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  • Vuori, Matti A.; Harald, Kennet; Jula, Antti; Valsta, Liisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2020)
    Aims: The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods:A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year. Results: During the follow-up, we observed 423 deaths, 424 CVD events (288 CHD events, 142 strokes, 139 HF events) and 161 DM events. Compared with the highest quartile of salt intake, persons in the lowest quartile had a lower incidence of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.95,p = .02), CHD (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.94],p = .02) and DM (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.31-0.87],p = .01). The results were non-significant for mortality, HF, and stroke. Conclusion: High sodium intake is associated with an increased incidence of CVD and DM.
  • Lindbohm, Joni; Korja, Miikka; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko (2018)
    Background and aims: Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. Methods: The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios and multiple imputation predicted ApoA1, ApoB, and LDL-C values for cohorts from a time before apolipoprotein-measurement methods were available. Results: One SD elevation (1.28 mmol/l) in TC elevated SAH risk in men (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CIs 1.00-1.32)). Low HDL-C levels increased SAH risk, as each SD decrease (0.37 mmol/l) in HDL-C raised the risk in women (HR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.07-1.55)) and men (HR 1.20 (95% CIs 1.14-1.27)). Each SD increase (0.29 g/l) in ApoA1 decreased SAH risk in women (HR 0.85 (95% CIs 0.74-0.97)) and men (HR 0.88 (95% CIs 0.76-1.02)). LDL-C (SD 1.07 mmol/l) and ApoB (SD 0.28 g/l) elevated SAH risk in men with HR 1.15 (95% CIs 1.01-1.31) and HR 1.26 (95% CIs 1.10-1.44) per one SD increase. Age did not change these findings. Conclusions: An adverse lipid profile seems to elevate SAH risk similar to its effect in other cardiovascular diseases, especially in men. Whether SAH incidence diminishes with increasing statin use remains to be studied. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Sund, Reijo; Heinanen, Mikko; Venesmaa, Petri; Kroger, Heikki (2014)
  • Lee, Jiwoo; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Mars, Nina; Jukarainen, Sakari; Ingelsson, Erik; Neale, Benjamin; Ripatti, Samuli; Natarajan, Pradeep; Ganna, Andrea (2021)
    Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinically significant presentation of coronary heart disease. Genetic information has been proposed to improve prediction beyond well-established clinical risk factors. While polygenic scores (PS) can capture an individual's genetic risk for ACS, its prediction performance may vary in the context of diverse correlated clinical conditions. Here, we aimed to test whether clinical conditions impact the association between PS and ACS. Methods: We explored the association between 405 clinical conditions diagnosed before baseline and 9080 incident cases of ACS in 387 832 individuals from the UK Biobank. Results were replicated in 6430 incident cases of ACS in 177 876 individuals from FinnGen. Results: We identified 80 conventional (eg, stable angina pectoris and type 2 diabetes) and unconventional (eg, diaphragmatic hernia and inguinal hernia) associations with ACS. The association between PS and ACS was consistent in individuals with and without most clinical conditions. However, a diagnosis of stable angina pectoris yielded a differential association between PS and ACS. PS was associated with a significantly reduced (interaction P=2.87x10(-8)) risk for ACS in individuals with stable angina pectoris (hazard ratio, 1.163 [95% CI, 1.082-1.251]) compared with individuals without stable angina pectoris (hazard ratio, 1.531 [95% CI, 1.497-1.565]). These findings were replicated in FinnGen (interaction P=1.38x10(-6)). Conclusions: In summary, while most clinical conditions did not impact utility of PS for prediction of ACS, we found that PS was substantially less predictive of ACS in individuals with prevalent stable coronary heart disease. PS may be more appropriate for prediction of ACS in asymptomatic individuals than symptomatic individuals with clinical suspicion for coronary heart disease.
