elevated PTX3 concentration in OHSS at OPU2, when freeze-all embryos strategy is still possible to consider, indicates that PTX3 level could provide additional benefit in the risk assessment for early OHSS.
  • Utge, Siddheshwar; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Lipsanen, Jari; Andersson, Sture; Strandberg, Timo; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Lahti, Jari (2018)
    Purpose: Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) transports glucocorticoids in blood. Variation in genes SERPINA6 encoding for CBG, SERPINA2 and SERPINAI (serpin family A member 6, 2, and 1) have been shown to influence morning plasma cortisol and CBG in adults. However, association of this genetic variation with diurnal and stress-induced salivary cortisol remain unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of genetic variation in SERPINA6/2/1 loci on diurnal and stress-induced salivary cortisol in children. Methods: We studied 186, 8-year-old children with genome-wide genotyping. We generated weighted polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 6 genome-wide significant SNPs (rs11621961, rs11629171, rs7161521, rs2749527, rs3762132, rs4900229) derived from the CORNET meta-analyses. Salivary cortisol was measured across one day and in response to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Results: Mixed models, adjusted for covariates, showed that the PRS x sampling time interactions associated with diurnal (P <0.001) and stress-induced (P = 0.009) salivary cortisol. In the high PRS group (dichotomized at median) the diurnal salivary cortisol pattern decreased less from awakening to bedtime than in the low PRS group (standardized estimates of sampling time -0.64 vs. -0.73, P <0.0001 for both estimates). In response to stress, salivary cortisol increased in the high PRS group while it remained unchanged in the low PRS group (standardized estimates of sampling time 0.12, P = 0.015 vs. -0.06, P = 0.16). These results were mainly driven by minor alleles of rs7161521 (SERPINA6) and rs4900229 (SERPINAI). Conclusions: Genetic variation in SERPINA6/2/1loci may underpin higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in children.
  • Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Harvey, Chinonye E.; Milne, Roger L.; Pottinger, Camille A.; Vachon, Celine M.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Johansson, Mattias; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Winn, Deborah M. (2018)
    Cohort studies have been central to the establishment of the known causes of cancer. To dissect cancer etiology in more detail-for instance, for personalized risk prediction and prevention, assessment of risks of subtypes of cancer, and assessment of small elevations in risk-there is a need for analyses of far larger cohort datasets than available in individual existing studies. To address these challenges, the NCI Cohort Consortium was founded in 2001. It brings together 58 cancer epidemiology cohorts from 20 countries to undertake large-scale pooling research. The cohorts in aggregate include over nine million study participants, with biospecimens available for about two million of these. Research in the Consortium is undertaken by >40 working groups focused on specific cancer sites, exposures, or other research areas. More than 180 publications have resulted from the Consortium, mainly on genetic and other cancer epidemiology, with high citation rates. This article describes the foundation of the Consortium; its structure, governance, and methods of working; the participating cohorts; publications; and opportunities. The Consortium welcomes newmembers with cancer-oriented cohorts of 10,000 or more participants and an interest in collaborative research. (C) 2018 AACR.
  • Melin, Johanna; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Hirvonen, Elli; Seppä, Karri; Malila, Nea; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Gissler, Mika; Tiitinen, Aila (2020)
    Advances in multimodality cancer treatments have increased the risk of long-term complications in early onset cancer survivors. For female cancer survivors these include diminished reproductive function, often resulting in a narrowed fertile window. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of fertility treatments in cancer survivors (aged 0-39 years at diagnosis) compared to siblings. Data from Finnish registers on cancer, birth and prescribed medications were merged to identify 8,929 survivors and 9,495 siblings without previous deliveries. Fertility drug purchases from 1993 to 2012 at the age of 16-41 years were included. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the use of fertility drugs, adjusting for age and calendar time at fertility drug purchase. Fertility treatments were more common in survivors compared to siblings, as 6.1% of survivors compared to 3.8% of siblings had bought fertility drugs (IRR 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.65). A sub-classification of fertility treatments into ovulation inductions and assisted reproductive technology (ART), showed increased use of ART (IRR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.97-2.96), whereas the use of ovulation induction was similar in survivors and siblings. Analyses by calendar time periods showed the use of ART to be significantly higher in the most recent decade, from 2003 onwards. We conclude that cancer survivors have an increased risk for subfertility, which is why fertility counselling is important. However, our results mirror a more active approach among clinicians towards fertility treatments in cancer survivors during the most recent years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.