  • Ramo, Joel T.; Ripatti, Pietari; Tabassum, Rubina; Soderlund, Sanni; Matikainen, Niina; Gerl, Mathias J.; Klose, Christian; Surma, Michal A.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Pirinen, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Freimer, Nelson B.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Palotie, Aarno; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Simons, Kai; Ripatti, Samuli (2019)
    Background-We asked whether, after excluding familial hypercholesterolemia, individuals with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or triacylglyceride levels and a family history of the same hyperlipidemia have greater coronary artery disease risk or different lipidomic profiles compared with population-based hyperlipidemias. Methods and Results-We determined incident coronary artery disease risk for 755 members of 66 hyperlipidemic families (>2 first-degree relatives with similar hyperlipidemia) and 19 644 Finnish FINRISK population study participants. We quantified 151 circulating lipid species from 550 members of 73 hyperlipidemic families and 897 FINRISK participants using mass spectrometric shotgun lipidomics. Familial hypercholesterolemia was excluded using functional LDL receptor testing and genotyping. Hyperlipidemias (LDL-C or triacylglycerides >90th population percentile) associated with increased coronary artery disease risk in meta-analysis of the hyperlipidemic families and the population cohort (high LDL-C: hazard ratio, 1.74 [95% CI, 1.48-2.04]; high triacylglycerides: hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI 1.09-1.74]). Risk estimates were similar in the family and population cohorts also after adjusting for lipid-lowering medication. In lipidomic profiling, high LDL-C associated with 108 lipid species, and high triacylglycerides associated with 131 lipid species in either cohort (at 5% false discovery rate; P-value range 0.038-2.3x 10(-56)). Lipidomic profiles were highly similar for hyperlipidemic individuals in the families and the population (LDL-C: r=0.80; triacylglycerides: r=0.96; no lipid species deviated between the cohorts). Conclusions-Hyperlipidemias with family history conferred similar coronary artery disease risk as population-based hyperlipidemias. We identified distinct lipidomic profiles associated with high LDL-C and triacylglycerides. Lipidomic profiles were similar between hyperlipidemias with family history and population-ascertained hyperlipidemias, providing evidence of similar and overlapping underlying mechanisms.
  • Kallio, Mika; Korkeila, Jyrki; Malmberg, Markus; Gunn, Jarmo; Rautava, Päivi; Korhonen, Paivi; Kytö, Ville (2022)
    Background Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder have increased risk of coronary artery disease. Aims To investigate long-term outcomes of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and coronary artery disease after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Method Data from patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 126) were retrospectively compared with propensity-matched (1:20) control patients without schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 2520) in a multicentre study in Finland. All patients were treated with CABG. The median follow-up was 7.1 years. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results Patients with diagnosed schizophrenia spectrum disorder had an elevated risk of 10-year mortality after CABG, compared with control patients (42.7 v. 30.3%; hazard ratio 1.56; 95% CI 1.13-2.17; P = 0.008). Schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events during follow-up (49.9 v. 32.6%, subdistribution hazard ratio 1.59; 95% CI 1.18-2.15; P = 0.003). Myocardial infarction (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.86; P = 0.003) and cardiovascular mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.65; P = 0.017) were more frequent in patients with versus those without schizophrenia spectrum disorder, but there was no difference for stroke. Psychiatric ward admission, antipsychotic medication, antidepressant use and benzodiazepine use before CABG were not associated with outcome differences. After CABG, patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder received statin therapy less often and had lower doses; the use of other cardiovascular medications was similar between schizophrenia spectrum and control groups. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder have higher long-term risks of death and major adverse cardiovascular events after CABG. The results underline the vulnerability of these patients and highlight the importance of intensive secondary prevention and risk factor optimisation.
  • Männistö, Ville T.; Salomaa, Veikko; Färkkilä, Martti; Jula, Antti; Mannisto, Satu; Erlund, Iris; Sundvall, Jouko; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Åberg, Fredrik (2021)
    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases morbidity and mortality. However, patients in biopsy-based cohorts are highly selected and the absolute risks of liver- and non-liver outcomes in NAFLD in population remains undefined. We analysed both liver-related and non-liver-related outcomes in Finnish population cohorts of NAFLD. Methods We included 10 993 individuals (6707 men, mean age 53.3 +/- 12.6 years) with NAFLD (fatty liver index >= 60) from the Finnish population-based FINRISK and Health 2000 studies. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the dAAR score, and genetic risk by a recent polygenic risk score (PRS-5). Incident liver-related outcomes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were identified through linkage with national registries. Results Mean follow-up was 12.1 years (1128 069 person-years). The crude incidence rate of liver-related outcomes in NAFLD was 0.97/1000 person-years. The cumulative incidence increased with age, being respectively 2.4% and 1.5% at 20 years in men and women aged 60 years at baseline, while the relative risks for CVD and cancer were 9-16 times higher. The risk of CKD exceeded that of liver outcomes at a baseline age around 50 years. 20-year cumulative incidence of liver-related outcomes was 4.3% in the high, and 1.5% in the low PRS-5 group. The dAAR score associated with liver outcomes, but not with extra-hepatic outcomes. Conclusion The absolute risk of liver-related outcomes in NAFLD is low, with much higher risk of CVD and cancer, emphasizing the need for more individualized and holistic risk-stratification in NAFLD.
  • Kormi, Immi; Nieminen, Mikko T.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Zeller, Tanja; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Salomaa, Veikko; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2017)
    Background Extracellular matrix degrading proteases and their regulators play an important role in atherogenesis and subsequent plaque rupture leading to acute cardiovascular manifestations. Design and methods In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the prognostic value of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-8, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 concentrations, the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-8/ tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and, for comparison, myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein concentrations for incident cardiovascular disease endpoints. The population-based FINRISK97 cohort comprised 7928 persons without cardiovascular disease at baseline. The baseline survey included a clinical examination and blood sampling. During a 13-year follow-up the endpoints were ascertained through national healthcare registers. The associations of measured biomarkers with the endpoints, including cardiovascular disease event, coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke and all-cause death, were analysed using Cox regression models. Discrimination and reclassification models were used to evaluate the clinical implications of the biomarkers. Results Serum tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and C-reactive protein concentrations were associated significantly with increased risk for all studied endpoints. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentration was associated with the risk for a coronary artery disease event, myocardial infarction and death, and myeloperoxidase concentration with the risk for cardiovascular disease events, stroke and death. The only significant association for the matrix metalloproteinase-8/ tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 ratio was observed with the risk for myocardial infarction. Adding tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 to the established risk profile improved risk discrimination of myocardial infarction (p=0.039) and death (0.001). Both matrix metalloproteinase-8 (5.2%, p <0.001) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (12.9%, p <0.001) provided significant clinical net reclassification improvement for death. Conclusions Serum matrix metalloproteinase-8 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 can be considered as biomarkers of incident cardiovascular disease events and death.
  • Tikkanen, Emmi; Jagerroos, Vilma; Holmes, Michael; Sattar, Naveed; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Wurtz, Peter (2021)
    Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) represent atherosclerosis in different vascular beds. We used detailed metabolic biomarker profiling to identify common and discordant biomarkers and clarify pathophysiological differences for these vascular diseases. Methods and Results We used 5 prospective cohorts from Finnish population (FINRISK 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012, and Health 2000; n=31 657; median follow-up time of 14 years) to estimate associations between >200 metabolic biomarkers and incident PAD and CAD. Metabolic biomarkers were measured with nuclear magnetic resonance, and disease events were obtained from nationwide hospital records. During the follow-up, 498 incident PAD and 2073 incident CAD events occurred. In age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, apolipoproteins and cholesterol measures were robustly associated with incident CAD (eg, hazard ratio [HR] per SD for higher apolipoprotein B/A-1 ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.25-1.36), but not with incident PAD (HR per SD for higher apolipoprotein B/A-1 ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.95-1.14; P-heterogeneity0.05). Lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to total fatty acids, and higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, and inflammatory protein markers were strongly associated with incident PAD, and many of these associations were stronger for PAD than for CAD (P-heterogeneity
  • Lindbohm, Joni V.; Rautalin, Ilari; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka (2019)
    Benefit of physical activity in prevention of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We aimed to clarify this by studying how different types of physical activity associate with SAH risk. By following 65 521 population-based FINRISK participants prospectively from medical and autopsy registries since 1972 until 2014, we detected 543 incident SAHs. At baseline, we measured leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and commuting physical activity (CPA) levels. The Cox model adjusted for all well-known SAH risk factors and for socioeconomic status, provided hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity variables. Every 30-minute increase in weekly LTPA decreased SAH risk linearly in men and women HR = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.90–1.00). CPA reduced SAH risk as well, but the association diminished as participants retired. In contrast, individuals with moderate (1.41, 1.04–1.92) and high OPA (1.34, 0.99–1.81) had elevated SAH risk. Protective association of LTPA persisted in all age and hypertension groups, and was even greater in current smokers 0.88 (0.81–0.96) than non-smokers (p = 0.04 for difference). Commuting and leisure time physical activity seem to reduce SAH risk in men and women and is most beneficial for smokers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether physical activity can reduce the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms.
  • Okkonen, Marjo; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ukkola, Olavi; Huikuri, Heikki; Pietilä, Arto; Koukkunen, Heli; Lehto, Seppo; Mustonen, Juha; Ketonen, Matti; Airaksinen, Juhani; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Salomaa, Veikko (2021)
    Aims To evaluate risk factors for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) after the first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to examine the prevalence of risk factors in post-ACS patients. Methods We used Finnish population-based myocardial infarction register, FINAMI, data from years 1993-2011 to identify survivors of first ACS (n = 12686), who were then followed up for recurrent events and all-cause mortality for three years. Finnish FINRISK risk factor surveys were used to determine the prevalence of risk factors (smoking, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and blood pressure) in post-ACS patients (n = 199). Results Of the first ACS survivors, 48.4% had MACE within three years of their primary event, 17.0% were fatal. Diabetes (p = 4.4 x 10(-7)), heart failure (HF) during the first ACS attack hospitalization (p = 6.8 x 10(-15)), higher Charlson index (p = 1.56 x 10(-19)) and older age (p = .026) were associated with elevated risk for MACE in the three-year follow-up, and revascularization (p = .0036) was associated with reduced risk. Risk factor analyses showed that 23% of ACS survivors continued smoking and cholesterol levels were still high (>5mmol/l) in 24% although 86% of the patients were taking lipid lowering medication. Conclusion Diabetes, higher Charlson index and HF are the most important risk factors of MACE after the first ACS. Cardiovascular risk factor levels were still high among survivors of first ACS.
  • Kinnunen, Susanna; Karhapää, Pauli; Juutilainen, Auni; Finne, Patrik; Helanterä, Ilkka (2018)
    Background and objectives Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Infectious causes of death were analyzed, and the mortality rates for infections were compared between two eras (1990-1999 and 2000-2012). Risk factors for infectious deaths were analyzed with Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Results Altogether, 953 patients (29%) died during the follow-up, with 204 infection-related deaths. Mortality rate (per 1000 patient-years) due to infections was lower in the more recent cohort (4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 6.1) compared with the older cohort (9.1; 95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 10.7); the incidence rate ratio of infectious mortality was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.68). The main causes of infectious deaths were common bacterial infections: septicemia in 38% and pulmonary infections in 45%. Viral and fungal infections caused only 2% and 3% of infectious deaths, respectively (such as individual patients with Cytomegalovirus pneumonia, Herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis, Varicella zoster virus encephalitis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection). Similarly, opportunistic bacterial infections rarely caused death; only one deathwas caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and two were caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 23 (11%) of infection-related deaths occurred during the first post-transplant year. Older recipient age, higher plasma creatinine concentration at the end of the first post-transplant year, diabetes as a cause of ESKD, longer pretransplant dialysis duration, acute rejection, low albumin level, and earlier era of transplantation were associated with increased risk of infectious death in multivariable analysis. Conclusions The risk of death due to infectious causes after kidney transplantation in Finland dropped by one half since the 1990s. Common bacterial infections remained the most frequent cause of infection-related mortality, whereas opportunistic viral, fungal, or unconventional bacterial infections rarely caused deaths after kidney transplantation.
  • Niiranen, Teemu J.; Kronholm, Erkki; Rissanen, Harri; Partinen, Markku; Jula, Antti M. (2016)
    Our objective was to investigate whether self-reported obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), simple snoring, and various markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with cardiovascular risk. We examined a representative nationwide cohort of 5177 Finnish adults aged a parts per thousand yen30 years. The participants underwent measurement of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and answered SDB-related questions derived from the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, which were used to operationalize self-reported OSA. The primary end point was incidence of a cardiovascular event (cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, or coronary interventions). During a median follow-up of 11.2 years and 52,910 person-years of follow-up, 634 participants suffered a cardiovascular event. In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, self-reported OSA (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.73; p = 0.03) was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Self-reported simple snoring by itself was not associated with future cardiovascular events (HR 0.88 versus non-snorers, 95 % CI 0.75-1.04, p = 0.15). However, among snorers (n = 3152), frequent breathing cessations (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.26-3.81, p = 0.006) and very loud and irregular snoring (HR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.31-2.54, p <0.001) were associated with cardiovascular risk. Self-reported OSA and SDB-related snoring variables are associated with cardiovascular risk, whereas simple snoring is not. In clinical practice and in surveys, questions concerning only habitual snoring should be amended with questions focusing on respiratory pauses and snoring stertorousness, which can be used to estimate the risk of OSA and cardiovascular events.
  • Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana (2016)
    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45-64years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001-2004 (n=42807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered 80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events may be due to the healthy-adherer effect.
  • Huotari, Kaisa; Peltola, Mikko; Jamsen, Esa (2015)
    Background and purpose - Late prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are a growing medical challenge as more and more joint replacements are being performed and the expected lifespan of patients is increasing. We analyzed the incidence rate of late PJI and its temporal trends in a nationwide population. Patients and methods - 112,708 primary hip and knee replacements performed due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) between 1998 and 2009 were followed for a median time of 5 (1-13) years, using data from nationwide Finnish health registries. Late PJI was detected > 2 years postoperatively, and very late PJI was detected > 5 years postoperatively. Results - During the follow-up, involving 619,299 prosthesis-years, 1,345 PJIs were registered: cumulative incidence 1.20% (95% CI: 1.13-1.26) (for knees, 1.41%; for hips, 0.92%). The incidence rate of late PJI was 0.069% per prosthesis-year (CI: 0.061-0.078), and it was greater after knee replacement than after hip replacement (0.080% vs. 0.057%, p = 0.006). The incidence rate of very late PJI was 0.051% per prosthesis-year (CI: 0.042-0.063), 0.058% for knees and 0.044% for hips (p = 0.2). The incidence rate of late PJI varied between 0.041% and 0.107% during the years of observation without any temporal trend (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). Very late PJI increased from 0.026% in 2004 to 0.056% in 2010 (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20). Interpretation - In our nationwide study, the incidence rate of late PJI after hip or knee arthroplasty was approximately 0.07% per prosthesis-year. The incidence of very late PJI appeared to increase.
  • van Dongen, Myrna M. E.; Aarnio, Karoliina; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Pirinen, Jani; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Putaala, Jukka (2019)
    Background: Knowledge on the use of secondary preventive medication in young adults is limited. Methods: We included 936 first-ever ischemic stroke 30-day survivors aged 15-49, enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, 1994-2007. Follow-up data until 2012 came from Finnish Care Register, Statistics Finland, and Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Usage thresholds were defined as non-users, low (prescription coverage 80%). Adjusted Cox regression allowed assessing the association of usage with all-cause mortality and recurrent vascular events. Results: Of our patients, 40.5% were non-users, 7.8% had low usage, 11.8% intermediate usage and 40.0% high usage. Median follow-up was 8.3 years. Compared to non-users, risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA was lower for patients with low-intermediate (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.65; HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18-0.53) and high usage (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.42; HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.46), after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Use of antihypertensives was suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensives were initially prescribed. Users were at lower risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA compared to non-users.Key Messages The use of antihypertensive medication is suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensive medication was initially prescribed after ischemic stroke at young age. The risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA is lower for users of antihypertensive medication after ischemic stroke at young age compared to non-users, after adjustment for relevant confounders including pre-existing hypertension and prior use of antihypertensive medication. Specific guidelines on antihypertensive medication use after ischemic stroke at young age are lacking. However, our results may motivate doctors and patients in gaining better usage of antihypertensive medication, since better usage was associated with more favorable outcome in this study.